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Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (Jan.-June 1881)"

EQD7 !E0b3A7 

California Slate Library 



Jan. -Jane 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/pacruralpres21unse 




Volume XXI.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY i, 1881, 



Number 1 



Irrigation and the State. 

It ia plain that the irrigation question will be 
one of the liveliest issues before the Legislature 
this winter. There has been much discussion 
of the need of a general act and effective action 
on the part of the State throughout those wide 
areas of the State, where the artificial applica- 
tion of water is a necessity. There is also a 
feeling among the 
dwellers in those coun- 
ties, that they will not 
be fairly dealt with, 
unless the State, which 
orders them to pay 
taxes for the impound- 
ing of mining debris, 
shall also spend public 
money to aid them in 
the development of 
their interests. There 
seems to be pure jus- 
tice in the claim. The 
need of State effort to 

f>revent the ruining of 
ands, and rivers and 
harbors by the debris 
was imperative, and it 
is gratifying to have 
reason to conclude that 
the effort at damming 
the detritus is thus far 
successful. But it is 
manifestly not just to 
our friends in the San 
Joaquin valley and the 
lower counties, to tax 
them for this work 
unless some corre- 
sponding benefit be 
bestowed upon them 
by a State enterprise 
to relieve them from 
imminent embarrass- 
ments. This point 
will be vigorously 
maintained at Sacra- 
mento this winter, and 
we trust it may reach 
a solution which will 
ensure the advance- 
ment of the whole 
State evenly, in order 
that no part may sit 
in the shadow of ne- 
glect. 

We print upon an- 
other page of this issue 
the latest enunciation 
of the State Engineer 
upon the subject of ir- 
rigation. It will be 
seen that Mr. Hall 
proposes vigorous 
measures and action 
on the part of the 
State, which will no 
doubt be met with 
much opposition. Our 
readers who are inter- 
ested in irrigation, 
should give Mr. Hall's 
report a careful read- 
ing. His conclusions 
are reached after a 
close study of the 
question, and should 
arouse a similar spirit 
of honest inquiry on 
the part of all. The 
good of the greatest 
number must of course 
be sought for, and it is 
the duty of all to sub- 
ject individual benefits 
to the general prosper- 
ity and development 
of the State so far as 

it is possible to do so. The subject of State 
water rights and the irrigation question was 
brought before the Riverside Fruit Growers' 
meeting last week, and aseries of resolu- 
tions were adopted. They call for the as- 
sumption of ownership of all considerable 
rivers and lakes by the State; for the con- 
■traction of storage reservoirs; for the regn 
lation and measurement of waters used by in- 



dividual irrigators, and for the cost of the same 
to be paid to the State by the irrigator. The 
action of the Riverside society is timely, and 
the discussion of the points involved should be 
general. Our columns are open to the ques- 
tion. 



California Evergreens at thk East.— It 
appears from the experience of Robert Doug- 
lasB, the veteran tree grower, that our native 



tude nor the thermometer has proved "a reliable 
test. Mr. Douglass says that of all the hun- 
dreds of thousands of conifers which he has 
grown from seeds collected on the Paci6c coast, 
not one tree has withstood the climate of north- 
ern Illinois seven years. Even Abies William- 
sonii and one or two others from Alaska seeds, 
failed like the rest. In addition toother requi- 
sites, it is necessary to have trees that will 
withstand a dry atmosphere. After looking 




conifers have achieved a lamentable failure in 
Eastern situations. According to the Country 
Gentleman's reviews of Mr. ^Douglass' state- 
ments before, the Iowa Horticultural Society, it 
was thought years ago that the conifers of Cali- 
fornia, along the Pacific slope, growing at an 
altitude of 8,000 or 10,000 ft., and enduring a 
zero temperature, would endure the winters of 
the Northwestern States. But neither the alti- 



HAPPY NEW YEAR. 

over many of the finest old places, a year or 
two since, in Cincinnati, Cleveland, Rochester, 
Boston and New York, and south to Washing- 
ton, he does not remember to have Been a dozen 
specimens of California conifers, planted so 
freely 25 or 30 years ago. worth the ground 
they stand on, except a group of the Sequoia 
gigantea on the grounds of Ellwanger & Barry, 
Rochester, N. Y. 



Happy New Year. 

The mischievous little fellow in the engraving 
has been having a grand romp with the plants, 
and greets your return with a saucy look. His 
amusement has severely tried your cherished 
flowers, but, so far as the damage appears in 
the engraving, a little pruning will remove the 
scars and perhaps improve the shrub, after all. 

It may be the little 
invasion and partial 
destruction may teach 
us a New Year's 
lesson. 

The year about to 
open will, no doubt, 
show us that many of 
our past achievements 
are not perfect, and 
that all our plans for 
the future cannot be 
realized. It will show 
us, also, that agents 
and elements will in- 
trude their influence 
upon us in a way we 
cannot foresee. Our 
most elaborately- 
drawn castles will fade 
away, and our best 
resolutions vanish. 
Our enterprises, which 
have been laid on 
what seem the most 
stable foundations, and 
cherished with the 
greatest care, may sud- 
denly go to the "dem- 
n i't i o n bow-wows. " 
Should we, therefore, 
not plan nor resolve, 
nor carry forward w hat 
seem our best endeav- 
ors. By no means. 
Rather let the conclu- 
sion be another reso- 
lution, and that is to 
be patient under trials, 
and not to be cast 
down by temporary re- 
verses. Let trnst in 
the wisdom which 
guides affairs, be 
stronger, and let this 
beget a truer mastery 
of self, in vexations 
which unseat weaker 
natures. Let each 
woman be "mistress of 
herself, though China 
fall," and each man 
strong, though " best 
laid plans of mice and 
men oft' gang aglee. " 
If this evenness of dis- 
position can be gained 
during the year, the 
gainer will be rich for 
life — richer than he 
could be if all his 
plans for gold-getting 
should return a thous- 
and fold greater than 
he hoped. "It is not 
in our stars, but in 
ourselves, that we are 
underlings," says Cas- 
sius; and though the 
words were used to in- 
cite a different spirit 
than we would invoke, 
their meaning is just 
as fitting to our theme; 
and there are better 
words still than these. 
" He that ruleth his 
own spirit is greater 
than he who taketh a city." 

Let the New Year then, with its budget of 
disappointments and vexations, be welcomed, 
for with the trial will come the triumph. Let 
no disaster weaken our trust in the " Divinity 
which shapes our ends, rough-hew them as we 
will." Let no failure paralyze our effort, but 
rather nerve the arm and wiU for better doin 
in the light of past mistakes. 



2 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



[January x, 1881. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



We admit, unendorsed, opinions of correspondents. — Eds 



Local Markets for Farm Produce. 

Editors Press: — The absence of a market- 
place in the interior towns and cities of Cali- 
fornia is a matter of general comment among 
new arrivals from the Eastern States and Europe. 
They at first gain an impression from the want 
of a market-place that our farmers do not pro- 
duce any thing bnt wheat, and, therefore, no 
such institutions are needed. But the facts of 
the case are that custom has established other 
and leas convenient, less profitable and alto- 
gether undesirable methods of disposing of 
small products. Butter, eggs, poultry, fruit" 
vegetables, hogs and other farm products are 
sold in a shiftless, slip-shod manner to middle- 
men, commission merchants, andofttimes traded 
to the store-keepers for groceries, drapery and 
household supplies generally. In the prevail- 
ing mode of selling their produce, the farmer, 
as a rule, is at the mercy of his customer, and 
trades to a disadvantage. He has no stated 
price to regulate his sales by, no regular season 
to bring in his few dozen eggs, or six or eight 
lbs. of butter, but brings them in at haphazard. 
Many a time the stores are overstocked with 
the article at the time, and the price realized is 
so discouraging that he abandons the project of 
dairying or poultry raising because there is no 
money in it for him. Had he a market-place 
where he could rent a booth or stand at so much 
a year, he could come in on stated days with his 
little dab of butter, a few spring chickens, a 
brace or two of ducks, a dozen or two of eggs, 
a sack or so of potatoes and a sample or two of 
his grain, which he could spread out on his stall 
to the gaze of the wife of the mechanic or mer- 
chant, who would pay him as much per lb. for 
the sweet, fresh butter as she would pay to the 
store -keeper who now makes the profit. For 
years the writer has hoped such an idea would 
enter the heads of our small farmers who carry 
on diversified farming, but year after year our 
merchants trade in the products for supplies, 
and get the profit which should accrue to the 
producers. 

In England the writer has seen smaller towns 
than Bed Bluff havo two market days a week. 
Wednesdays and Saturdays were the market 
days, and many a day has he sat patiently be- 
hind the stall with six or eight lbs. of sweet 
butter, a pair of spring chickens, a couple of 
ducks, a fine, fat goose and perhaps a bushel or 
two of potatoes waiting for his regular custom- 
ers to come to market, and take their bargains. 
The splendid market buildings of England are 
renowned all over the world. It is more than 1 
interesting to a stranger to go to the well sup- 
plied market on Saturday, especially at Christ- 
mas time. The buildings are generally two 
stories or more in higbt, and are parceled out 
into butchers, poultry, iugter and eggs, green 
groceries, seed men, fish dealers and so on; each 
particular product has to be in its own depart- 
ment. 

At Christmas we take a survey of the butch- 
ers' stalls; here the mammoth sirloins, rumps 
and fat joints of Christmas beef, all bedecked 
with the holly branch with clusters of bright, 
red berries, make a truly magnificent sight. 
Unwieldy oxen and mammoth cows have been 
slaughtered for display. The bustle and busy 
rush of customers is exciting, and the jolly, 
blue-aproned butcher with his cheery voice 
shouting, 

"Up the belly, down the back, 
A roll o( lean, roll of fat, 

A sheep's head, a bullock's heart, buy! buy! buyl" 
From the beef market we step in on the mutton 
butchers, where the famed Southdown, Leices- 
ter, Cotswold and other tine breeds of mutton 
may be found handsomely dressed, showing 
mountains of fat on their kidneys. These sheep 
will weigh from 28 to 40 lbs. a quarter. The 
holly branch and mistletoe garnish the carcasses 
and give a beautiful effect. We could then go 
on to the pork stalls where 800 to 1,000-lb. 
hogs hang on the hooks, their bacon being 8 to 
10 inches deep over the buck. Splendid speci- 
mens of hog flesh! sweet and wholesome look- 
ing, and in such quantities as to preclude the 
idea of the stalls being emptied that day. From 
here we go to the fish market where turbot, 
plaise, ling, conger, Boles, shad, oyster, mus- 
seUs, cockeU and every variety of the fish king- 
dom can be found, some floundering around in 
huge tanks, others being exposed on marble 
slabs, awaiting the housewife to come and bar- 
gain with the shrewd "fish wife." Here the 
shrill cry of "Fresh fish" shouted by some Am- 
azon can be heard from out the babel of tongues. 
Crabs, lobsters, terrapins and every variety of 
shell fish may be found in profusion. 

From this noisy, strong-smelling apartment, 
we used to ascend to the peaceful agricultural 
department, where the fruits of the soil, and the 
products of the bone and sinew of the world, 
will be noticed. The handsome sight of the 
butter and poultry department of a city market 
in England is one the writer will never forget, 
though 20 years or more have passed since he 
has been inside of an English market. Here 
the pyramids of golden butter, with the smiling 
countenance of the proud maker of the same, 
the farmer's wife, behind the breastwork of fat 
•hickens, neatly trussed and plump looking; 



the splendid prize geese with pounds of fat 
placed on top of their broad, plump bodies; 
the fat ducks all ready to cook, make one anti- 
cipate Christmas dinner, and bring out the top 
market price for the superior quality of the 
poultry and the sweet-tasted butter. The large 
market baskets of fresh eggs must not be for- 
gotten, for in them lies the profit. 

If our tramp through an English country town 
market is made at 10 o'clock in the morning, 
we should see all the above and more too. The 
farmers' wives go to market there and sell their 
produce to the best possible advantage, be it a 
small marketing or a large one, they take it 
themselves, and always sell for cash. 

I have been waiting for years to see a market 
established at Bed Bluff, but we are no nearer 
to the consummation than we were in 1870. If 
our small farmers adjacent to town were to or- 
ganize a system on the marketing plan, I am 
sure they would reap a rich reward for their en- 
terprise. Our city is growing, her mechanics 
and laborers, as weU as business men would 
rather purchase directly from the producer than 
to buy from stores. The handling of butter, hon- 
ey, cheese and other eatables raised on a farm 
deteriorates the article, and why should not our 
city Bupport a first-class market ? In the writer's 
knowledge there are many good dairy farmers 
within easy distance of this city, that could find 
a paying market for every pound of butter 
made. Why can we not have a market ? This 
county is climbing up to the top notch in agri- 
cultural pursuits, her resources will justifiy the 
citizens of Bed BlutT in the establishing of a 
market in their midst. We have not had a fair 
in the last 15 years in Tehama county; are our 
citizens asleep ? Shall we who stand third or 
fourth as an agricultural county of the State be 
left out in the cold, and see other counties hav- 
ing all the fun at fair time? No, Nol I hope 
not. Felix, 

Bed Bluff, Cal. 



Yolo County Notes. 

Editors Press : — The raiu still comes at the 
time of this writing with unceasing vigor. The 
earth in Yolo, at least, is being thoroughly sat- 
urated. The wild oats and other foul stuff is 
coming up as thick as the hair on a oow's back 
insuring the farmer clean grain for the harvest 
of 1SS1. But little plowing has been done as 
yet, and the chances are there will not be for 
some time, owing to the continued downpouring 
rain. Grain on the summer-fallowed land is 
corning up and growing rapidly. Already the 
hills and plains present quite a green appear- 
ance. 

Plowing and Sowing-. 
Farmers have been more particular about get- 
ting good clean seed of the best varieties this 
fall than ever before. Among the favorites are 
the Propo, Snowtlake, Nonpariel, Pride of Butte 
and White Sonora. Some of our farmers say 
they are going to fall back upon the old principle 
this season of putting in their grain as fast as 
plowed. The philosophy of this is that you 
can cover the grain better, the birds will get 
less, it will come up and get the start of the 
oats and weeds; whereas if you plow up a great 
scope and fail to seed it for a week or more the 
oats and weeds get the advantage and smother 
out the wheat. But, says one, you will tear up 
the oats when you harrow in your wheat. Quite 
likely you will bring them to the surface where 
the sun will warm and grow them to perfec- 
tion. 

Alfalfa Hay. 
My experience with alfalfa is that nothing I 
have seen tried will equal it for fattening stock 
of all kinds. Some people, and especially livery 
men, dislike it on account of its aperient na- 
ture, but, when fed intelligently, mixing a little 
straw or 'coarse hay with it, there need not be 
any trouble on this score. I am feeding cattle, 
horses and hogs on it at the present time, and 
they thrive in this rainy weather. I have a 
stack of straw handy for a change; you may put 
good wheat and oat hay and alfalfa side by side 
and stock will eat the clover first every time. 
I notice there was quite an inquiry here this 
fall for alfalfa hay at $6 to $7 per ton, and loose 
at that. 

This being my first attempt at newspaper 
correspondence if you see fit to publish ail right. 
If it meets with your approval I may say more 
in future. I wish you the success you deserve 
in publishing the best agricultural paper in 
America. Columbus Hatcher. 

Yolo P. O., Yolo Co. 

[ We shall be glad to hear much more of our 
correspondent's observations and experiences. — 

Eds. Press.] 

Glycerine as an Illuminant. — Pure glyceri 
ine, it is said, may be burned in lamps, pro- 
vided the wick is so arranged that it shall not 
be elevated above the surface of the liquid, as 
the viscidity of the substance will not permit of 
its being fed upwards by capillary attraction. 
The flame of glycerine, like that of alcohol, is 
almost colorless. Glycerine, however, is easily 
inixable with a variety of substances that will 
impart luminosity to the ilame, and a number 
of substances rich in carbon may be added to it 
for that purpose. It is not improbable that 
circumstances might arise where these facts 
would be useful. 



TrfE AP'W- 



Beekeeping in Houses or Bee Pavilions 

Editors Press: — Apiculture — the top branoh 
of that wonderful life-oak, the rural indus- 
tries — might in its full development bring high- 
est blessings for our physical and moral wel- 
fare; but it will always be of stunted growth, 
crippled and poor, until we can make it a safe 
business and sport, a science and art, as pleas- 
ant and fascinating as profitable; and introduce 
it in such an acceptable and attractive style 
to the higher classes of country residents — the 
amateurs of refined rural life and its happiness 
— that they will find such bee-culture to be a 
jewel to their gardens and groves, and will glory 
in it and delight in bringing it to its highest per- 
fection, as soon as the unpleasant features of 
the present manners, methods and arrange- 
ments for beekeeping are changed so as to avoid 
the unpleasant stings and the tortures for the 
bees and their keepers. 

The history of apiculture shows, that the 
fate of the honey-bee(our lovely companion from 
Eden) corresponds to that of mankind and its 
development through all the seven ages or 
eras. Where there might well be a paradise 
for our pets (the bees) on a beautiful tropical 
island, cannibal savages "kill 'em and eat em" 
(roasted), others instead of taming and tend- 
ing them, "hunt 'em" and destroy tree and bees 
for their honey. Half civilized people keep 
them in the pastoral style or "run 'em" on the 
swarming method (mostly, too much so, by too 
small hives) and "on good luck" and so often 
on and into the abyss of starvation — or finally 
through the hell of fire and "brimstone" to get 
by arson and wholesale plunder the earnings 
of the lightest and heaviest colonies — felling 
also the tree that brought the "pine nuts" or 
apples, like savages, vandals, barbarians, or 
fools; like the one, who killed the goose, that 
laid the golden eggs. Other bee .friends (?) 
torment and ruin the bees now by too much 
care and super-artificial new methods, following 
Bee Grand Masters' in their blowing, bad ad- 
vice and iron, golden and diamond rules viz: 
catching or caging the mother-bee in order to 
get more surplus honey until, given up by her 
children in despair, she starves in midst of 
plenty. 

There is lots of work for true bee friends and 
humane societies in order to clean our tem- 
ple. 

But not only t the methods — the arrangements 
also need improvement, and a start for best 
apiaries on quite another plan. How unpleasant 
for the bees and their keepers, these single hives 
scattered in their yard! Howcostly! Howawk- 
ward! Exposed to all kinds of weather, heat, 
cold, storm and rain, the bees, their friends, in 
midst of the cross-fire of batteries of stings and 
robbers and fury. No wonder that most of 
gardens and country seats are without any such 
apiary, and that the bee business is called a 
very thorny and unpleasant one, and left to a 
few enthusiasts and sufferers for hard-earned 
money by honey. Who can be attracted, or 
feel satisfied and happy by such a state of af- 
fairs? 

N ow then, in order to win the bees their very 
best patroDS, the country ladies and gentlemen, 
the lovers of nature with culture, we have to 
find and adopt better methods. 1. Humane and 
congenial ones to the nature and habits of the 
bees and their real friends. 2. Better arrange- 
ments for sheltering, studying and ruling our 
pets (these model citizens, workers and war- 
riors), with the least disturbance to the bees, 
and with the most comfort, profit and pleasure 
to their keepers and friends. Therefore are 
best the bee-houses or house apiaries (with glass 
doors to each colony), in all their various styles, 
bee cabins, huts, pavilions and bee altars, chap- 
els and temples, which would be gems and 
charms for gardens and farms. The gate to a 
golden era would be a Pacific bee mission well 
located, well established, well managed, and so 
a self-sustaining central system for apiculture 
combining a large bee business and college or 
academy, and its bee gardens with experimen- 
tal or model apiaries, depots, stores for pro- 
duce and implements, a mnseum, library and 
Guild hall with its own Pacific bee journal. 

M. Vogel. 

San Francisco. 



A Fresno County Apiary. 

Editors Press: — My full report for 1880 
from 50 stands of bees, is as follows: Increased 
from 50 to 110 stands; got 125 lbs. wax, 
and honey for May, 1,470 lbs.; June, none; 
July, 1,030 lbs.; August, 1,775 lbs.; Septem- 
ber, 3,075 lbs.; October, 3,760 lbs.; November, 
290 lbs. Total, 11,400 lbs. The honey was 
mostly extracted, say about 10,000 lbs., and 
the balance comb. All of it will probably be 
sold and consumed in Fresno county before next 
year's crop comes in, at prices ranging from 
10 to 124 a lb., put up in cans ranging from 
4 to 66 lbs. Bees are in good condition for 
winter, or even a dry year. My experience 
here is that bees, properly handled, will yield 
a profit the dryest year we will be likely to 
have. Jr. Loucks. 

King's river, Fresno Co., Cal. 

[Our correspondent indicates that he could 
have sent in a considerably better report if he 



could have given the bees his full attention and 
labor, for he had about 25 acres of laud to cul- 
tivate, from part of which he took a second 
crop, and from about three acres a third crop 
for the season. We shaU be pleased to have 
reports from other apiaries. — Eds. Press.] 

TljE Field. 

Squirrel FAtennination. 

Editors Press: — As this is the season of the 
year that the squirrel nuisance can be moat ef- 
fectively dealt with I thought I would give the 
readers of the Press my mode of exterminating 
squirrels. You will see, to start in with, I talk 
of extermination, for it is just as easy as it is to 
do any other kind of work thoroughly. In the 
first place one must feel that it is going to pay 
him to make a thorough job of it, as work of 
this kind half done had better not be done at 
all. 

In mixing my poison I take a five-gallon can, 
(a common coal oil can) put a pint and a half 
of syrup and a pint of water, and heat it over • 
slow fire in the open air, and stir in a stick and 
a half of phosphorus, which wiU readily dissolve 
in the hot syrup. Then I have about four gal- 
lons of wheat that has been washed and drained, 
which I stir in the poisoned syrup while hot. 
In this way every kernel of wheat is thoroughly 
impregnated with the poison. Then I stir in 
flour or middlings to separate the wheat, and a 
little corn meal stirred in gives it a relish. 

There is no trouble to get squirrels to eat 
poison fixed in this way, and it is much the 
cheapest poison that can be used. Where I sow 
wheat I manage to put my poison out two or 
three days before I want to plow the ground, 
and after the poison has been out a day or two, 
I have the dens all filled up solid so the plows 
will leave the ground smooth, showing no 
signs of squirrel dens. After the ground has 
been plowed a day or two I examine ail of their 
dens again, to see if there is any sign of live 
squirrels, and if so give another dose; but I can 
assure any one that a little poison will go a 
great way, this time over, if there was plenty 
put out the first time. If any one will give this 
a fair trial I will guarantee they will never more 
mention legislating on the squirrel nuisance. 

M. D. Atwater, 

Merced, Cal. 



l-|0f\TICVlL7dE\E. 



When and How to Plant Trees. 

Editors Press : — As I have frequently been 
asked lately, "When is the best time to plant trees 
and the best way to do it ?" I propose to give 
your readers the benefit of my experience in 
that matter, and if it will be of any benefit to 
them, I wiU be glad of it. 

The Tim© to Plant 
Is as soon as the rains have put the ground in 
good order for the work, after the frosts have 
effectually checked the flow of sop, and caused 
the leaves to drop. The reasons* for this are, 
first, that the sooner the trees are planted, the 
more time there is for the soil to settle well 
about the roots, which is essential to their 
growth, and holds them firmly against the 
winds, that might disturb them in the spring, 
if the earth was not well settled about them. 
The second reason is that if your trees are 
planted now their roots will soon start to grow, 
and before the branches show any sign of life in 
the spring, the young roots will be from 6 to 12 
inches long, and your trees will get an early 
start, and make a much larger and healthier 
growth than if planted late. But if the ground 
is very wet, so that it works into mud, in plant- 
ing you had better " heel in" your trees, and 
wait until it is dry enough to work well, and 
then see that your land is well drained, so that 
the water will not stand about the roots. 

The next thing to consider is * 
How to Plant. 
The success of your trees depends a great dea' 
upon the manner in which you plant them, and 
I will first consider the planting of common or- 
chard trees (and the same rules will hold good 
for nearly all deciduous, shade and ornamental 
trees). First, prepare your ground as you would 
for corn or vegetables, by deep plov» ing and 
thorough pulverizing. Then lay off your land 
by stakes, furrows or otherwise, as is most con- 
venient, but by deep furrows, if practicable, as 
it saves a good deal of digging. If your land 
is plowed deep at first, and then " furrowed 
out" aa deep as you can set the plow, yon can 
then easily shovel out a place large enough to 
give ample room for extending the roots of your 
tree in different directions, which is necessary 
in order that it may be well braced on all sides, 
and receive its nourishment from every direc- 
tion. As for the distance between the trees, 
that will depend upon the kind of tree. For 
pears, apricots and cheeries, 17 to 20 ft.; prunes 
and peaches, 164 ft -J apples and almonds, 20 to 
25 ft It requires more room for Bellfiowers 



January i, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



3 



and Greening apples than it does for Jonathans 
and Newtown Pippins. Having the holes dug 
deep enough to admit 10 or 12 inches of loose 
surface soil, put in under the tree, and wide 
enough to extend the roots well out, you may 
proceed to plant your trees by first cutting off 
all the limbs back to one bud from the tree, 
and the top of all the two-year-olds to first 
year's growth, and the yearlings to about 20 
inches; also cut off the bruised ends of the 
roots. _ . 

Let one person set the tree in line and hold it 
there firmly, while another places the roots in 
different directions with his hands, and presses 
the tine dirt firmly about the roots, filling the 
spaces between and under them well before 
using the shovel to fill the hole up. If conve- 
nient, it is much better to throw in a gallon or 
two of water, after covering the roots well with 
the hands, and before the final filling, as it 
helps to settle the dirt well about the roots, 
which is essential. 

I am speaking of this matter more at length, 
because, as before remarked, a good deal de- 
pends upon it. Trees should not only live, but 
make a good healthy growth the first year, and 
then keep it up. 

Now, set your trees pretty well in the ground 
— a little deeper than they were in the nursery 
— for the ground will be loose about them now, 
and when it settles in the spring they will not 
be so deep below the surface as they seem to be 
now; they will grow better by being set pretty 
deep, but of course this should not be carried 
too far. I will tell you how to cultivate your 
trees before you will need to do it. If you 
prune and plant as I tell you, your trees will 
stand without staking. I never stake mine. 

Soquel, Cal. M. P. Owen. 



Blackberry Culture. 

Editors Press: — I find that climate has much 
to do with the worth or worthlessness of the 
blackberry; and a variety that turns out poorly 
in one part of the country may do the very best 
in another section. When I lived in Stanislaus 
county, where it is very warm, I grew two va- 
rieties—Wilson and Lawton. The Wilson ri- 
pened early and bore well a fine-flavored, juicy 
fruit; while the Lawton never gave me half a 
crop. The sun shriveled the berries on the 
bushes, giving them no chance to fill out and do 
themselves justice. But on my farm here in 
Santa Cruz county they are the best and largest 
berries I ever tasted; many of them measured 
from three to four inches in circumference. So 
my opinion of Lawton is quite changed. 

I have also the Aughinbaugh, which ripens 
earlier; is a good and large berry, but not so 
prolific as the Lawton. It needs to be grown 
in proximity to other varieties. Mr. Aughin- 
baugh recommends setting wild blackberry 
vines near them; and I shall soon transplant 
some wild ones into my yard to try the effect, 
and what cultivation will do for them. Though 
the Aughinbaugh does pretty well among Law- 
tons, I tried them alone at Knight's Ferry, with 
poor success. 

I set vines eight ft. apart each way; prune 
them in January and February, and leave canes 
about five ft. high, tying them to stakes with 
baling ropo. When they have grown about the 
right hight, I pinch them back so as to make 
them throw out lateral branches. Last spring 
the vines grew so very luxuriantly I had to give 
a second pruning after the fruit had set, but 
that is not often required. 

Isaac Dakin. 

Soquel, Cal. 

Hints on Strawberry Culture. 

Editors Press:— Some time ago I saw an ar- 
ticle in the Rural Press, taken from the Ven- 
tura Signal, in which the writer urged everyone 
that owned a small piece of land to devote a 
portion of it to growing strawberries for family 
use. 

His directions for preparing the soil and 
planting were well enough, but he omitted en- 
tirely one thing that is of vital importance in 
the production of fruit. It is almost impossible 
to raise strawberries, except in very moist soil 
without irrigation. The plants may produce a 
few berries in the early part of the season, but 
as soon as the ground dries an inch or two the 
plant stops fruiting, for this reason: The small 
roots that feed the plant are near the surface 
and when they get dry it is fatal to its fruit- 
producing qualities. 

I have made strawberry growing a specialty 
for six years, and have studied the habit and 
growth of the plant carefully; and will now give 
such of your readers as wish to grow berries 
for family use the benefit of my observations 
and experiments. 

There is no doubt a large number of your 
readers who plant a strawberry bed every winter 
or spring and get very little fruit in return. If 
such will follow my directions I will insure 
them a good supply of that wholesome and de- 
licious fruit. 

In selecting a spot for a strawberry bed, 
choose a warm, sheltered situation where the 
sun can shine the greater part of the day. If 
the soil is not naturally rich, spread on a good 
coat of well rotted manure and wood ashes; 
spade or plow it tinder. Pake it smooth and as 
level as the ground will admit. Mark out the 
rows three ft. apart with the slope of the land. 



Now comes a very important part of the busi- 
ness, the selecting of varieties and procuring 
plants. If the soil is inclined to be heavy, 
there is no variety that will do better than 
Wilson's Albany Seedling or Longworth's Pro- 
lific. Some of the new varieties may do as 
well, but I know these will, for I have tried 
them thoroughly. The latter is the best fla- 
vored and quite as productive as the first 
named variety. I have had both in bearing the 
entire year. If the soil is light and inclined to 
be sandy, there is no variety that I have seen 
tried that will compare with the Monarch of 
the West. With me it is very large, of fine 
flavor and enormously productive, and an al- 
most constant bearer. I have grown it for four 
years, and I am certain it has not been without 
ripe fruit one week in that time, and has given 
three good crops a year. Of course, the sum- 
mer crop is the heaviest. Boyden's Mammoth 
is also a very good variety for light soils. Very 
large and productive, and very sweet in warm 
weather. 

In the selection of plants always get those 
near the parent; the first and second, if possi- 
ble, on the runner. It is cheaper in the end to 
pay $5 per hundred for such, than to have the 
small ones for nothing, for they are almost 
worthless, as I found out from sad experience. 

Having procured the plants, cut off every leaf 
and shorten the roots to three or four inches. 
Be careful not to let them dry in the least. It 
is a good plan, if the plants have been received 
by mail, to let the roots stand in tepid water a 
few hours. 

In planting, I always carry the plants in a 
pan, with water on the roots. 

Having the rows marked off, cross them with 
a marker two ft. apart. Then at the intersec- 
tion of the lines scoop out a hole, leaving a cone 
in the center; over this cone spread the roots, 
at an angle of about 45°; draw in the dirt and 
press it firmly about the roots, particularly if 
the weather is dry. Many plants of all kinds 
are lost from neglect of that precaution. If the 
soil is at all dry, a pint of water in the 
hole when it is half filled, will give the plant 
a good start. Do not cover the crown of the plant 
with, earth. Leave the tip just at the surface, 
and that a little lower than the general surface 
of the bed. Now keep down the weeds, and the 
surface, and only the surface well tilled. Never 
cultivate deep enough near a plant to disturb the 
surface roots. 

When the weather begins to get warm, spread 
a good coat of coarse manure or straw over the 
surface. It will keep down weeds and keep the 
soil moist. 

When the soil begins to dry, rake the mulch- 
ing away from the rows, make a shallow ditch 
four ot five inches from the row, and run a 
small stream of water slowly through it until 
the ground is saturated. When the surface is 
dry enough, fill up the trench and replace the 
mulching. Repeat this operation as often as 
the top gets dry, and you will be surprised at 
the amount of large, luscious fruit you will get. 
Two or three hundred plants so treated will 
furnish fruit for a large family. 

Almost any smart boy or girl even, can keep 
such a bed in fine condition and not be the 
worse for it. But I have already made this ar- 
ticle too long. I may at some future time give 
you my experience in experimenting with new 
varieties, and the result. H. J. Rhodes. 

Carpinteria Cal., 



Stock for the Lemon. — Alexander Craw, a 
nurseryman of Los Angeles, writes : In re- 
gard to stock for lemon, I consider the orange 
the most desirable. It is hardier, has a freer 
habit, produces a great quantity of small brush, 
and consequently a larger quantity of medium 
or merchantable fruit than trees on lemon stock 
produce. I also find that the fruit ripens later, 
which is very desirable, as the summer months 
are when the bulk of crop is wanted. Also I 
find that the lemon, which has a slightly bitter 
rind, loses that bitterness when budded upon 
orange, without any perceptible loss in acidity. 
I find that the acid is good in fruit from a 14- 
year old bud upon orange, as Mr. WolfskiU has 
a common Sicily budded upon orange that old. 
This is, I suppose, the oldest lemon budded 
upon orange in the country. It was budded by 
J. W. Wolfskill in 18C6, as an experiment." 



Wooly Aphis. — "Nurseryman" writes to 
the Colusa Sunns follows: Our orchards are 
more or less affected by the wooly aphis. I 
have had good success with strong tobacco 
water. Take an old paint brush and use the 
tobacco water as a paint, and rub the parts of 
the tree where the white down or web is formed 
so as to break the web, and the strong decoc- 
tion, or fluid tobacco, will destroy them. Go 
through ^rour orchard once a week, and be thor- 
ough, and you won't find much, if any, the 
third time you go to apply the mixture. This 
fall being so dry it has been a good time for 
them to spread, as they do not work in the cold, 
wet weather. I hope that our orchardists, or 
every one who has an apple tree, will try this 
or use other means so as to destroy this pest. 



Utilizing River Currents. — In parts of 
Germany it was usual to anchor boats in river 
currents, with large paddle wheels to be turned 
by these currents and used in grinding corn, 
but with this cheap power there was an incon- 
venience in conveying the corn to and from the 
boats. It is now proposed to re-adopt these old 
floating mills for the driving of dynamo-electric 
machines from which light or power may be 
transmitted to the shore. 



Catalogue of European Vines, with Syn- 
onyms and Brief Descriptions.* 

[COPYRIGHTED.] 

(Continued from Page 395. — Vol. XX. 

26. Aubin Vert (Moselle). 

Plant vigorous and fertile. Berries round, 
golden-colored, very sugary. Good table and 
wine grltpe. 

27. Bacclan (Jura). 

Becclan (Jura). 

Durau (Jura). 

Buret (Jura). 
Bunches very close, berries black, leaves 
dark green, turning red at the edges in the 
middle of summer. Plant vigorous, fertile, 
requires strong clay soil and close pruning. 
Good, well-covered red wine; two varieties 
Gros and Petit Bacclan are known; the latter 
produces less but of better quality than and 
former. 

28. Bagoual (Madeira). 

Bual (Maderia). 
Excellent wine grape. Plant fertile. 

29. Bakator (Hungary). 

Alfoldi (Hungary). 
Berries oval, yellowish white, very fleshy 
and yet juicy. Good wine. 

30. Balbamea (Genoa). 

Shoots thin, hard, and tough, with many 
woody tendrils ; leaves small, yellowish, 
turned up at the edges; bunches irregular, 
with round, good-sized, dark black berries, 
containing slightly colored juice. Good wine. 

31. Balustre (Cognac). 

Cognac (La Rochelle). 
Fertile in good years; bunches small; ber- 
ries handsome, oblong, pale. White wine. 

32. Barbarossa (Piedmont). 

Barbaroux (Provence). 

Brizzola (Liguria). 

Gr-ec rouge (South of France). 

Gros Maroc (England). 

Giosse Perle rose (South of France). 

Marocain (Cels). 

Panse rouge (South of France). 

Rochelois (Toulon). 

Rossea (Nice). 

Russelet (Marseille). 

Uva Barbarossa (Piedmont). 
Bunches medium size, shouldered; berries 
good sized, oblong; red, with thick bloom. 
Excellent table grape, which yields also a pleas- 
ant wine, soon fit for consumption. 

33. Barbarossa Verdona (Italy . 

Berries very large, round; greenish white. 
Good for the table and wine making. 

34. Barbera Vera (Toscana). 

Barbera d'Asti (Toscana). 
Plant fertile and vigorous, with long jointed 
shoots; leaves dark green, woolly underneath; 
bunches loose, berries good sized, oblong, 
black, with much bloom; long bunch stalks. 
Very good wine. 

35. Barbera Fina (Toscana). 

Variety of last; leaves small, thick, glossy; 
bunches elongated, loose; berries of equal 
size, slightly oblong, almost black; bunches 
thin, very long; excellent wine. 

36. Bastardo (Portugal). 

Branches stiong, stiff; bunches handsome, 
well filled with large, light-reddish blue berries, 
covered with very fine bloom. Very good red 
or white wine. 

37. Beni Salem (Majorca). 

Bunche3 small, loose; berries oblong, black, 
very sweet. Good table grape. 

38. Bia (Isere). 

Fertile. Very sweet and good white wine 
and table grape. 

39. Bidwell's Seedling (England). 
Bunches large and long, loose shouldered; 

berries large, round, black, covered with thin 
blue bloom; flesh tender, melting, and juicy. 
Table grape. 

40. Black Constantia (England). 

Black Frontignan (England, Speechley). 

Purple Constantia (England). 

Purple Frontignan (England). 

Violet Frontignan (England). 

Violet Muskateller (Germany). 
Boneless, long, tapering, shouldered; ber- 
ries large, round, purple, with blue bloom. 
Excellent table grape. 

41. Black Damascus (England). 

Danias noir (Auvergne). 

Damascus (England). 

Gros noire (Auvergne). 

Spanish Kloevener (Rhine). 

Worksop Manor (England). 
Bunches large, loose; berries large, round, in- 
terspersed with smaller ones; skin thin, tough, 
deep black; juicy, sweet, and rich flavored. 
Excellent table and good wine grape. 

42. Black Hamburg (England). 

Black Gibraltar (England). 
Black Teneriffa (England). 
Blauer Troling (Germany). 
Box Hoder (Germany). 
Cumberland Lodge (England). 
Frankenthal (Rhine). 
Gamston's Black Hamburg (England). 
Hampton Court Vine (England). 
Knevet's Black Hamburg (England). 
Lamber (Germany). 
Mohren Dutten (England). 
Movocain d'Espagi^e (England). 



Muscatellier noir (England). 
% Purple Hamburg (England). 

Red Hamburg (England). 

Richmond Villa (England) . 

Schwartz Trolling (Germany). 

Valentine's (England). 

Warner 's Hamburg (England). 

Welscher (Rhine). 

Victoria (Mackintosh). 
Bunches large, broad shouldered, well set; 
berries roundish oval, thin-skinned, bluish 
black, covered with thick bloom, very juicy 
and well flavored. Excellent table grape. 
Hogg, in his first Manual, separates the 
Frankenthal (for which he gives the synonyms 
mentioned below) from Black Hamburg, and 
Bays the former has thick-skinned and mostly 
flattened, roundish berries. 

43. Frankenthal (Hogg). 

Black Tripoli. 
Chasselas de Jerusalem. 
Gros Bleu. 
Merrick's Victoria. 
Pope's Hamburgh. 
Victoria Hamburgh. 

44. Fintido (England). 

Scarcely differing from Frankenthal; prob- 
ably only another synonym for it, 

45. Black Monucka (England). 

Bnnches very large, close; berries shape of 
barberries; are a dull chestnut color, without 
seeds, sweet. Good table grape. 

46. Black Prince (England). 

Alicant (Mcintosh). 

Boston (England). 

Lanford's Incomparable (England). 

Lombardy (Mcintosh). 

Pocock's Damascus (England). 

Sir Edward Pytcher's Black (England). 

Steward's Black Frince (England.) 
Bunches long, rather loose, mostly without 
shoulders; berries large, oval, thick-skinned, 
purplish black, with thick bloom; flesh green, 
tendor, very juicy. Excellent table grape. 

47. Cambridge Botanic Garden (England). 
Variety of last. Bunches shorter and more 

compact; brownish black. Table grape. 

48. Black St. Peter (England). 

Alicantenwein (Germany). 

Alicante (England). 

Black Lisbon (England). 

Black Portugal (England). 

Black Palestine (England). 

Black Spanish (England). 

Black Valentia (England). 

Blauer von Alicante (Germany). 

Espagnin noir (French). 

Meredith's Alicante (England). 

Schwarzer Spanishcher (Germany). 

St. Peter's (Germany). 
Bunches large, mostly shouldered; well filled 
with large oval or olive shaped, thin-skinned 
black berries, covered with a thin bloom ; berry 
stalks short, warty; flesh, tender, sweet, adher- 
ing to the skin; large seeds. Good table grape. 

49. Espagne Blanc. 

Variety of last, with white berries. Table 
grape. 

50. Black Sweetwater" (England). 

Waterzoet noir (England). 
Bunches small, short, and compact; berries 
round, thin-skinned, black ; flesh tender, juicy, 
and sweet. Table grape. 

51. Blanc Doux (Gironde). 

Douce Blanche (Gironde). 
Wood grayish whilst young, red in winter, 
close-jointed, leaves almost entire; berries 
white, spotted with brown. Plant not fertile. 
Good wine grape. 

52. Blanc Doux (Marseille). 

Durebaie (Marseille). 

Muscat Croquant (Vaucluse). 
Bears irregularly; never fertile; bunches 
handsome, shouldered, well filled with yellow- 
ish, round, very pleasant tender berries. Re- 
quires long pruning. Table and wine grape. 

53. Blauer Auguster (Hungary). 
Bunches loose; berries olive-shaped, blue- 
black, on long, thin, red stalks. Good wine 
grape. 

54. Bonarda (Toscana). 

Bunches long, well-filled with round blue- 
black berries; bunch-stalks thick; leaves en- 
tire, slightly woolly, with red stalks. Good 
wine grape. 

55. Bormenc (Marseilles). 

Majorquen (Provence). 

Plant de Marseilles (Provence). 
Plant vigorous, strong-growing, fertile; 
bunches very large, filled with golden-colored, 
oblong berries, on long berry-stalks. Excel- 
lent for making raisins. 

56. Bourdelas (Center of France). 

Aygras (Provence). 

Brumestre (Provence). 

Bumasta (Provence). 

Poumestre (Provence). 

Vergus (Center of France). 
Vigorous and strong plant; bunches and 
berries large; the latter oblong, black; leaves 
large. Wine grape. 

N. B. Perhaps this may be same as the 
Agrier (No. 1), from the Isere department 

57. Bourgogne (Tours). 

Gaillard (Yonne). 

Lombard (Yonne). 

Hureau (Yonne). 
Plant very fertile. Bunches well filled with 
nearly round bluish-black berries, bearing a 
thick bloom. Wine of medium quality. 

58. Bouteillan a Gros Grains (Hautes Alpes). 

Cajan (Hautes Alpes). 
Cargoumon (Hautes Alpes). 
(Continued on Page 10.) 



4 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January i. 1881 



A Grange Husking and a Large Corn 
Yield. 

A friend sends us a copy of the Manchester 
(N. H.) Mirror, which contains an account of a 
large corn yield, how it was secured and the 
way in which the Grange rallied at the husk- 
ing. Aside from the interesting facts in corn 
culture, there will be to many of our readers 
pleasant suggestions of old times in New Eng- 
land, and we therefore reprint the account as 
follows : 

Mr. Ervin Nelson, of Sutton, in the fall of 
1879 plowed an acre of land where potatoes and 
beets had been previously raised. It was high 
land, bearing to the southwest in view of 
Monadnock mountain and most other elevations 
in this direction in the State. From here also 
can be seen the White mountains. The soil is 
a dark rich loam. In the fall, about 15 loads 
of cattle and sheep manure wero spread upon 
it and plowed in. In the spring, 20 loads more 
were spread on it, plowed once and harrowed 
twice. It was planted on the 11th and 12th of 
May. The rows were SJ ft. apart and hills 
18 inches apart; 2| barrels of hen manure with 
loam were put in the hill, and three barrels of 
ashes were applied after coming up. It was 
hoed and cultivated three tunes, and the weeds 
kept down. The witch grass was troublesome 
on some parts of it. Harvested about the 25th 
of August, cut and shocked in the field in good 
condition, where it stood till about the 20th of 
September, through the dry weather. It was 
then put up in the barn and husked. There 
were 230 baskets of ears of good sound ccrn, 
weighing 42 lbs. per basket; two baskets were 
estimated to make one bushel of shelled corn. 
The corn planted was of a mixed variety, viz., 
Canada, Davis and King Philip. It has been 
planted in this vicinity several years with 
good success. The corn to plant was selected 
in the field and the tips taken off. Corn should 
not be taken from low, early sandy soil and 
planted on a hill, for it is not likely to mature 
well. This is my experience. 

On an adjoining half acre Mr. Nelson raised 
ISO bushels of potatoes, 88 bushels carrots; on 
12 square rods, one-half bushel of pease, G 
bushels of mangel wurtzels, 4 bushels of tur- 
nips, 1 bushel of yellow beets and a lot of fod- 
der corn. The crops arc ready for inspection, 
and wero raised by a man that neither stints in 
weight nor measure. Mr. Nelson was refused 
a premium on his corn by the Kearsarge Agri- 
cultural Association on some trivial requisition. 
(Perhaps his claim was not fairly presented to 
the committee.) 

Jacob B. Nelson resides near his brother Er- 
vin, and by a similar estimate raised 110 bush- 
els per acre; the mode of culture and soil and 
variety of corn were similar, except the use of 
phosphates. 

Mr. Nelson is a Granger. The members of 
the Grange and others, to the number of about 
40, nearly half of them being ladies, who well 
performed their part, met at his barns, and 
from 2 to 5 o'clock in the afternoon husked 253 
bushel-baskets of beautiful sound corn. The 
corn was gathered in the shock and about one- 
third of it in the meantime was drawn to the 
barn from the field and after being husked was 
placed in the corn- barn. W. 

Election of Officers. 

American River Grange.No. 172. — Election 
Dec. 11. J. T. Wright, If.; S. D. Calglesser, 
O.; D. W. Taylor, L.; Mrs. E. C. Criswell, 
C; C. Halverson, S.; W. H. Criswell, A. S.; 
E. G. Morton, Jr., Secy; J. W. Kilgore, T.; 
W. F. Bryan, G. K.; Mrs. M. J. Taylor, Ceres; 
Mrs. Alice Bryan, Pomona; Jennie B. Morton, 
Flora; Martha Criswell, L. A. S.; D. W. Tay- 
lor, Trustee. 

Temescal Grange. — Editors Press: — Will 
you please announce that the next regular meet- 
ing of Temescal Grange will be held on the sec- 
ond Saturday in January, at 7 o'clock sharp, for 
the purpose of initiating candidates and instat- 
ing our newly elected officers. — Nellie G. Bab- 
oock, Sec'y. 



Resolutions of Respect 

American Rivkr Gratoe, No. 172, Sacramento county, 
has adopted resolutions lamenting the death of Sister 
ELIZABETH KILGOKE, "who wag loved, honored and 
respected by all, and wno was ever willing to proffer the 
hand of aid and the roiee of Bympathy to the needy and 
distressed."— (A. H. Thomasson, W. F. Bryan, E. G." Mor- 
ton, Jr., Committee. 



Sonoma County Granges. —Santa Rosa Dem- 
ocrat : Pomona Grange, of Sonoma county, held 
its regular quarterly meeting at Santa Rosa, 
Dec. 15tb. Among other business transacted, 
a committee was appointed to submit suck 
changes in the road law as will provide for let- 
ting ont the road by contract to the lowest bid- 
der, by sections, to keep the same in good order 
for a term of years, in accordance with specifi- 
cations. Santa Rosa Grange held a meeting on 
Dec. 4th, in celebration of the 13th anniversary 
of the organization of the Order. The day was 
pleasantly spent in addresses, songs, essays, 
readings, recitations and feasting. The last 
regular meeting was on Christmas day, at 10 
o'clock A. m., at which the "Harvest Feast" 
was celebrated. 



^q^icdLjiJ^L flojES. 



CALIFORNIA. 

FRESNO. 

Editors Press: — Our farmers are busily en- 
gaged in sowing and will seed a much larger 
acreage this season than formerly, as the season 
has opened so favorably. Our rainfall is as 
follows: October rainfall, 0. 15 inches; November 
rainfall, 0.92 inches; December 3d to 25th, 3.57 
inches. Total for the season, 4. 64 inches. Grain 
and grass is growing finely; sheep aredoir% rea- 
sonably well, as the weather is pleasant. 
— E. S. R., Borden, Dec. 25th. 
LOR ANGELES. 

Beekeepers. — At the annual meeting of the 
Beekeepers' Association held yesterday at the 
office of the Semi-Tropic California, C. N. Wil- 
son was elected President ; J. W. Wilson and 
J. R, Dunsmore, Vice-Presidents; L. S. Butler, 
Secretary ; E. E. Shattuck, Treasurer. The 
condition and prospect of the honey trade and 
the bee business in general was reported to be 
very encouraging. The next meeting will be 
held at the same place on the third Saturday in 
January, 1881. 

No Fusion. — At a meeting of the members of 
the Horticultural and the Sixth District Agri- 
cultural Society last week, to consider the pro- 
priety of uniting the two societies, it was unani- 
mously resolved that the union was not advis- 
able. The question was ably discussed by H. 
T. Hazard, Gov. Downey, H. K. W. Bent, F. 
J. Barretto, J. E. Hollenbeck, L. M. Holt, J. 
De Barth Shorb, A. M. Stephens, Hon. J. F. 
Crank, L. J. Rose, G. D. Compton, S. C. Hub- 
bell, Capt. C. E. Thorn and others, and much 
interest was manifested in the subject. 

MONTEREY. 

Thrift on Farms. — /nrfw: It is also of the 
utmost importance that seed grain be thor- 
oughly cleansed before sown, of all impurities 
and foreign substances. Unless this is done, 
all subsequent efforts to cleanse the fields by 
change of cultivation, mowing and puUing 
weeds, etc., will prove futile and cannot be suc- 
cessful. No farm should be without its fan- 
ning mill, and it will be found time well spent 
to cleanse thoroughly every sack of grain that 
is sown. For ordinary sized farms this would 
be only the work of a day or two for a couple of 
men. Now comes in the evil of large farms oc- 
cupied by renters. Unless those who cultivate 
the soil own it, they will take no pains to sow 
clean seed or free the land of weeds. Under 
our system of renting, a tenant does not know 
whether he will be permitted to occupy the 
land another year or not; hence he merely 
scratches the surface instead of plowing it 
properly, takes no pains with his seed and 
makes no effort to eradicate weeds, being con- 
tent to get as much of a crop as he can with 
the least possible work and trouble. If a man 
rents 500 or 1,000 or 5,000 acres of land, he 
will not take any pains to free it from foul 
weeds; if he own but 100 or 1G0 acres he will 
plow it deep, bow clean seed, pull up the weeds, 
and raise a crop that will command the very 
highest market price. A renter will not plant 
a rose bush, nor a grapevine, nor an apple tree, 
nor a shade tree of any description, nor culti- 
vate a garden; the owner of a small farm will 
plant rose bushes and grapevines and fruit 
trees and ornamental shade trees and have a 
nice garden, all of which go to make up an at : 
tractive and happy home for himself and fam- 
ily. Large land grants are the bane of any 
country where they exist. Our country will 
never prosper as it ought until the agricul- 
tural lands are divided into small farms and 
tilled by the owners thereof. Besides, there is 
nothing that makes the heart of a man so cling 
to a country as to feel that his little children 
are at play under the trees which he planted. 

SANTA, BARBARA. 

Editors Press: — There has been plenty of 
rain the past week or more, and still it comes. 
The weather has been warm for so much rain, 
and it all has come so quietly, and without 
wind, that it has been enjoyable. Nature has 
put on her robe of green, and the promise is 
good for a fine season. Have had no flood of 
waters as yet; the rain has mostly settled in the 
ground as it fell. Mud never was more plenti- 
ful with us, and we think it will stick by us for 
a long time. The little folks feel a little 
"down," as they fear "Saint Nicolaus" will 
look wet and bedraggled when he makes his ap- 
pearance this evening. It is estimated that the 
storm caught from 200 to 250 acres of Lima 
beans in the fields not threshed, which must be 
nearly a total loss, except to feed stock. The 
average yield would have been at least 1,500 
lbs. Otherwise we were pretty well prepared 
for the rain. Some corn is out, and will get 
damaged somewhat, but no serious loss. We 
will have a good season to plant trees, which we 
think will be taken advantage of. — O. N. Cad- 
well, Pomona's Retreat, Carpinteria, CaL, 
Dec. 24, 1880. 

A Lady Farmer. — Santa Barbara Press: Mrs. 
A. J. C. Wilson, whose husband was necessar- 
ily absent in San Francisco this summer, de- 
cided to manage their suburban farm herself, 
believing that health requires an outdoor life. 
She has don.e all of the work which her strength 
permitted entirely unaided, and it has proved 
just the requisite remedy. Mrs. W. is well and 
stronger than when she commenced; has sup- 
plied several families with choice butter and 
■ eggs; has picked all the fruit from a five-acre 
orchard of miscellaneous fruits, and carried it 



to the cannery; dried the varieties unsuitable 
for this purpose, and putting up large amounts 
for family use. Beside this, she has kept the 
seeds where they belong, in wetted heaps and 
mulching for plants; trained her numerous grape 
vines in the way they should go; and very 
largely aided in the shelling of five acres of al- 
monds, of which she has a large crop not yet 
weighed; superintending all needed help, and 
keeping a lovely flower garden in good condi- 
tion. The finest nectarines and apricots at the 
Mechanics' fair were sent from this place, and 
took a deserved premium. Who can give a 
better record! 
SAN BERNARDINO. 

Cold Climate Tea. — Press and Horticulturist: 
James Craw, brother to Alex. Craw of Los 
Angeles, formerly manager of the Wolfskill or- 
chards and nurseries, writes a letter dated 
Doonagiree Tea Plantation, Ranikhet, N. W. 
P, India, October 30, 1880, in which he says: 
"I have forwarded by this mail some tea seeds 
gathered from our choicest class of China bush, 
which I hope will arrive in good order. Ger- 
minate them, and in due time they will furnish 
you with all the tea you will require for your 
own use. Sow as soon as possible, to prevent 
them from drying. I shall be anxious to know 
in what condition the seed arrives after such a 
long journey, and how the experiment succeeds 
with you. By next mail (a week hence) I pro- 
pose sending some samples of onr teas, to show 
you what it can produce up here." Ranikhet 
is located in the Himalaya mountains, of Asia, 
in northern India, in a section devoted largely 
to tea culture under the management of flnglish- 
men who have settled there. Mr. Craw has 
been there now about two years. The seed 
sent by mail has not arrived as yet, but it will 
be carefully planted and cared for as soon as it 
arrives. So far as cold is concerned, the variety 
of tea sent by Mr. Craw will stand this climate, 
as the section of India where it is grown is sim- 
ilar to the upper foothill towns of the Sacra- 
mento valley, where heavy snows fall every 
winter. 

Grape Cuttings. — In an article two weeks 
since on the subject of grape cuttings, we fa- 
vored having the cuttings from 20 to 24 inches 
in length. In this recommendation we took the 
middle ground between those who favored cut- 
tings but 14 to 16 inches long and Mr. Blower, 
who prefers to have them three ft. long. There 
are probably conditions of the soil, climate, ir- 
rigation and cultivation which affect this ques- 
tion. For instance, in Riverside we have 
mostly a heavy, clayey soil, and the cuttings, 
when put in vineyards, are irrigated frequently. 
Hence a shorter cutting will do just as well, 
while in San Gabriel they have a looser sandy 
or gravelly soil, and the vineyards are not irri- 
gated at all; hence a loDger cutting is desirable. 
Messrs. E. G. Brown, Dr. Hall and others, who 
have been very successful here in putting out 
cuttings, prefer to have them not exceed 18 
or even 16 inches. S. B. Bliss and Mr. Haynes 
last Bpring put out vineyards of short cuttings, 
and the stand was not only good, but the growth 
of vine was remarkable. The conditions of the 
cutting is of much more importance than its 
length, although, if the vineyard is not to be ir- 
rigated, the cuttings should be of good length. 
SANTA CRUZ. 

Editors Press: — Santa Cruz county has had 
to keep its head under cover most of the time 
since the night of the 20th inst., as it has rained 
quite steadily for five days, with but few hours 
intermission. A 1 'cave" has been discovered on 
our road, rendering it impassable for teams. — 
L. J. D., Soquel. 

Jubilant. — Editors Press: Santa Cruz at 
a premium. Just think of it! while the East- 
ern dispatches are telling ns of deep, snowy, 
thick ice, bitter cold winds, and people burning 
up their house-hold furniture to keep from 
freezing to death — and then don't always succeed 
— here in Santa Cruz we are having warm sun- 
shine, hills covered with green grass, flowers in 
our gardens and plows going, getting the land 
ready for the seed, that will be put into the 
ground next month; and Santa Cruz is always 
thus — always rain enough for good crops, and 
pleasant sunshine nearly the entire year. The 
Lord fitted up Santa Cruz Co. for pleasant 
homes.— M. P. Owen, Soquel, Cal. [Yes, and 
the same glad tidings may be sent forth from 
many other counties of California. — Editors 
Press.] 
TEHAMA. 

Editors Press: — The steady downpour of. 
rain which has gladdened the hearts of farmers, 
cattle and sheep owners stopped for a breath- 
ing spell this day, Monday, Deo. 27th. The 
warm, genial sun shed its rays over the emerald 
green face of Mother Earth, warming the very 
nature of the most crusty agriculturist with 
hope, and instilling cheerfulness into the bear- 
ing of all. The late storm, which may be said 
to have come in with December, has been one of 
the most beneficial visitations the county has 
had for many a year; the temperature has been 
warm, the thermometer not being below 40° at 
any time during the storm. The rain at first 
fell so quietly and evenly that every particle of 
moisture was absorbed by the parched soil. The 
wind too, at first, was light and balmy, assur- 
ing very little damage to fencing. One night 
only was it unruly. The farmers one and all 
were well prepared for the bounteous rain, and 
from all sections come cheering news of the good 
which has resulted from the visit. Feed is now 
growing rapidly. Alex. M. McCoy, who has 
some 1,700 ewes and young sheep about 12 miles 
west of Red Bluff, was in to-day, and said the 
young grass in places being reserved from the 



flocks is from three to four inches high. He 
thinks sheep will winter well this year, unless 
frost should set in before the grass gets more 
forward. His band is in excellent condition, 
and the ewes will lamb in February. Our farm- 
ers report the summer-fallow and volunteer com- 
ing up beautifully. Dave Oaks, a sturdy farmer 
who has about 500 acres of good tillable land 
in Paskenta township, was in Red Bluff to-day, 
and from him I heard the season was never more 
propitious in his section. He has in 350 acres 
of summer-fallow and volunteer, and is going 
to plow the balance of his farm for next fall as 
soon as practicable. His summer-fallowed land 
this season has been cross-plowed, and put in 
in the best possible manner. He seeded it to 
big White Club; he believes that variety is 
more profitable than white wheat. He said the 
fields are a handsome sight with the young grain 
and grass springing up, forming an emerald 
carpet. A very much larger area has been al- 
ready sown than any previous year; owing to 
the late .spring, summer-fallowing was carried 
on later than usual this year. Paskenta town- 
ship is rapidly improving, her settlers adding 
year by year to their tillable land. Our Ante- 
lope valley farmers, who do not summer-fallow 
nor volunteer, have not yet commenced to plow 
even, but when they get to work, they will not 
be long in putting in their crops. R. H. Blos- 
som had quite a large tract of summer-fallow 
this year, all of which is sown; so also has bis 
neighbor, J. S. Cone; but they both have a large 
amount of land to winter plow and sow. The 
black adobe soil of Antelope is very wet now, 
and will be in no condition to work until a week 
at least of dry weather is had. The chances 
are that it will be late in February before the 
farmers on the bottom lands will finish plow- 
ing and seeding their winter- sown grain. The 
roads are in a terrible condition throughout the 
county. Traveling is tiresome, and in many 
places dangerous. Year after year the need of 
a material change in the management of our 
highways is apparent. Our new Supervisors 
will have a good field to show their executive 
ability by inaugurating the much needed reform 
in county roads. — Felix, Red Bluff. 

VENTURA. 

White Russian and Odessa Wheat. — Edi- 
tors Press: The time for sowing wheat has 
come, and not a few farmers in the State have 
had their thoughts turned toward the White 
Russian and Odessa varieties. To throw a little 
light upon the value of these wheats is the ob- 
ject of this article. The Odessa wheat, or 
"Anaheim Odessa," as it is called here in 
Ventura county, is a bald-head variety — slender 
and grass-like stalk, red chaff and a small 
berry. It has been grown in Anaheim and 
in parts of Los Angeles county for six years, 
and in this connty for three years. It has 
never rusted there or here. I raised it this 
year on land where rust would strike it if any- 
where. As it comes up it looks very unprom- 
ising; looks very slim and grass-like. For • 
long time it does nothing but stool out and 
struggle for mere existence. But when it does 
take a start it grows very rapidly and yields 
enormously; I think it averaged 35 bushels 
per acre on the whole area sown. The flour it 
makes is equal to the very best for family use, 
but requires a little more kneading. Perhaps 
in color the flour is a shade darker than the 
very whitest; but it makes a very fine article 
of bread. There is one peculiarity worth no- 
ticing. Whenever it lodges, the straw, being 
small and supple, does not break, and therefore 
the berry is plump even in that which is lodged. 
Farmers Bhould be careful not to get the 
bearded Odessa, as that rusted with us and 
does not yield as well. Now, as to the White 
Russian. The first we ever heard about it in 
this locality was a little over one year ago, 
when I found it in Oregon, at the State fair, 
and brought down a specimen; and then, in 
company with Messrs. Chaffee and McKeeby, 
of Ventura, ordered down large quantities for 
seed. It has done well and seems a rust-proof 
variety, is a larger grain and grows as rankly 
as barley. When it lodges the grain shrinks, 
as the stalk breaks. The berry is whiter than 
Odessa, but the proof of its being as thor- 
oughly rust-proof as Odessa is yet wanting; 
but it is an excellent wheat. It can be had in 
Ventnra at $2 per cental, and the Odessa at 
$1.50. I raised both varieties last year, sowing 
an equal area in each, and have no object in this 
article but to help my brother farmers. — S. 
Bristol, San Buenaventura, Dec. 15, 1880. 

Items. — Free Press: Mr Finney sold his en- 
tire stock of dried prunes to a merchant in town 
on Wednesday for 17 cents per pound. The 
highest price in the city for other brands this 
year, at wholesale has been 13 cents; good for 
Mr. Finney. Mr. E. Skaggs raised this year a 
measured half acre of amber cane, and carried 
the product to a little home-made mill at Hanta 
Paula. The yield was 150 gallons of heavy 
syrup, or at the rate of 300 gallons per acre. In 
Minnesota, 200 gallons is an extra yield. Our 
farmers are paying $3 per acre for shucking 
corn, and cannot get it done fast enough for 
want of hands. We would remind the able-bod- 
ied loafers who howl aronnd the sand lots abont 
want of work, that they can come here in 48 
hours by steamer for 86 and go to work next 
day. But they won't 



A New York dispatch says it is calculated 
that holders of United States five per cents., 
when paid next week, will prefer to invest in 
stockB paying dividends on a basis of five per 
cent., than to buy three or three and one-half 
Government bonds. 



January i, 1881.I 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS. 



•6 



Irrigation and Water Rights. 

State Engineer W. H. Hall, has made to the 
Governor the following supplemental report on 
the water question in California: 

Conflicts of interest, for whose adjustment 
the present laws afford no adequate method, 
keep matters connected with water rights for ir- 
rigation in such an unsettled condition that 
there is no basis of credit upon which to raise 
money for the construction of irrigation works, 
and no certainty in farming with irrigation, ex- 
cept in cases where all rights can be monopo- 
lized or brought under one control, and these in- 
stances are few. 

Two general classes of conflicts have made 
themselves known throughout the counties 
where irrigation is now practiced, namely: 

Conflicts between rival appropriators of wa- 
ter, or claimaints by prescription; and, 

Conflicts between appropriators, or claimants 
by prescription, and riparian owners. 

Of course there are an infinite number of sub- 
varieties of cases which come up under each of 
the general classes. 

In the San Joaquin valley, not only are these 
conflicting interests present, but another ele- 
ment will soon make its appearance (indeed it 
has already), and we will have inevitably, unless 
the State controls and directs the diversion of 
waters from the San Joaquin river and its trib- 
utaries. 

The worst conflict of all, namely: that be- 
tween the appropriators of waters for irrigation, 
and the navigation interests ou the main river. 
Proposed Settlement of Conflicts. 

The question is, how to do away with this 
clashing of interests. 

To settle conflicts between appropriators or 
claimants by prescription, it has been proposed 
—and I find the plan advocated by many 
worthy people in the irrigation regions — that 
the State take charge of the whole matter of ir- 
rigation — condemn and pay for all existing rights 
to water, for the public benefit, construct the 
works of irrigation, and sell the water. 

As a variation to this, others advocate an ap- 
portionment of the waters, after being con- 
demned for the public good, and paid for by the 
State, to the lands requiring them. 

And again, other people would have all water 
rights condemned, but paid for by the lands to 
be benefited in each instance. 

I do not think any such plan is feasible, and 
for the following reasons: 

First — The outlay for the satisfaction of ex- 
isting water claims would necessarily be so 
great that the State could not be brought to un- 
dertake the settlement. 

Second — If the State should undertake the 
construction of irrigation canals, or works of ir- 
rigation proper, her enterprise would fail of suc- 
cess, and involve her in enormous expenditures 
of money. 

(See Chapter V, of Part IV, Report of State 
Engineer, January, 1880.) 

Third — If the State should reapportion the 
waters, the supply would not be sufficient for 
all, and the conflict would be as great as ever. 

Fourth — The conflict between users of water 
for irrigation and claimants under the riparian 
principle would still exist, and could not be 
done away with by condemnation — for the field 
is immeasurably too great. 

Fifth — The conflict between users of water 
for irrigation and the navigation interests would 
still exist, and it is altogether impracticable to 
condemn the right of navigating a public 
stream. 

Riparians vs. Appropriators. 

It has been proposed to limit the rights of 
riparian proprietors to water privileges for the 
use of stock and domestic purposes. While I 
heartily concur in this as a correct — in fact, the 
only admissible — definition of a riparian right 
in an irrigation country, I see very clearly how 
the State, by making this simple declaration 
and doing no more, will strike a blow at one 
(the riparian) class of interests, without clear- 
ing up the horizon for the other (the appropria- 
tion) class, and without doing anything for by 
far the larger class— those who have dry lands 
but no water claim at all. 

The appropriators of water have done just 
what the law permitted them to do. Some few 
appropriators of water for irrigation have built 
good works, prepared their lands properly for 
irrigation, and are really public benefactors — 
for they have brought health and plenty where 
formerly ague and poverty, or widespread deso- 
lation reigned. They have, as a class, how- 
ever, set up extravagant claims to water, have 
done little to make these claims good, and now 
hold them to the detriment of the people at 
large, not being able to organize, and economise 
the waters themselves, and permitting no one 
else to do it, because they fear to have adverse 
claims grow up. I repeat, it is quite natural 
that this should have been done. In fact, it is 
the only way by which rights to water could be 
held at all, and we would all do it if we could.. 
But I doubt the propriety of the State attempt- 
ing to limit one class of interests — the riparian — 
which, to say the least, is represented by the 
majority of people in the State who have any 
direct interest at all in the matter — for the ben- 
efit exclusively of another class — a small minor- 
ity of her citizens — whom she has already per- 
mitted to acquire valuable, or what would then 
be exceedingly valuable, privileges by appro- 
priating the waters of her streams, without at 
the same time taking steps to insure to the class 
restricted the rights which she does accord 
them. 

The riparian principle carried out upon the 



English common law rule should not be main- 
tained in California. She never can be a truly 
great agricultural State without irrigation, and 
she should set that dog-in-the-manger principle 
aside, for a system which will insure a respect 
of all rights as far as can be, and accomplish the 
greatest good to the greatest number, by the use 
of the water in irrigation, as far as it can be, 
after satisfying the just demands of riparian 
proprietors by some means economical of the 
water supply, and at such seasons as will not 
materially interfere with navigation interests. 
The Proposed Remedy. 
You will see from this about what I would 
propose as the solution of the irrigation ques- 
tion, namely: That the State shall direct and 
control the diversion of waters from the streams; 
insist upon its economical use; see that ripa- 
rian proprietors are supplied with water for 
stock and domestic purposes, at least, if they 
cannot all come in for a share of the water for 
irrigation; see that all lands naturally depend- 
ent upon a public source of supply get their 
share, as far as the supply will go, upon some 
reasonable terms; and see that sufficient water 
is left in navigable streams to satisfy the inter- 
ests of commerce, at stated seasons, when most 
needed. 

This the State can do by virtue of her police 
authority, and in my humble judgment she 
will be obliged to do it some day, and the sooner 
it is done the better for all concerned. 

Before, however, she can exercise this au- 
thority, she must know definitely what interests 
she has to deal with — what water rights have 
accrued and what is the nature of them — and 
there must be some general State plan of or- 
ganization under which irrigation is to be car- 
ried on. There can be no satisfactory regula- 
tion of rights altogether undefined, and no set- 
tled condition of affairs until the irrigation 
interest is placed on a good business footing by 
a definition of present rights and an organiza- 
tion for future operations. 

Hence, I propose that the State shall: 
First — By the passage of a law entitled " An 
act to define and regulate water rights:" 

Institute proceedings to define for record 
the extent and nature of all existing water 
privileges. 

Provide for a proper record of existing rights 
to water, and for the annual correction of the 
same to date. 

Provide for the issue of water privileges in 
proportion to the supply of water in each stream, 
and designate by schedule the extent and order 
of each claim. 

Supervise, in a general way, the distribution 
of water from the streams of natural sources of 
supply, to those holding water privileges. 

Establish a definite standard of measure for 
water used for agricultural and mining pur- 
poses, and prescribe the form and dimensions 
of measuring apparatus to be employed in deal- 
ing out water under different circumstances. 

Second — By the passage of a law entitled 
" An act to promote irrigation:" 

Provide for the organization of irrigation 
districts, from time to time, according to natu- 
ral division of the land, as near as may be, in 
each instance. 

Provide for the internal self-government of 
each such district by the resident thereof. 

Provide for the allotment of permanent water 
privileges to such districts. 

Provide for the condemnation of private water 
rights for the public use, in case of rights ac- 
quired to waters from public streams for lands 
within such districts. 

Provide for the adjustment of riparian rights 
in each instance where a water privilege is 
granted to a regularly-organized district, so that 
riparian proprietors will be insured sufficient 
water for domestio and stock purposes, the 
district be held liable for its share of the ex- 
pense of meeting this obligation, and the State 
undertake the adjustment. 

Provide for the protection of river naviga- 
tion by regulating the divei'bion of water from 
navigable rivers and their tributaries, so that in 
some certain periods the waters may be used 
for irrigation, and some other periods they shall 
be allowed to flow in the streams for the benefit 
of commerce. 

Provide for the total extinguishment of 
rights by condemnation, where unad jus table 
conflicts occur. 

Carry on such observations as will detect the 
locality and cause of waste or loss of water in 
each instance; conduct experiments with a view 
of discovering the most economical means of 
distributing and using water in irrigation with- 
out material loss or waste. 

Establish general regulations, from time to 
time, for the distribution of water in irrigation, 
which will prevent waste, insure good drainage, 
and guard against the unhealthful tendency of 
careless and vicious use of water in irriga- 
tion. 

Important Points. 
In framing these laws it must be kept in view 
that the sources of water supply vary in char- 
acter, and that the nature of rights vary not 
only with the sources, but in themselves 
also. 

Thus we may have sources of water supply of 
the following kinds: 

Public streams — The living waters of naviga- 
ble, tributaries of navigable, and non-navigable; 
the waters stored at private expense and that 
stored at public expense. 

Private streams — The living waters of such 
to the extent of private claims, and the waters 
stored at private expense, and those stored at 
public expense. 



Natural springs — Having sources above all 
appropriation; having sources to be affected by 
higher appropriation. 

Artificial wells — Artesian wells and pump 
wells. 

Waste water from irrigation canals. 
Waste water from irrigated fields. 
Waste water from drainage of moist land. 
Claims to water have grown up from: Simple 
appropriation and use; filing notice, and ap- 
propriation under the Mining laws; filing notices, 
and appropriations under the Codes; appropria- 
tions under the Desert Land law; obtaining 
privileges from County Water Commissioners; 
through Spanish pueblo privileges; by owner- 
ship of the course, and the natural source of 
supply; by ownership of the bed of the stream; 
by ownership of the bank of the stream; by the 
construction of private wells ;Joy the storage of 
waste waters. 

What may be Expected. 
It is not to be expected that any law or laws 
can be framed at once which will settle the 
many conflicts of interest that arise out of these 
diverse interests and conditions. Without 
doubt many questions must for all time go to 
the Courts. But it is certainly possible to put 
irrigation upon a far better basis than it is now, 
and at the same time give the Courts some bet- 
ter guide in the execution of their duty than 
they have now. Certainly, the whole question 
can be simplified in the manner I propose, and 
I must confess that after much thought I see no 
other way how it can be accomplished. 

If the matter goes on as it is, it will result 
in settling the disputes between rival claimants 
in the monopoly of all good water privileges by 
a few individuals, who will have water to sell 
under claims acquired without regulation, in 
the waste of water by reason of works con- 
structed without system and used without 
proper supervision, and in many instances in the 
production of unhealthful neighborhoods by un- 
skilled and unrestricted use of water. 

And in the settling of disputes between ap- 
propriators and riparian proprietors on all 
streams of short supply, the appropriator will 
probably go to the wall, and water which might 
be made, under a proper organization, to irri- 
gate thousands of acres of land, will be allowed 
to waste in the dry sand beds of streams and 
the pools of swamps, to effect some little natu- 
ral Irrigation below, or water a few head of 
live stock. 

The conflict between water appropriation for 
irrigation and the navigation interests of streams 
below, cannot be settled but by the interven- 
tion of State regulation as indicated. 

Effect of the Proposed Plan. 
The plan which I have outlined contem- 
plates : 

State regulation of the public sources of sup- 
ply, the streams, and of waters allotted to 
claimants from those sources. 

District or private regulation, under general 
State laws, of the details of distribution from 
the canals to the irrigators. 

State regulation of the use of water in irri- 
gation — to the end that none be wasted. 

State adjustment of conflicting rights by ar- 
bitration, as it were, when possible, or by con- 
demnation where necessary and possible. 

When this much has been accomplished there 
will then be a good basis of credit in irrigation 
property. Capital can be obtained for the con- 
struction of irrigation works, on the credit of a 
district, whenever it is known that there at- 
taches to the lands thereof, from the State, a 
good and sufficient water right for their irriga- 
tion. 

For instance, a district embracing 30,000 
acres of land has a water right. The lands 
were worth, dry, five dollars per acre. It will 
cost $10 per acre to completely irrigate them. 
The district says to capital, construct our works 
according to pre-arranged State plans and spec- 
ifications. We, the district, taken as a whole, 
will pay for this in 50 annual installments, prin- 
cipal and interest, the money to be raised by 
taxation on the whole property of the district 
under the State law, and, at the end of 50 years, 
take the works off your hauds. In the mean- 
time, revenue for the maintenance and admin- 
istration of the works, to be raised from the 
sale of water to actual irrigators, at prices 
within limits to be pre-arranged. 

By this plan good works would be constructed 
cheaply. The capital becomes a contractor to 
build works. The State supervises their con- 
struction. The interests of the district are pro- 
tected. Capital has a security because there 
is a good water right attached to the land, and 
the State is the arbiter between parties to the 
transaction, by her general law properly admin- 
istered. 

The working of the plan would not be an at- 
tack on any class of interests. The appropri- 
ators would have their rights definitely deter- 
mined by a procedure in which they would be 
called upon to prove their claims aocording to 
the measurements and statistics of the State, 
made and collected by her Engineer Department. 
They would not be put to any considerable ex- 
pense; they would be relieved in many instances 
from future litigation and expense by having; 
the facts affecting their claims and all riva 
claims, made of record, definitely, at once, and 
there would be no impediment put in the way 
of continued acquirement of right to the use of 
water under moderate and wholesome regu- 
lations. 

Riparian proprietors would be assured their 
privileges as far as possible, and womld be pro- 
tected from the effects of the unregulated ap- 
propriation which they now fear. 



The people of the State would be benefited 
by an assurance on the part of the S hat 
the waters would be used to the best ge 
for the greatest number of those i j» 
them. 

I shall call the attention of the Legislature at 
the approaching session to this matter, and 
submit a more definite plan than here outlined, 
for the consideration of its members. 

In conclusion, permit me to observe that, in 
my opinion, by effecting the object aimed at 
herein — the settling of water right disputes, the 
conservation and extension of the water supply 
for irrigation — the State will have only done 
simple justice to the residents of the largest 
portion of her territory, and will have practi- 
cally increased her wealth many fold. 



The Mussel Slough Land Case. — The Jury 
in the cases of the Mussel Slough settlers re- 
turned into the court Tuesday afternoon, Deo. 
22d, at 1 o'clock, having retired at 12:30 on 
Wednesday afternoon. They rendered a ver- 
dict of guilty against J. J. Doyle, Wm. Patter- 
son, J. D. Purcell, Wm. Braden and C. Talbot, 
for resisting the Marshal in the discharge of his 
duties, and a verdict of not guilty of conspir- 
acy. Judge Sawyer ordered the defendents to 
be immediately placed into the custody of the 
Marshal. Their counsel made a plea that they 
be allowed to go for some time on the bonds 
which they had given for their appearance, in 
order to allow them to go home and make neces- 
sary arrangements for the support of their fam- 
ilies, in the event of their being sentenced to 
imprisonment, and also to allow of a transcript 
of the record on motion for a new trial. The 
District Attorney, however, stated that the 
Marshal had had considerable difficulty in sum- 
moning the attendance of witnesses, and for 
other reasons which he was not at liberty to 
discuss, he would rather not have the defend- 
ants allowed to go to their homes in the Mussel 
Slough district. The defendants were each al- 
lowed to give new bonds in the sum of $5,000. 



News in Brief. 

Extensive floods are reported In Corunna, 
Spain. 

The Rev. Dr. Edwin H. Chapin died in New 
Yort Monday. 

The railroad tax of Placer county pays all 
the county's expenses. 

President-elect Anderwert, of Swltser- 
land, has committed suicide. 

There is a great deal of smouldering discon- 
tent among the north Albanian chiefs. 

Cambridqe, Mass., on Tuesday, celebrated 
the 250th anniversary of its settlement. 

Russia has increased duties on imports 10%, 
and has raised the tax on all trade guilds. 

The New York Board of Aldermen has re- 
solved to grant no licenses to Chinese laundry- 
men. 

Ten Ponca chiefs signed a paper, declaring 
they wished to remain on their land in Indian 
Territory. 

It is the opinion of competent judges that 
Russia has made ample concessions on the Chin- 
ese question. 

At Castle Garden, New York, up to Monday 
morning, 318,937 immigrants had landed since 
January 1, 1880. 

The recent storm on the Atlantic coast was 
the severest that had visited some of the sec- 
tions for 50 years. 

By a collision between two freight trains near 
Charlotte, N. C, on Sunday, four persons were 
killed and several wounded. 

Throughout the Northwestern States the 
weather is intensely cold, the mercury ranging 
from 17' to 30° below zero. 

The Vermont Legislature has adjourned after 
passing a bill to tax telegraph and express com- 
panies 2% of the gross earnings. 

The schooner Helen Merriam was lost in 
Monterey bay, near Soquel, on Monday, and 
Martin Flees the mate, was drowned. 

James Madison Tarleton, Consul-General 
at Melbourne, under Pierce, died from want and 
exposure in Washington, Thursday night. 

Twenty-five large liquor dealers in Chicago 
have been arrested for keeping their saloons 
open on Christmas in defiance of State law. 

A band of New Mexico outlaws has been 
broken up; in Las Vegas the authorities tried to 
get possession of one of the prisoners but 
failed. 

There are partial floods throughout the north 
of England. The Irwell has overflowed its 
banks in the district of Manchester, covering 
120 acres. 

A dispatch from St. Petersburg reports that 
the Russians have retaken, with a loss of 20 
killed, 2,000 camels that were recently captured 
by the Turcomans. 

A French firm purposes building five beet- 
root sugar factories in Montreal. The 
province of Quebec will turn out 2,250,000 lbs. 
of sugar annually. 

It is proposed to build a wagon road from 
Bakersfield, Kern county, to San Luis Obispo, 
so as to give a more direct outlet to the sea 
coast for the products of Kern county. 

The friends of Mrs. Cross (George Eliot) are 
considering a suggestion that Dean Stanley be 
asked to permit the interment of the remains 
of the dead authoress in Westminster Abbey. 

The Governors of the Turkish Provinces have 
been instructed to forward half the gross re- 
ceipts of the revenue to the capital, to defray 
the cost of the present military preparations of 
Turkey. 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January i, cS^i. 




The Two Years. 



TUB DYING YEAR. 

As when within some mighty battle-plain 

The km.' is fallen and all his army knows, 

que common thrill goes through the myriad heart, 

For there he lies, breathing last breath away, 

So dear, so dear to all he seems tn lean 

His dying head on every soldier's breast : 

So the Year dies, so, dying, seems to leave 

Uis fallen bead upon the heart of all. 

II. 

THE NEW-BORN S EAR.— AT UIS FIRST LEVEE. 

Come, happy ones, and see the new-born Year ! 
Come, lean above his cradle lovingly, 
Oh ! ye who cross bright thresholds of bright days 
Lightly as skipping-ropes, with laugh and song; 
On ! bend above tho cradle of the Year, 
New-born— the latest child of Time— and kiss 
His sleeping lips. Look, how they smile in sleep; 
Whispering w ith angels, angels loving you ! 
And ye whose heads are in December's frost, 
Send your hearts back to May, and see his face ! 
The royal Infant, who shall rule all lands, 
Lies soft in cradle-slumber. This is he 
For whom all bring their frankincense and myrrh 
From the deep Orient lands of Memory — 
His kingly lips unworded, closed eyes, 
A dreaming heart, to-morrow's sceptered hands ! 
These lips shall breath the statutes of all realms; 
These brows shall nod, and crowns of gold are dust; 
These feet, the footsteps of their passing on 
May echo on far thresholds. Who shall say? 
• * * What shadowy presence crowds the waiting air, 
With sense of gathering wings? Behold who stand 
Within the presence-chamber of the Year ! 
Around his cradle gathering they come. 
Phantoms with wiugs, the servants of his dreams, 
The genii of his deeds Strange whisperings 
Fill the charmed silence. None their meaning know, 
Strange, shadowy hands trail, flame-like, on tho walls; 
Strange letters stare into our eyes; but they 
Are in a language only prophets read. 
Strange pictures grow ; strange faces start from veils; 
Strange fingers beckon. None may understand. 
These are the spirits that hover o'er the Year • 
And haunt his cradle * * f Shining with a ray 
Of the sun's far brightness, through the mist of dawn 
Comes Hope, the soul's fair morninir angel, bright 
With her bright, unseen train ! The shadows fly; 
A dream of music floats within the light; 
May, somewhere, breathes her flower-air; dancing, 
singing, 

Come youths and maidens, a gay summer vision; 
And, somewhere, June has rilled the earth with roses; 
New harvests ring with gladness, golden-wide, 
And Plenty's banded sheaves, in Bunny heat 
Half hidden, gleam and rustle far away. 

— John Jamet Piatt. 



Education and Disagreeable Women. 

[Written for the Rural Press by Abbott Kinney.] 
The bitter little paragraph on "Disagreeable 
Women," which was published in one of your 
October numbers, has occasioned a good deal of 
comment. Those who have answered it seem 
to hold that if there are any disagreeable 
women they have been made so by the individ- 
ual action of some husband or other nefarious 
male. Mr. John Taylor writes that women 
(and I suppose that he would include men, too) 
are agreeable or disagreeable according to the 
manners and actions of those with whom they 
come in contact. This is certainly true in the 
majority of chance meetings where we find 
happy dispositional people, like Mr. Taylor, 
tindrag everything pleasant, while those of a 
sour cast see the worst side of everything and 
everybody. Life is too short and hard for us 
to do more thau pity and avoid these unhappy 
people. But Mr. Taylor's philosophy does not 
apply with the same strength to our more per- 
manent relations. No one, I think, would be 
disagreeable or unhappy if they knew how to 
avoid it. These things come to us in spite 
of ourselves, and they are the indications of an 
education and bringing up not in harmony with 
nature or our practical lives. Unhappiness is 
common enough. It is a skeleton in almost 
every family. We see parents mourning over 
their children living; over sons for whom every- 
thing has been done, well educated (?), well 
dressed, and well fed, but who are failures, incon- 
siderate of their parents, dissolute and vicious, 
unhappy, making others unhappy and swelling 
the disorderly elements in our towns; over 
daughters who are too often the victims of vice, 
or who, with fine educations and with many 
admirable accomplishments, start in real life 
with ruined constitutions. The pains and 
pleasures of a mother; the sweet prattle of the 
child and the rearing of a happy circle to guard 
old age are joys to them distasteful, often im- 
possible. These daughters, when they do have 
children, lose many through ignorance of how 
to care for them. Unacquainted with domestic 
duties, they waste what strength they have, as 
well as the family substance because they know 
no better. From these and other causes do 
mestic unhappiness is constantly increasing, 
Divorces have become a very common thing, as 
have also separations and desertions. Domestic 
duties are by many considered a burden to be 
endured only in extremity, and we find such 
people boarding permanently in hotels and in 
apartments rathur than to be troubled with 
housekeeping which, when properly understood 
Is both pleasanter and cheaper. 



Such a home as Mr. Taylor paints, where the 
farm is neat and well stocked and where the 
daughter is healthy and is happy in helping 
her mother to make butter and in other house- 
hold duties, is rare, and I should say that a 
family where the mother and dawjlUer took a 
pride in their domestic duties and performed 
them well, was one in a hundred. I would to 
God there were more of them. Mr. Taylor ac- 
knowledges that the relations between the 
sexes are not quite what they should be, but he 
says that "when the mothers, maidens and 
women generally stand before the world as 
man's equal, then will the shade of disagreea- 
bleness pass away. " 

There is a tendency of the age, and probably 
irresistible, that will make men and women 
equal, as far as laws are able to make them so; 
but I cannot see what reason there is to think 
that we will be happier for it. On the contrary, 
our experience of the movement, so far, is to 
the contrary. During the 50 years that our 
homes have been losing ground, our boys and 
girls failing in constitution both moral and 
physical; woman has been steadily nearing the 
goal of legal equality with man, and to-day we 
see the young girls studying the same courses as 
the young men and opening to themselves the 
same vocations. A movement which has grown 
side by side with such weeds of civilization as di- 
vorce, desertion, insanity, idiocy, diminished con- 
stitution, and has witnessed the decay of the old- 
home feeling and the old-time large families of 
our ancestors, is a movement which, while it 
may and probably has no connection with these 
evils, is one from which it seems unreasonable 
to expect much benefit. We must look, I think, 
for some other cure. 

Education is the keystone of a man or wo- 
man's honesty, happiness and' success in life. 
The foundations of a useful life are good charac- 
ter, industry and intelligence, with good health. 
Our elaborate and expensive system gives us 
none of these. According to the present mode, 
our yoang people's education lasts from 5 to 20 
years. During that time they are immured in 
buildings more or less over-crowded and gener- 
ally ill ventilated; and then they must also 
study at home to keep up with their classes, 
necessitating still more indoor life. So the 
child grows up, and its physique is formed to a 
sedentary life in orowded class rooms, with 
heavy nerTe pressure. As a result, we have in- 
creased nervous tension, decreased health to 
support it, and, as a general outcome, a marked 
tendency on the part of Americans toward sed- 
entary pursuits and city life, no matter how 
poorly paid. As an illustration of this, Gen. 
Armstrong, of the Hampton college, in Vir- 
ginia, says that he could not find a single Amer- 
ican born blacksmith in the State of Connecticut, 
although the wages of the trade were at the 
time exceptionally high. Another illustration oc- 
curred in Baltimore. The commercial house 
where I was employed advertised for a boy, sal- 
ary, $250 per annum, and received 369 replies, 
some of them from persons of evident culture. 
One is all the time hearing of the arrest of some 
vagrant or criminal, who knows Latin and 
Greek, or Hebrew, and other University sub- 
jects; but one rarely hears of a carpenter, or 
bricklayer, or a shoemaker as being arrested. 
The criminals are almost all without a trade. 
Indirectly, our children at school learn to avoid 
manual labor. Directly, they learn an extra- 
ordinary variety of things by rote out of a great 
number of books, changed from time to time, 
according to the lobbying skill of various pub- 
lishing houses. The value of rote teaching was 
cleverly shown in a recent magazine article. 
Suppose you take a boy and teach him Latin for 
live years, out of a book, as per present school 
system. Let him learn skating during his 
spare time, for, say six months, practically. 
The Latin, as much as he learns of it, comes to 
him through much tribulation and hard indoor 
work. The skating, however, after a tumble or 
two, will come easy and be his pleasure. Ten 
years afterward, the boy that was, will skate 
nearly as well as ever. But his Latin — where 
will that be ? A few words and sentences, at 
best, but the body of it gone completely. Re- 
verse the process and suppose the boy to be liv- 
ing in a family, where he could only ob- 
tain his wants by speaking Latin. In five years 
he would speak and understand the language 
perfectly, and never to forget it. The skating, on 
the other hand, he will be taught by school 
methods, with explanations of the theory of bal- 
ancing and progression, with diagrams of the 
"Dutch Roll, "Pigeon Wing," etc. The result 
is, he will know nothing about skating. As a 
summary of what is accomplished by our pres- 
ent school system, we may say that the chil- 
dren who are its victims come out young men 
or women with diminished vitality and impaired 
constitutions. This is especially true of the 
girls who follow severe courses of study in the 
critical years after 12 and 14. 

No one can be a useful and happy citizen 
with poor health as a foundation for life. They 
come out with a disinclination to manual and 
farm labor, created by too much in-door 
life and too much mental strain. They come 
out with a rote education and know practically 
nothing of the subjects which they have studied. 
I remember a friend of mine whom I met 12 
years after our school life, and he had even for' 
gotten some of the letters of the Greek alpha 
bet, a thing hammered into him for at least 10 
years, but he had not forgotten how to play 
ball. The first had been learned by rote and 
the second practically. When these young peo. 
pie come out of our schools to go into the bat 
tie of life they come out innocent of any knowl 
edge which will either make them happy, use 



ful, or even enable them to earn their daily 
bread. The young man knows nothing of the 
principles of the government of which he is to 
be an elector. He knows nothing of the prin- 
ciples of a successful life. His real education 
has all to be commenced; most of his habits, 
tastes and ideas of life must be unlearned and he 
recommences at the 'ABC when he has 
finished (?) his education. 

So, too, the young woman comes out of her 
seminary with no idea of practical life, no 
knowledge of the laws of health, no just idea of 
the responsibilities that await her. The pains, 
penalties and duties of womanhood are in a book 
still to be opened. When she is married the 
curtain rises on real life. She finds that it iB 
not the romance she has dreamed. She, too, 
must recommence her education and under the 
most adverse circumstances. Delicate from the 
hot bed of an artificial schooling, unpractical in 
her ideas, ignorant of the care of children or 
domestic economy or any other thing of use, 
she is, alas! too apt to become unhappy and 
worn down by work which is necessary, but be- 
yond her poor strength, and harder from her 
lack of interest in it, and still harder because 
she knows not how to do it right So the 
"disagreeable woman" of your paragrapher be- 
comes possible. We must educate our children, 
but not blindly. Honesty, health, intelligence 
and industry are necessary to a successful life. 
Our schools give us none of them. They need 
a thorough re-modelling. I think if Mr. Taylor 
would read Mr. Younger's letter in one of your 
recent numbers he would Bee at least one way 
to a foundation of a happy home, and if he 
would look to a reform in our schools to make 
us better he would be nearer the truth than in 
his present position. 

Kinneyloa, San Gabriel, Cal. 



Our Contributors' Reception. 

Editors Press: — With many thanks I accept 
Mrs. Nichol's invitation to the autobiographi- 
cal reception; and first of all let me present my 
congratulations and hearty good wishes to our 
hosts who will, I am sure, have the "Home Cir- 
cle" all swept and garnished for "the party." 
Hoping it will be crowded I will be satisfied 
with just a corner. 

I was born and raised on a farm in Irasburg, 
Orleans'county, Vt., and my life dates from 
June, 1831. It is a very fine month to begin 
with, and held always a rose or a snow storm 
for my childish birthdays. Two birthdays I re- 
member being caught at school in a snow-storm 
and having to clip it home barefoot. 

And now what a quantity of interesting 
things might be written. Wonder if Mrs. Nichols 
reflected what a generally dangerous thing it is 
to ask people to talk about themselves? 

My girlhood in Vermont ended at Newbury 
Seminary, from whence I came in the spring of 
1853 to California, crossing the isthmus by rail, 
boat and mule, with a fair share of adventures. 
Lived about a year in San Francisco, 15 years 
at Knight's Ferry, 1 1 years in Santa Cruz, ex- 
cept the last two, in which I have hardly half 
lived. 

When absent from the "Home Circle" it is 
from lack of strength to get there, for writing 
with crippled hands is slow and painful work. 
The thoughts soon become involved and seem 
as crooked and unworthy as the miserable fin- 
gers. Then I try to be a philosopher and say, 
"There is nothing new under the sun." "All iB 
vanity and vexation of spirit." But I still enjoy 
the good things brought by others to the 
"Circle," and I like to know their names. So 
to-day I will follow Mrs. Nichols' advice given 
long ago, and drop the now, de plume of "Mary 
Mountain," which has long outlived the foolish 
hopes and aspirations that gave it birth. After 
a comradeship of eight or nine years, I feel like 
an old veteran among you, and will give the 
celebrated toast of Tiny Tim— "God bless us, 
every one." M. J. Locke. 

Santa Cruz, Dec. 21. 

Another Visitor. 

Editors Press:— If yon are receiving New 
Year's calls from your lady contributors, each 
coming in as a girl again, right from the old 
home, as good Mrs. Nichols suggests, please let 
me wish all A Happy New Year.— Laura 
Jameson Dakin, Soquel, Cal. (Formerly of 
Irasburg, Vt.) 

Mdsic. — From Ditson & Co. we have received 
a few choice specimens of their sheet music 
issues for the month. "The Old Love and the 
New" (40 cts. ), by Frank Musgrave, has a fine 
picture title, and is a good song, as is the sacred 
song by L. O. Emerson, "The Land of Light 
Afar" (30 cts.), and "Waiting" (35 cts.), a first- 
class production by Blumenthal, with words by 
Helen Burnside. With these comes also a tine 
new French quadrille, "Le Polo" (60 cts. ), by 
Charles d' Albert; a bright galop by J. J. Pound, 
called "Illusions," whose liveliness is no illu- 
sion; and a march in honor of the President- 
elect, called "Gen. Garfield's March to the 
White House" (40 cts.), by C. Hanschild. 
There comes with the music also an interesting 
number of Ditson & Co. 'a weekly Musical 
Record. 

Mr. Longfellow can take a worthless sheet 
of paper and by writing a poem on it make 
it worth $50. That's genius. Mr. Vander- 
bilt can write fewer words on a similar sheet 
and make it worth $50,000,000. That's capi- 
tal. 



The Old Year and the New. 

The good Old Year hath run his race. 

And the latest hour draws near; 
The cold dew shines on his hoary face, 
And he hobbles along with a listless pace, 
To his lonely and snow-covered resting-place 

In the northern hemisphere. 

See how his stiff Joints faint and shrink 

As the cold breeze whistles by; 
He hath a bitter cup to drink 
As he watches the sand in his hour-glass sink, 
Standing alone on the icy brink 

Of the gulf of eternity. 

His scanty robe is wrapped more tight 

As the dim sun dwindles down; 
And no stars arise to cheer the night 
Of him whose temple they once made bright. 
When crimson roses and lilies white 

Half hid his golden crown. 

He reels — he slips— no power at hand 

To check him from tumbling o'er; 
The hour-glass clicks with its latest sand, 
And each movement falls like the stroke of a brand 
On one already too weak to stand — 

He falls— he is seen no more. 

And, lo! in the east a star ascends, 

And a burst of music comes — 
A young lord, followed by troops of friends, 
Down to the broad equator wends, 
While the star that travels above him bends 

O'er a sea of floating plumes. 



"Doth Become a Man "—A New Year's 
Homily. 

(Written for Rural Prbbs by Edward Berwick.] 

*' I dare do all that doth become a man ; 
Who dares do more is none." 

Though urging no claim to be regarded as a 
student of Shakespeare, I have a keen apprecia- 
tion for the wisdom so pithily embodied in his 
pregnant lines. I ask, however, a little space 
in "Our Home Circle" to disenss that motto 
from his plays with which I head my letter. 

It is a proud boast even for a Shakespearian 
hero to make; a happy boast, moreover. But 
how many a career is wrecked at the very out- 
set from an entirely false estimate of what 
"doth become a man." How many vicious 
habits do most boys acquire, not from any real 
enjoyment derived therefrom, bnt from a mis- 
taken ideal of manhood to be attained by indul- 
gence therein. Real manhood, to be arrived at 
and proved by self-restraint from vice, they af- 
fect to ignore as effeminate and juvenile; as 
something "too thin" to be worthy of their 
serious consideration. So after a little qual- 
mishness, both of stomach and conscience, the 
big high life cigar is mounted, the round- 
mouthed oath adopted, "commercial morality" 
practiced, vile company chosen, and the flesh 
and the devil pandered to in general that the 
boy may pass muster, forsooth, as a man. 
Heaven help those of us parents who are re- 
sponsible by our actions for such an ideal of 
manhood in the minds of our children! Sowers 
of wind they must reap the whirlwind; a horri- 
ble blackness of darkuess; disobedience, hate 
and contempt — all for greed, nothing for love. 
Alas, that successful greed is the loathsome 
devil at whose shrine we worship! So that a 
man has full coffers we do him obeisance, 
though blackness of heart and meanness of soul 
are there! 

"With all thy getting, get money," is the 
parodied proverb that present-day example 
preaches. And so our boys are taught that the 
one virtue, the one possible road to success in 
life, is smartness, which, being defined, means 
lying with glibbest tongue and brazenest brow; 
and stealing so circumspectly that the law's 
grip cannot clutch, or clutching cannot hold. 

Success, truly, is the ' 'measure of right. " In 
my days of boyish enthusiasm I felt indignant 
and scornful, and kicked against the idea that 
right was to be measured in any such bushel. 
I had not then realized with Poe that "this is a 
world of words." I had not then realized the 
all-success of God; that God is God and good by 
virtue of success. He wills and who shall let 
it? He commands and it stands fast. I now 
see clearly that success is the measure of right; 
but the success must be permanent success. A 
startling achievement in devilry of any kind is 
not success, but most miserable defeat and utter 
failure. Whole world gained, soul lost, 'ex- 
hibits a poor balance in the millionaire's favor. 
"Soul lost" means manhood gone, love gone, 
happiness gone. Smartness and devilry then 
do not become a man. 

Suppose we turn once more to our Shakes- 
peare (I always find a little spare time to pass 
pleasantly in re-reading some scraps of favorite 
plays) and get his idea of what "doth become a 
man." At the siege of Troy one of the Greek 
heroes is sulking in his tent, fancying his 
achievements overlooked and insufficiently 
honored. Ulysses visits him and rates him 
soundly. Says he: "Perseverance, dear my 
lord, keeps honor bright." Perseverance in 
what, do you ask? Perseverance in duty to be 
sure! Perseverance in the duty next to you; 
diligence in business; fervor in spirit; warmth 
of heart, that means love to wife, to child, to 
neighbor, to mankind. That's where your 
happiness lies. When you get that far, there's 
more to follow. 

Abou Ben Adhem, in the story, had got so 
far, when an angel appeared to him 
• * * Writing in a book of gold. 

Exceeding peace had made ben Adhem bold, 

And to the presence in the room he said, 
"What writsgt theti?" Th« vision raised its haad. 



January I, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL F1ESS. 



7 



And with a look made all of sweet accord, 
Answered: "The names of those who love the Lord." 
"And is mine one?" said Abou. "Nay, not so," 
Replied the angel. Abou spoke more low, 
But cheerly still; and said: "I pray thee then, 
Write me as one that loves his fellowmen.' 

The angel wrote and vanished. The next night 
ft came again with a great wakening light, 
And showed the names whom love of God had blessed. 
And lo! Ben Adhem's name led all the rest. 
Such success as Abou's becomes a man, be- 
cause it's a success on the side of the "Eternal 
Verities," as Carlyle calls them. The reckless 
plunge of youth into the mud-bath of dissipa- 
tion and vice may meet with the applause of 
fools; but true manhood is entered by a de- 
termination to be cleansed from the muddy pol- 
lution. 

"We become men," says Carlyle, "not after 
we have been dissipated, and disappointed in 
the chase of false pleasure, but after we have 
ascertained, in any way, what impassable bar- 
riers hem us in through this life. * * * * 
Manhood begins joyfully and hopefully only 
when we have reconciled ourselves to necessity; 
and thus, in reality, triumphed over it, and felt 
that in necessity we are free." 

In other words, we must "stoop to conquer;" 
must regulate our lives, as we needs must regu- 
late our farms, in obedience to nature's laws, 
and by such obedience ensure our participation 
in nature's triumphs. By submission only can 
we be conquerors. It "becomes a man," then, 
to submit. "Our wills are ours, we know not 
how. Our wills are ours to make them Thine." 
By recognizing that "one will alone is excel- 
lent" (an axiom patent to all who think), and 
enlisting ourselves on the side of that one ex- 
cellent will, we become what Scripture calls 
"heirs of God" — men worthy of the name. 
May the New Year resolve of each "Home 
Circle" reader be so to enlist. 

Mere material prosperity ennobles not the 
race, " 'tis but power within our tether," no 
new spirit power comprising. And on earth we 
are not greater men, nor bolder men in death; 
for we throw out acclamations of self-thanking, 
self-admiring, with — at every mile run faster — 
"Oh, the wondrous, wondrous race!" Little 
thinking if we work our souls more nobly than 
our iron; or if angela will commend us at the 
goal of pilgrimage. 

Carmel, Dec. 22, 1880. 



Chatf. 

A painted woman is the picture of health. 
To step on a man's corn goes against his 
grain. 

An irritated subscriber says his telephone is 
like a tramp— it won't work. 

The warmest man this winter will be tho one 
who is most completely coaled. 

A man who is continually sticking his nose 
into other people's business can be said to pos- 
sess a roamin' nose. 

Fashion says, "gathered waists are still very 
much in favor with young ladies." They are 
with the gentlemen also. 

"Why should we celebrate Washington's 
birthday more than mine?" asked a teacher. 
"Because he never told a lie I" shouted a little 
boy. 

"It is true," said an old philosopher, "that 
two heads are usually better than one, but it 
never could be thus with the two heads on the 
same pin." 

An old lady who has several unmarried 
daughters feeds them on fish diet, because it is 
rich in phosphorus, and phosphorus is the es- 
sential thing in making matches. 

Wishing to pay his friend a compliment, a 
gentleman remarked, "I hear you have a very 
industrious wife." "Yes," replied the friend, 
with a melancholy smile, "she is never idle, 
she always finds something for me to do." 

A five-year-old son of a family the other 
day stood watching his baby brother, who was 
making a great noise over having his face 
washe^J. The little fellow at length lost his 
patience, and stamping his foot, sa'd: "You 
think you have lots of trouble, but you don't 
know anything about it. Wait till you're big 
enough to get a lickin' and then you'll see — 
won't he, mamma?" 



Home Dressmaking. — 0. W. D. writes to the 
Rural New Yorker as follows: Twelve 
yards of black satin, or seven yards of the 
plain satin, and five yards of brocaded satin, at 
a cost of $1.40 a yard, will make a lovely suit, 
rich, stylish, and at a cost of $18.50. Make 
the basque round and finish to wear either over 
or under the skirt, make it plain and laced be- 
hind. The sleeves tight-fitting and trimmed 
to the elbow with three bauds of brocaded 
silk, graduated, the highest band one-third the 
width of the one at the wrist, finished at the 
neck with a shirred ruffle of the brocade. Make 
a short walking skirt of the plain satin trimmed 
with a flounce 12 inches in depth of the brocade 
cut bias and shirred — very scant, for it sets out too 
much if made full. The back of the skirt is two 
breadths of satin shirred at the top six inches 
in depth very closely. A wide belt lined with 
very stiff material, and two yards of the broca- 
ded silk tacked to the dress as a sash and tied 
loosely, either on the left side or at the back 
finishes the dress. It can be worn without the 
sash. The dress is lined throughout with fine, 
corset jean — without dressing or starch in it. 
A plain skirt to look well, must set well, and 
for years I "labored" over skirts pulling back, 
so they would not "bulge" before, or "flop" 
behind, as a tantalized dressmaker said. I 
finally got a perfect fit and am happy. 



Y©^Q pOLks' CoLlJpiK. 



Our Puzzle Box. 

Cross-Word Enigma. 

My first is in poetry, also in prose; 
My second is in tulip, but not in rose; 
My third is in heal, but not in cure; 
My fourth is in certain, but not in sure; 
My fifth is in knowledge, but not in books; 
My sixth is in actions, but not in looks; 
My seventh is in gentile, but not in Jew; 
My eighth is in false, but not in true; 
My ninth is in humble, but not in low; 
My tenth is in nimrod, but not in bow; 
My whole was a brave patriot, and kind; 
Whether statesman or general, please find. 

CBPIIA. 

Geographical Puzzle. 

One morning in (capo on the southern poiut of New 
Jersey) I went to my sister (cape on the coast of Massa- 
chusetts), who lived in the country. I boarded the cars at 
Jonesville. Soon I cast my eye on a nicely dressed young 
(island in the Irish sea) sitting in front of me. We dropped 
into conversation; he said he was just returning from a 
visit to his uncle (mountain in Massachusetts). I arrived 
at my sisters about dinner time. We had for dinner 
roaBt (country in Europe), bread and butter, baked (river 
in Idaho territory), with plenty of (lake in Utah), and (isl- 
ands west of North America), and lota of (river in Mon- 
tana territory) to drink. My sister then proposed going 
to a festival to be held that afternoon and evening. I 
consented. She gave all the children a (city in England) 
and dressed them; then handed me a bottle of (city in the 
German Empire). I could not get the (city in Ireland) 
out, so she handed me a cork-screw with which I removed 
it very easily. We started, but had not gone far when I 
saw a very large (river in Wisconsin) lying near the road, 
but approaching it, I saw that it was (river in Maine). 
When I got to the place where the festival was to be held, 
I ascertained that a (cape on the Western Coast of Africa) 
had killed it with a (river in Montana territory). We en- 
joyed the festival. I stopped at my sister's two days and 
then went home. 

Hidden Animals. 

1. Why should I be arrested. 

2. You are commanded to do good to all men. 

3. That plant I germinated In a hot-house. 

4. Shall I only travel to Ohio? 

5. You came late, my friend. 

0. I placed in a pan the richest of the fruit. 

7. Did you see the Modoc at Dover yesterday 1 

8. 1 made errands to the store often. 

Old Joe. 

Easy Problem. 
The sum of five hundred dollars, let at five per cent, 
interest, has amounted to nine hundred dollars. How 
long has it been at interest? 

Dick, N. S. 

Answers to Last Puzzles. 

Numerical Enioma. — American citizen. 
Constellation — 1 Mars. 2. Jupiter (Jew-pea-tur). 
3. Venus (v-n-us). 4. Orion (O-rye-on). 6. Her-s-(c)-hell. 
0. Andromeda (and-row-meed-ah), 7. Pleiades (plea- 
aid-ease). 8. Sat-urn. 
Problem.— Four and one-third miles, nearly. 
Letter Arithmetic — Wrong-timed. 
Poetical Selection.— 

" When the warm sun, that brings 

Seed time and harvest, has returned again, 
Tis stveet to visit the still wood, where springs, 
The first flower of the plain." 



Beginning Again. 

A Happy New Year to you all, young friends! 
May the very gladdest of all glad times make 
your lives pleasant, wherever you arel What 
could a kind old uncle wish for you more? 
Will not the gladdest time for each be full of 
what each most wants ? the good things of many 
kinds which have most charm for little folks, 
and which make them happiest. 

Have you ever thought of one very useful 
lesson which the New Year always brings? 
It can be summed up in two words — Beginning 
Again! It is a lesson young people especially 
should learn. They have more occasion than 
older persons to begin again. They are learn- 
ing to do many things, and they may not al- 
ways do them well. At every failure, partial 
or complete, they must begin over. The sec- 
ond effort may succeed, yet even that may 
count as nothing, But repeated trying will 
bring its reward. 

The seasons begin again, only to go through 
the same round of days they have gone through 
for ages. Are they not very patient? Do yeu 
suppose they ever get weary, and dislike to be- 
gin again? Our lives are like them— they must 
start anew often, and repeat experiences that 
have become an old, old story. It is the same 
work, maybe, day after day, year after year. 
Are our lives so patient? Do we not often get 
weary, and feel that we would gladly take up 
some other labor? 

Yes, to the last question. We need to learn 
patience of the years. We need to learn so 
much patience that though we spend years, even, 
doing the same thing over and over again, we 
may try with each repetition to do it better and 
more perfectly. In this way the lesson of be- 
ginning again will do us very great good. Per- 
fection is what every boy and girl, aud man and 
woman should long for and strive for. Very 
likely it will never be attained here on earth, 
in any thing, but we shall come nearer it for 
striving after it. 



A notion seller was offering a Yankee clock, 
finely varnished and colored and with a look- 
ing glass in front, to a certain lady, not re- 
markable for personal beauty. "Why, it is 
beautiful," responded the vender. "Beautiful, 
indeed 1 a look at it almost frightens me," said 
the lady. "Then, marm," said Jonathan, "I 
guess you'd better take one that ain't got no 
looking glass. 

This is the season of the year when venerable 
hens enter their second childhood and are broiled 
for spring chickens, 



Colds. 

A cold in the head can usually be cured in a 
few hours if, as soon as discovered, the person 
will sniff the fumes of ammonia or spirits of 
camphor every few minutes as strong as they 
can be borne. When a severe cold attacks the 
throat and lungs, there is no safety in neglect- 
ing it for an hour, for there is more or less in. 
flammation of the lungs, which interferes with 
their action, rendering them liable at any mo- 
ment to take on serious and, possibly uncontrol- 
able disease. Go home and remain there. In 
the evening take a warm foot bath, and at bed 
time take three or four liver pills. These will 
stimulate the liver to healthy action, and 
promptly relieve the lung trouble; but it rend- 
ers the system sensitive to renewed attacks, and, 
therefore, the greatest care should be observed 
for several days not to take fresh colds. Ordi- 
narily, no other treatment is necessary; but, 
should the cough continue, have your druggist 
make the following mixture, and take one or 
two teaspoonfuls every hour till cured: Glycer- 
ine, 4 ounces; whisky, 4 ounces; morphine, 1 grain 

Sore throat can be promptly relieved by ap- 
plying a mustard plaster, or "mustard leaves," 
on the front of the neck, over the sore spot. In 
addition the throat and mouth may be frequently 
gargled with the following mixture: 

A teaspoonful of salt, a pinch of red pepper 
and a tablespoonful of vinegar. If found too 
strong add a little water. A portion of the gargle 
may be swallowed, or sipped, little at a time. 

Sweating has been quite generally recom- 
mended in the cure of colds. I think, however, 
that the risk of taking cold afterward will more 
than counterbalance the good that may be ex- 
pected, and, except in cases of unusual severity, 
I would not recommend it. 

The "Turkish bath" has been highly recom- 
mended as a cure for colds. With proper care 
afterward, there is no better or more effectual 
plan of cutting short a severe cold. It is not, 
however, necessary to go to a regular establish- 
ment to take such a bath. Any small comfort- 
able room, where a good fire can be quickly 
made, will answer the purpose. In the early 
evening make a good fire in the stove and close 
the doors and windows, leaving only small 
openings for ventilation. Then let the patient 
put on his night clothes and lie down on a bed 
or sofa, or sit in an easy chair for an hour or 
more, with the temperature of the room from 
90° to 100° F. Afterward the room should be 
gradually cooled to about 70°, and the patient 
should go to bed and remain there till morning. 
— Hall's Journal of Health. 



Night Air. 

An extraordinary fallacy is the dread of night 
air. What air can we breathe at night but 
night air? The choice is between pure night 
air from without and foul air from within. Most 
people prefer the latter — an unaccountable 
choice. What will they say if it is proved to 
be true that fully one-half of all the diseases we 
suffer from are occasioned by people sleeping 
with their windows shut ? An opened window 
mo3t nights in the year, can never hurt any one. 
This is not to say that light is not necessary for 
recovery. In great cities night air is often the 
best and purest air to be had in 24 hours. I 
could better understand shutting the windows 
in town during the day than the night, for 
the sake of the sick. The absence of smoke, 
the quiet, all tend to make night the best time 
for airing the patient. 

One of our highest medical authorities on con- 
sumption and climate has told me that the air 
in London is never so good as after 10 o'clock 
at night. Always air your room then from the 
outside air if possible. Windows are made to 
onen, doors aro made to shut; a truth which 
seems extremely difficult of apprehension. 
Every room must be aired from without, every 
passage from within. But the fewer passages 
there are in a hospital the better. — Florence 
Nightingale. 



Antidote to Poison. — If a person swallows 
any poison whatever, or has fallen into convul- 
sions from having overloaded the stomach, an 
instantaneous remedy, most efficient and ap- 
plicable in a large number of cases, is a heaping 
teaspoonful of common salt and as much ground 
mustard, stirred rapidly in a teacupful of water, 
warm or cold, and swallowed instantly. It is 
scarcely down before it begins to come up, bring- 
ing with it the remaining contents of the stom- 
ach; and lest there be any remnant of the poison, 
however small, let the white of an egg or a tea- 
spoonful of strong coffee be swallowed as soon 
as the stomach is quiet, because these very com- 
mon articles nullify a large number of poisons. 



Simple Surgery. — A simple and usually suc- 
cessful mode of extracting a needle or any piece 
of steel or iron that has broken off in the flesh 
is by applying a common pocket magnet. Iron 
filings have a way of imbedding themselves in 
the eye which defies almost every ordinary 
means for their extraction. For their removal 
a small, blunt-pointed bar of steel, well mag- 
uetiaed, will be found effectual, 



Danger fkom Disused Houses.— F-iisea 
Jhat have been empty may become fever 
ers when they come to be reoccupied. An 
lish sanitary officer alleges that he has obs< 
typhoid, diphtheria, or other zymotic affections 
to arise under these circumstances. The cause 
is supposed to be in the disuse of cisterns, 
pipes and drains, the processes of putrefaction 
going on in the impure air in them, the unob- 
structed access of this air to the house, while 
the closure of windows and doors effectually 
shuts out fresh air. Persons moving from the 
city to their country homes for the summer 
should see that the drains and pipes are in per- 
fect order, that the cellars and cisterns are 
cleared of rubbish, and the whole house thor- 
oughly aired before occupying. Carbolic acid 
used freely in the cellar is a good and cheap 
disinfectant. 



Game Pie. — Dress and wash the birds, cut- 
ting each quail in half, and larger birds into 
four pieces. Cut off bits of inferior portions, 
neck, etc. , and boil with the giblets until ten- 
der. Make a good paste, and line a large pud- 
ding dish. Put a thin layer of cold boiled mut- 
ton, beef, corned ham, or anything you may 
have, in the bottom of the dish, upon this 
pieces of the birds, peppered and buttered. 
Make a dressing of bread-crumbs, the chopped 
giblets, minced parsley, thyme and a small 
onion, seasoned with pepper and salt and the 
juice of a lemon. Strew part of this over the 
birds, then more birds and crumbs, until all are 
in. Strain the liquid the giblets were boiled in 
and pour over, cover with a good thick crust, 
and bake three hours, if a large pie. Cover 
with paper to prevent becoming too brown. 

To Prepare Hulled Corn.— Take about 
three quarts of wood ashes, put into a large 
kettle, and pour over six quarts of cold water. 
Let come to the boiling point, and boil five 
minutes, skimming several times. Take from 
the fire and pour in a little cold water to help 
settle it. Put three quarts of shelled corn into 
another kettle, and pour over the strained lye. 
Now let boil half an hour, then skim out the 
corn and rinse well with several waters, rub- 
bing with the hands until the black chits come 
off. Put back into the kettle with clear water 
and boil until soft. Salt and eat with milk, or 
butter, pepper and salt. 

Caramel for Coloring Soups, etc. — Put 
into a tin or porcelain saucepan half a pound of 
white sugar and a tablespoonful of water. Stir 
over a slow fire until of a clear, dark-brown 
color. Great care must be taken not to let it 
burn. Add a teacupful of water and a tea- 
spoonful of salt. Boil three or four minutes, 
cool, strain, and put away in close-corked bot- 
tles. This innocent coloring substance greatly 
improves the appearance of soups or gravies, 
giving to them a rich amber color. 

Noodles for Soup. — Two eggs, slightly 
beaten, a tablespoonful of water, half a 
teaspoonful of salt and flour, to make a 
stiff dough. Work it well 10 minutes, 
adding flour as necessary. When pliable, cut 
off a small part, roll very thin, dust over flour, 
begin at one side and roll into a tight roll. With 
a sharp knife, cut into thin slices. Make two 
horns before using them, that they may dry. 
Add to the soup 20 minutes before serving. 



Onion Toast. — Boil some small onions, 
changing the water twice, and salting it the 
last time. When done, take the onions up 
with a skimmer. Thicken the water, which 
should be boiled away to about a pint, with a 
very little corn starch. Add butter, pepper 
and salt to taste. Have toasted some thin 
slices of bread, lay them on a dish, put the on- 
ions on the slices and pour the gravy over. 

Mrs. Courtney's Breakfast Rolls. — For 
these a teaspoonful each of salt and baking 
powder was mixed through a pound of flour, 
and through this was rubbed two ounces of 
butter, and the whole mixed with milk to a 
stiff dough. The rolls were then kneaded sep- 
arately, with as little handling as possible, and 
laid in a buttered pan and baked for fifteen 
minutes. This quantity makes a half dozen 
good sized rolls. 

Breakfast Muffins. — Two eggs, well 
beaten, with one cup of sugar and a lump of 
butter the size of an egg; to this, add one pint 
of sweet milk, with two teaspoonfuls of yeast 
powder, worked thoroughly through one quart 
of flour; bake in muffin rings on the top of a 
range, or in gem pans in a quick oven. 

Rice Bread. — To one quart of boiled rice al- 
low one pint of sifted flour, two table spoon- 
fuls of butter, four eggs, teaspoonful of salt and 
sufficient sweet milk to make a very thin bat- 
ter. Bake in a greased pan, either tin or earth- 
ernware. Send to table hot and eat with but- 
ter. 



Sponge Cake. — One cup of sugar, one cup of 
flour, two eggs, one-half cup thick cream, one- 
half teaspoonful soda. If you take sweet cream, 
one teaspoonful cream tartar. Flavor with 
lemon. Soft Ginger Cake : — One cup of mo- 
lasses, one of sour cream, two eggs, one tea- 
spoonful of soda, one of ginger. Mix rather 
thin, 



8 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



[January I, 1881. 




DEWEY <b CO., Publishers. 
A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. 

Office, SOU Sansome St., N. E. Corner Pine. St. 



AsiTOAti Sousorhtioss, $4; »lx months, $2; three 
months, $1.26. When paid fully one year In advance, 
one dollar will be deducted. No mw names will be 
taken without cash in advance. Remittances by regis- 
tered letters or P. 0. orders at our risk. 
Advertising Ratss. 1 week. 1 month. 3 mos. IS mos. 

Per line 25 .80 *2.00 $ 5.00 

Half inch (1 square).. »1. 00 *5.00 7.50 24.00 

One inch 2.00 5.00 14.00 40.00 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Social or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
in extraordinary type or la particular parts of the paper 
at special ra'es. Four insertions are rated in a month. 

The Scientific Press Patent Agency. 
DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 

A. T. DBWRT. W. R. *WSR. *. H. STROHO 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January i, 1881. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

GENERAL. EDITORIALS. — Irrigation and the 
State; Happy New Year 1. The Week; What is "Oleo- 
margarinc'r" 8. Appliances for Ensilage, 9- Protec- 
tion Against False Butter, 9-12. 

ILLUSTRATIONS — Happy New Year, 1. Machine 
for Dessicating Fodders for Ensilage; Ensilage Corn 
PKnter of N. Y. Plow Co. , 9. 

CORRESPONDENCE. —Local Markets for Farm 
Produce; Yolo County Notes, 2. 

THE APIARY.— Beekeeping; in Houses of Bee Pavil- 
ions; A Fresno County Apiary, 2. 

THE FIELD — Squirrel Extermination. 2. 

HORTICULTURE.— When and How to Plant Trees, 
2. Blackberry Culture; Hints on Strawberry Culture; 
Stock for the Lemon; Wooly Aphis, 3. 

THE VINEYARD.— dialogue of European Vines, 
with Synonyms and Brief Descriptions, 3-10. 

PATRONS OP HUSBANDRY.— A Orange Husk- 
ing and a Large Corn Yield; Election of Officers; Resolu- 
tions of Respect, 4. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties of California, 4. 

HOME CIRCLE — The Two Years (Poetry); Educa- 
tion and Disagreeable Women; Our Contributors' Recep- 
tion; Music; The Old Y'ear and the New (Poetry); "Doth 
Become a Man"— A Now Year's Homily, 6. Chaff; 
Home Dressmaking, 7 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN— Our Puzzle Box; 
Beginning Again, 7. 

GOOD HEALTH.— Colds ; Night Air ; Antidote to 
Poison ; Simple Surgery ; . Danger from Disused 
Houses, 7- 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Game Pie; To Prepare 
Hulled Corn; Caramel for Coloring Soups, etc.; Noodles 
for Soup; Onion Toast; Mrs. Courtney's Breakfast Rolls; 
Breakfast Muffins; Rice Bread; Sponge Cako, 7 

ENTOMOLOGICAL. — The Red Scale of Citrus 
Trees, 8. 

QUERIES AND REPLIES — Oleomargarine and 

the Law; A Case of Inverted Vegetation, 8. 
NEWS IN BRIEF, on page 5 and other pages. 
MISCELLANEOUS.— Irrigation Water| Rights, 6. 

Business Announcements. 

Incubators and Egg Food— G. G. Wickson, S. F. 

Saw Machines— U. S. Manufacturing Co., Chicago, 111. 

Floral Guide— James Vick, Rochester, N. \. 

Cuttings — Chas. E. Sbillaber, Cordelia, Cat. 

Seeds -Thomas A Cox. S. F. 

Japanese Persimmon Trees— Thos. A. Cox, 8. F. 

Grape Cuttings— T. C. Merrithew, Santa Clara, Cal. 

Commission Merchants— Hixon Justi & Co., S. F. 

8wine— T. 0. Starr, San Bernardino, Cal. 

Trees — Williamson & Co., Sacramento, Cal. 

Catarrh Cure— H. Loomis, S. F. 

Grape Cuttings— Chas. A. Wetmore, S. F. 

Catalogue of Plants— John Saul, Washington, D. C. 



The Week. 

The holidays, we hope, have been bright 
within doors, for they have certainly been 
forlorn without. The continual dripping, 
varied only by occasional torrents, has held the 
skies nearly the whole of December; and if the 
hours of sunshine around the bay had been 
counted, they would have approached the in- 
significance of the sunrays upon the royal ob- 
servatory in London. But there is certainly 
light beyond all this darkness, unless the. rain- 
fall should make the earth so soft that the com- 
ing planetary conjunction will slide all the soil 
off into the oceans. Bat this disaster has not 
been hinted at, even by the most lugubrious 
planetary prophets, so we dismiss the fear. 

The prevailing topic is the coming of the New 
Year and it is certain that the State was never 
in better heart and courage for it. Confidence 
in future prosperity is general. We hear from 
the East continued waitings from the croakers 
who have left us to try their arts on Eastern 
victims. They say the State is being ruined 
and they transfer their immense wealth to other 
fields, where it will be better treated. We 
do not miss their money; we do not miss the 
men. Their reports belie the State, for though 
their day of subtle arts is over, the day of re- 
quited industry and reward for legitimate en- 
terprise is dawning bright. It will be a good 
New Year. 

We have rather an oily sheet this week. The 
outrage upon our dairymen must be met and we 
trust it will soon be disposed of — then we can 
pass to other themes, 



What is "Oleomargarine?" 

We give considerable space this week to the 
subject of false butter, which is now being freely 
sold in this city. It is one of the most import- 
ant themes of the day. It is a present menace 
to our dairy interest, and there must be an 
arising of dairy producers and prompt measures 
for their protection, or we shall find one of our 
most honorable industries flung to the dogs. 
Therefore we give the subject space according 
to its importance, feeling that it is oar duty to 
do everything in our power to guard the legiti- 
mate product against the approach of fraudulent 
and vile imitations. 

In another column may be found a communi- 
cation from a gentleman who is both a dairy- 
man and an eminent lawyer — Judge John A. 
Stanly. Judge Stanly haB drafted a bill which 
covers more important points than the Eastern 
statutes, and will be effective where they have 
failed to reach the evil, because their provisions 
were evaded by unscrupulous dealers. This 
proposed law may be found in another column, 
and we urge all to study it and bring it to the 
attention of their Senators and Assemblymen. 
In another column we have attempted to give 
some reasons why this proposed act will be more 
effective than the law now upon our statute 
books, and better than the New York law upon 
which it is based. 

Judge Stanly suggests that we give informa- 
tion concerning the quality of the substance now 
freely vended as butter in our markets. It may 
be conceded that if the material were made of 
pure fat, such fat for example as our wives and 
mothers use in their kitchen chemistry, the re- 
sulting substance would be as harmless as a suet 
pudding, and yet it would not be butter. It 
would lack its fragrance and its flavor because 
of the absence of the aromatic oils which form a 
part of cream. For this and other reasons, it 
would be a wretched imitation and a fraud, even 
though it were not positively injurious to the 
system. But it is plain that oleomargarine 
does not partake of this innocent character to 
any great extent. The delicate caul fat, of 
which it claims to be made, is not abundant 
enough to furnish a thousandth part of the mass 
of false butter which is put upon the market. 
Hence the makers long ago departed from their 
original standard, and are working up all kinds 
of slaughterhouse fat; and there is good reason 
to believe that they do not stop even here, but 
go farther so as to take in the varied sources of 
supply which formerly contributed the vile 
messes known as soap grease. 

The character of this false butter has been so 
fully set forth at the East in the interest of 
Eastern dairymen that we are not left in the 
dark about the nature of the enemy with which 
we have to deal. There was a hearing granted 
to the friends of legitimate dairying by a com- 
mittee of the Massachusetts legislature some 
time since, and the apostle of wholesome food, 
U. T. Angell, of Boston, made a detailed state- 
ment, from which we shall quote. Mr. Angell 
said that the man who had probably given 
more attention to the subject than any other in 
this country was Dr. R. U. Piper, of Chicago, 
an eminent microscopist and chemist, author of 
many scientific works. Mr. Angell read a let- 
ter from Dr. Piper "that he had examined a 
large number of specimens of oleomargarine, 
and had found in them organic substances in 
the form of muscular and connective tissue: 
various fungi; and living organisms which had 
resisted the action of boiling acetic acid; also, 
eggs resembling those of the tape- worm, and 
he had them preserved to be shown to any one 
who desired to see them, and that he regarded 
it as a dangerous article, and would on no ac- 
count permit its use in his family." 

Mr. Angell exhibited microscopic photo- 
graphs obtained from Dr. Piper, of these fungi- 
eggs, etc., and read extensively from a long 
article published by the doctor, "that no tine 
butter can carry eggs of the tapeworm, tri- 
chidre, etc., which oleomargarine is very 
likely to do, it being never subjected in prepar- 
ation to a heat sufficient to kill them, being in 
that respect like raw meats, and that he had 
found them repeatedly in his examinations of 
oleomargarine. 

Dr. Piper jsays his attention was called to the 
subject by an article published by Mr. John 
Michels, the New York microscopist, in the 
American Journal of Microscopy. Mr. Angell 
then quoted from Mr. Michel's article, "that 
oleomargarine was simply raw fat, never sub- 
jected to sufficient heat to kill parasites, and 
manipulated and mixed with milk products, to 
sell as pure butter, cheese, etc. ; that he had 
found in it parts of tissue of animals, and frag- 
ments and cells of suspicious nature; that he 
had reason to believe that the refuse fat of at 
least one pork-packing establishment was used 
in its manufacture, and that he thought there 
was risk in using it on the table." Mr. Angell 
also submitted a published statement that Prof. 
Church had found in it, "horse fat, fat from 
bones and waste fat such as is principally used 
for making caudles. '' 

We have abundant other testimony as to the 
character of the abomination which we can sub- 
mit if necessary, but probably we have given 
enough for this time. Certainly enough is 
shown to arouse both consumers and producers, 
and even if the manufacture of Buch a wretched 
substance cannot be prohibited, there must be 
a law which shall be effectual to prevent its 
sale and consumption as butter. W* should 



think that every community of butter makers 
would at once call a meeting, and throw all their 
strength into an effort to push forward the en- 
actment of a protective law. There seems noth- 
ing else to do; now what group of butter mak- 
ers will first send us a report of their action? 



The Red Scale of Citrus Trees. 

Editors Priss:— I send you a few notes on scale insects 

which I have written to-day for an entomological journal, 
and which I think will be of interest to some of your read- 
ers. The subject is one upon which I had decided to pub- 
lish nothing farther until the appearance of the report 
which I am now writing, in which the descriptions can be 
given more at length and accompanied with carefully 
drawn illustrations. But, as an article recently published 
by Mr. Asbmead, and in part copied by the Rural Press, 
tends to create confusion, it seems beat to make an excep- 
tion in this.instance. 

The statement made in your article referred to above, 
that I decided that the red scale in Los Angeles county 
was identical with the red scale of the Florida orange tree 
is, I think, a mistake. The fact that the first specimens 
received from California were entered in my note book 
under a different number from that given to the Florida 
form, and the differences between the two noted at the 
time, shows that I never considered them identical. 

I wish also to state that the scale insect which is so de- 
structive to deciduous fruits in northern California, and 
especially at San Jose, although a species of Aspidiotus, is 
very distinct from the two species referred to below. — J. 
Hinrt Comstock, Entomologist, Department of Agricul- 
ture, Washington, D. C, December 11, 1880. 

Notes on Coccldee. 
There occurs in certain orange groves in 
southern California a species of A. tpidiotus which 
infests the bark, leaves and fruit of the orange 
and which from the extent of its ravages has 
created great alarm. This insect is popularly 
known by the fruit growers of that section as 
the red scale, although this name does not well 
describe its color. This species as yet occurs 
in only a few of the Californian orange groves, 
but it is more to be feared than any other scale 
insect. I have conclusive evidence that it was 
introduced into that State from Australia. It 
is, I believe, as yet undescribed and I offer the 
following diagnosis. 

Aspidiotus Citri: Scale of the Female. — The scale of the 
female in outline is much flattened, varying in color from 
a light brownish gray to a bright reddish brown. In fresh 
specimens there is a white nipple-like prominence which 
is nearly central and is the remains of a tuft of cottony 
excretion, beneath which the first larval skin was shed; 
surrounding this, and occupying one-third of the diameter 
of the scale, is a ring which is slightly darker than the re- 
mainder of the scale and indicates the position of the sec- 
ond larval moult. 

Female.— The female is light yellow in color in the adoles- 
cent stages. becoming brownish as it reaches maturity. Wheti 
fully developed the thorax extends backward in a large 
rounded lobe on each side, projecting beyond the extrem- 
ity of the abdomen, riving the body a renifonn shape. 

Scale of Male.— The scale of the male resembles that of 
the female, excepting that it is only one-fourth as large 
and the posterior side is prolonged into a flap which is 
quite thin. 

Male.— The male is light yellow; thoracic band, brown; 
eTes, purplish black. 

The species described by Mr. Ashmead in the 
November number of the American Entomolo- 
gist under the name of Chrysomphalus ficus, 
1 1 ile y MS., is simply a species of Aspidiotus and 
is not that known as the red scale in California, 
as is indicated by Mr. Ashmead. Although I 
have carefully explored many orange groves 
both in Florida and California, and have had 
extensive correspondence with orange growers, 
I have been unable to find Aspidiotus ficus in the 
last named State, and only in a single grove in 
Florida. Here it was first observed by Mr. O. 
M. Holmes on some sour orange trees imported 
from Cuba. On sending specimens of it to a 
friend at Havana I received others from that 
place and the information that it ia a very com- 
mon species in the public gardens of that city. 
The species can easily be distinguished from As- 
pidiotus citri by an examinatiou on the scale 
alone, which is much darker, being sometimes 
almost black. — J. Henry Comstock. 

[The confusion which has crept into the liter- 
ature of this pest will probably call wider atten- 
tion to it thaa if its identity had been clearly 
established from the first. General attention 
especially in the form of insecticides is what the 
insect needs, and there should be no hesitation 
about going forward with the warfare, whether 
its true name be one thing or another. There 
is no danger but what there will be specimens 
enough left for the entomologists to debate over. 
— Eds. Press. ] 



A Eucalyptus Withstanding White Ants. 
The Conservator of Forests, under the direc- 
tion of the South Australia Forestry Board, has 
been making experiments with various kinds of 
South Australian and other timbersjwith a view 
to ascertaining which species best withstands 
the attacks of white ants. Mr. J. E. Brown 
reported the result of these trials to the Board 
at their meeting on Monday, Oct. 11th, and the 
conclusion he had arrived at was that the ex- 
periments were very much in favor of the sug- 
argum {Eucalyptus corynocalyr), and he directed 
special attention to that fact as being worthy of 
careful consideration. The sugargum withstood 
the white ants much better than redgum and 
kauri, and as well as, if not better than, blue- 
gum, jarrah and other hard woods. The sugar- 
gum, moreover, had many other qualifications 
as a timber tree, as it was straight-grained, 
hard and compact, and posts made from it had 
been known to be in the ground 15 years with- 
out showing much sign of decay. 

The Rural Press is our first and most val- 
ued paper, and we wish it long life and pros- 
perity. VVe regard it as our friend.— E. S. R. 
Borden, »'al. 



Queries *\nd Replies. 



Oleo-Margarine and the Law. 

Editors Press:— By reference to the "Statutes of Cali- 
fornia," 1877-78, page 536, you will see wt already have a 
law imposing both fine and imprisonment on any person 
or persons who make or vend oleo- margarine under any 
other name.— C. H. Coolit, Cloverdal*. 

Yes, there is such a law, and it is in these 

words: 

Section L Every person who sells or keeps for sale, or 
offers for sale, or otherwise disposes of any quantity of 
oleo-margarine, under the name of, or under the pretense 
that the same is butter, or shall keep for sale, or manu- 
facture, any quantity of oleo-margarine, without branding 
the same, or the package in which it is contained, with 
the word oleo-margarine, shall be deemed guilty of a mis- 
demeanor; and on conviction thereof before a court of 
competent jurisdiction shall be punishable by imprison 
ment in the county Jail for a term of not less than fifty 
nor more than two hundred days, or by fine not less than 
fifty nor more lhaa two hundred dollars, or by both such 
fine or imprisonment. 

The trouble with this enactment is its ineffi- 
ciency. It mentions oleomargarine, but oleo- 
margarine is not a thing of common repute or 
that can be easily recognized by name or ap- 
pearance. The prosecution would have to prove 
that the substance was oleomargarine and noth- 
ing else. The proposed law in another column 
remedies this defect by inserting the word "im- 
itation butter," and it is much easier to prove 
that a substance is not genuine butter than to 
prove that it* composition is oleomargarine. 
This is the more important as since the manu- 
facture of this material began the chemists have 
pursued their investigations in animal fats, and 
changed their nomenclature to meet later dis- 
coveries, until oleomargarine is not even a good 
chemical term. It might be proved by chemist* 
that no Buch thing as "oleomargarine" exists, 
and if so a law tabooing it alone would be of no 
avail. 

Another defect in the existing statute is that 
it is not made an inducement for any one to 
search out the offenders. It will require detec- 
tive skill to do this, and if there be no reward 
to the informer there is no one to pursue the 
evil unless the dairymen should organize and 
hire men to search it out. It is a recognized 
fact that a liberal reward to the informant is 
the only, or at least the most effective way to 
reach an evil of this kind. 

Another defect in the law is that there ia no 
style of brand specified, and there is also a de- 
fect in the New York law which we printed 
last week. In New York the law was made of 
no avail because the makers of false butter af- 
fixed their brand in small indistinct characters 
upon an obscure part of the original package, 
so that perhaps not one person in 100 would 
discover the mark, and the retailers had no 
mark at all. This is remedied in the proposed 
act, which appears in another column, by speci- 
fying the sizo of the letters to be used on the 
brand and the retailers label and the posting of 
signs by those who keep the material for 
sale. But the crowning evidence of the ineffi- 
ciency of the law, now upon the statute book, 
is the fact that at the present time the false 
butter is offered for sale in hundreds of market 
stalls and stores all over the City, and yet there 
is no prosecution of the trying evil except in 
the columns of the press. We must have some 
law better fitted to grapple with the abomina- 
tion to pursue it to its obscure hiding places 
and to warn the people of its insiduous ap- 
proach. If the proposed law in another column 
can be improved we shall be glad to receive 
amendments. The subject should be discussed 
quickly, for one of the early acts of the incoming 
legislature should be the relief of our dairy in- 
terest which is now endangered: 

A Case of Inverted Vegetation. 
Editors Press:— May I trouble you with a few lines and 
ask you to explain (if you can) what seems to me to be a 
strange phenomenon of uature, and which has excited the 
curiosity of many persona of this place? On the ranch of 
T. N. Paine, two miles from Grass Valley, are four pine 
stumps of the yellow pine variety, the trees of which were 
felled about 25 years ago; certainly more than 20 years 
since. Said stumps are still grsen and graving, having 
increased considerable in diameter since the trees were 
felled. There are no sprouts springing up from the roots. 
If you could give a solution of this phenomenon through 
your valuable paper, I am sure it would interest many 
readers. —Wm. Bsrrt, Grass Valley. 

We cannot expound this matter, nor can the 
wise man to whom we referred it. It seems to 
be a remarkable case of "suspended animation," 
and something more. 



The Rural Press ia furnishing its readers 
(which are many in this county) with much 
valuable information concerning silos and grape 
vines in the current numbers. The Rural 
Press has contributed much to stimulate an in- 
terest in agricultural pursuits on this coast, and 
the signs of the times indicate that it is likely to 
reap a rich reward. — Santa Crux Courier- lttJi*. 

Muscat Cuttings. — We have tested the 
grapes from the vineyard of Chas. E. Sbillaber, 
of Cordelia, and have no hesitation about rank- 
ing them aa among the best Muscats which 
come to this market. This fact will have more 
general interest because Mr. Sbillaber adver- 
tises in this week's paper to supply cuttings 
from these vine*. 

The New York Post ia unable to find quota- 
ble authority for the report* of a contemplated 
union of the Union and Central Pacific Compa- 
nies, although it has reason to believe the re- 
port* are not wholly groundless. 



January i, 1881 ] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBES3. 



9 



Appliances for Ensilage. 

We gave recently an account of the construe* 
tion of silos for the preservation of fodders. 
Now we wish to make a few notes upon the 
machinery and materials employed. The sub- 
stance chiefly employed in ensilage is corn fod- 
der, and it has been found that some varieties 
are better than others. That which makes 
most foliage and has the sweetest stalk is the 
best because the most nutritious. Large grow- 
ing varieties are also to be sought after because 
of the great mass of fodder produced to the 
acre. But th#re are other plants than corn 
adapted to ensilation. In Spain this process is 
applied to maize, with other fodder plants, to 
leaves of vines, trees, etc. Prof. Stewart 
shows that the Germans, who raise both corn 
and clover for the silo, regard clover as of 
twice the value of corn fodder, each being cut 
at its best estate. It is also shown that clover 
is an important addition to ensilage, as it con- 
tains in abundance substances which are but 
sparingly present in corn and the other 
grasses. These are the albumenoids or 
flesh-forming matters. The addition of 
clover, as demonstrated by European ex- 
perience, may be of value to our experi- 
menters with the system who have alfalfa. 
The Journal a" Agriculture of Paris recounts 
the experience of M. Lecouteaux at Cercay. 
One silo was tilled with rye, cut the last 
of April, when the grain was forming, and 
red clover, in proportion to four parts of 
rye to one of clovor; the second was three 
parts of rye, riper, and one part of clover; 
the third with two parts of rye of fill" 
growth and yellow at the roots and white 
in the grain, and one part clover. The 
silos were'of ordinary size and were covered 
with loam 13 inches deep, the crevices 
being kept carefully tilled up as they 
opened. The sides and bottom were lined 
with heather and straw. The rye was 
cut into pieces less than an inch in length 
and the clover was uncut, and the two 
plants were arranged in alternate layers 
which were well trodden down. Salt was 
used, 3 lbs. to each 1,000 lbs. of the forage. 
The first silo was filled on April 23d, and 
opened May 22d. The fodder was moldy 
for about six inches below the ridge and 
at the ends of the silo. The second silo 
was in a better state of preservation; the 
color was changed from green to greenish 
brown; the third silo, in which the clover jjj 
was in largest proportion, was excellent. 
M. Lecouteaux concluded from this experi- 
ment that the rye should be cut before 
the grain becomes hard, and should be 
mixed with one-third to one-quarterclover. 
He fed this fodder to working oxen at 
the rate of 53 lbs. per day, and no other 
food, and they worked on in good condi- 
tion. Milch cows were fed 24 lbs. a day, 
and turned out upon arid pastures. Hence 
he recommends farmers not to confine their at- 
tention to growing maize solely for ensilage, 
but also grow other fodder-plants. 

As corn fodder will be, however, the most 
available growth for experiments, we give an 
engraving of the "Ensilage Corn-planter" as 
made by the New York Plow Co. (55 Beek- 
man street, N. Y.) It is a one-horse machine 
designed to do rapid planting and to combine 
the operations so that the work may be finished 
at once. The engraving shows the design 
quite plainly. It opens the drill, drops the 
seed accurately and covers it. Of course there 
are larger corn-planters, as our readers from 
the corn regions of the prairies well know; 
but this seems well adapted for the moderate 
planting which would be done for ensilage on 
stock and dairy farms. 

On of the most important essentials to success 
in ensilage is the cutting of the fodder so that 
it will pack closely and thus exclude the air. 
In his note to us, in the Pkess of December 
18th, Mr. Green, of Hollister, makes special 
attention to the necessity of tine cutting. M. 
Goffart, in his pamphlet, also gives positive 
evidence upon this point. He says, as trans- 
lated by Mr. J. B. Brown: 

The fineness to which I cut my maize at the 
moment of ensilation is extremely important in 
view of good preservation. Cut in disks of 
only one centimeter thick, the maize packs bet- 
ter in the silo, it occupies less space, and takes 
the form and consistency of a species of pulp, 
leaving in its mass the least possible amount of 
air. In proportion as the length is increased, 
the preservation becomes less perfect, and fin- 
ishes by becoming entirely defective. Last 
year a cultivator of the valley of the Loire, took 
from me the dimensions of my elliptic silo, and 
reproduced it exactly on his own farm. He 
tilled it in the autumn, and when he opened it 
in the winter he took out a poorly preserved 
product, which his beasts only eat with repug- 
nance. Greatly disappointed, he brought to me 
a sample of his maize that he had cut in lengths 
of five to six centimeters, instead of one or two 
at most, as I had advised him. I recognized at 
once the cause of his failure, and asked him 
why, contrary to my advice, he had cut it so 
long. He replied, "I was not able to prooure 
a steam engine which I expected to use, and I 
had to use a horse-power; the work did not get 
along fast enough, and in order to hasten it, I 
decided to cut it in such long pieces." He 
was surprised at the excellent preservation of 
the maize at Burtin, and he carried home a hun- 
dred kilogramme*; his cattle were thus enabled 



to appreciate the difference. I cite this fact Be- 
cause it contains a valuable lesson. 

This need of fine cutting has led to themanu- 
facture of special machinery. The engraving 
on this page shows the "Ensilage Cutter" of 
the N. Y. Plow Co. This is a powerful ma- 
chine, which combines great rapidity with 
strength, durability and simplicity of parts. It 
has four spiral knives of heavy cast steel. The 
length of cut is easily changed. The two feed 
rollers open both parallel and obliquely, and can- 
not be clogged. The knife cylinder revolves 
without jar and cuts with exactness. The 
mouthpiece is of hard steel, with its cutting 
edge planed. The knives cut upward, which is 
essential to safety. There are several sizes. 
The smallest is suitable for one-horse power, 
and will cut one and a fourth ton3 of dry stalks, 
or three tons of green stalks per hour. The 
largest has a capacity of four tons of dry, or 
ten tons of green stalks per hour. 

There are some things about ensilage which 
need to be more fully cleared up, and that is 
the chemical nature of the material. Some en- 
silagers claim that there is no fermentation in 
the silo if properly made, or at best but an as- 



THj Elevation of Barley. — So it appears 
that an agency has been foreshadowed which 
will achieve the elevation of barley in the coun- 
ties of southern California, and that this crop 
which has been the destruction of so many ear- 
nest farmer* will at last work itself into a posi- 
tion to yield a paying profit to the grower. The 
agency which is to work out this industrial 
revolution is the southern railroad route, which 
will transport barley from Los Angeles and 
other points, direct to the malt houses of St. 
Louis. For, says the Los Angeles Herald, the 
Anheuser Brewing Co. of St. Louis, have writ- 
ten to Mr. D. Freeman, stating that they are 
prepared to purchase 40,000 sacks of brewing 
barley as soon as it can be shipped over the short 
line. This will certainly be better than sending 
barley around the horn to New York and thence 
by rail to St. Louis, as it has been done some- 
times in the past. And if St. Louis and the 
other great beer centers of the Mississippi val- 
ley turn their attention to southern California 
barley there will certainly be a great amount of 




MACHINE FOR DES3ICATING FODDERS FOR ENSILAGE. 



cetic fermentation or souring. Others write as 
though the alcoholic fermentation would be 
reached. It is yet to be shown whether the en- 
silage is adapted to the production of the 
finest milk and butter. It may be assumed, 
that if alcohol is produced there will be injury 
to the finer parts of the cream ; but if ensilagers 
are right, that this should not be produced, 
then the objection falls. We note this point 
merely to put butter makers upon their guard, 



it consumed. This prospect is turning the at- 
tention of Los Angeles grain growers to barley 
a^ain. The Herald says that it is something 
of a marvel the way the volunteer barley is 
springing up all over Los Angeles county. It 
has already attained a hight of three inches and 
the promise of crops this year without sowing 
is very fair. That is one peculiarity which ex- 
cites the wonder and envy of the people of the 
East. Bountiful harvests are frequently reaped 




ENSILAGE CORN PLANTER OF N. Y. PLOW CO. 



and lead them to experiment to ascertain the ef- 
fects before too wide adherence to the system 
of feeding proposed. 

The storm on the New Jersey coast raged 
for 72 hours. Summer residences at Monmouth 
beach were damaged $40,000. The roads about 
Long Branch are blockaded with snow, some 
drifts being 10 ft. deep. The bluff bulkheads 
and porticos of the hotels are carried away. At 
Coney island the sea swept away the piazza of 
the Oriental hotel, and carried off about 200 ft. 
of the bulkhead at Manhattan Beach hotel. 
The iron pier remains intact. 



from lands which have volunteered twice in 
succession. 



The cold wave which struck Manitoba Sun- 
day, sending the mercury 40" below, reached 
Chicago early Monday morning, and has been 
growing in intensity all day. Although the sun 
shone brightly for the first time in a fortnight, 
at midnight the thermometer registered 13° be- 
low. 



A State Department's statement shows that 
the net balance of trade in favor of the United 
States as against all other countries, is $241,- 
000,000 for the year 1879. The balance against 
the United States and in favor of China was 
$18,000,000; in favor of the Hawaiian Islands, 
$1,427,000; Mexico, $419,000; Central America, 
$953,000. In most countries of our own conti- 
nent the balance is strongly against us. 



An ordinance has been introduced in the Chi- 
cago Council allowing the South Side St. Rail- 
road Company toput on an endless under-ground 
cable to use in operating their cars. It is the 
same contrivance that has been so successfully 
used in San Francisco. The company are very 
anxious to have the ordinance adopted. The 
cost of new machinery will be about $100,000 
per mile, but the road will be operated cheaper 
than by hones. 



Protection Against False Butt 

Editors Press:— I am glad that yo 
commenced the discussion of the oleomargarine 
question. It is none too soon. If the dairy in- 
terests of this State are not afforded some ef- 
fective legislative aid, in the near future, that 
interest is doomed to destruction on this coast. 
No dairyman can make butter in competition 
with those Chicago imitation butter makers, 
the basis of whose manufacture is not milk or 
cream, but the [offal of the butchers' slaughter 
houses. I judge from my reading that this 
vile "abomination," is injurious to the health 
of those who use it. — If this be so, you can ren- 
der no more effective service to the dairymen 
of California, than to present to the public evi- 
dence of it, and in that case, I have no doubt, 
but that the Legislature soon to assemble would 
promptly pass an act, not only prohibiting the 
manufacture, but the importation and sale of 
the article in this State. As a sanitary and po- 
lice measure, there is no doubt of the 
power of the Legislature to so legislate. 

While I favor absolute, entire and effect- 
ive prohibition, as the measure of relief 
which the State owes to the dairy interest, 
if that is not attainable, then we should 
demand the next best thing, viz: A law 
which will effectively punish any person 
who sells the infamous compound as the 
genuine production of the cow. With the 
the latter end in view I have taken the 
New York act published in your last issue 
as the basis, and have drawn a bill, which 
I herewith enclose to you, which, if enacted 
into a law, will enable the dairymen of 
the State to compel dealers in imitation 
butter to sell their compound upon its 
merits. If the provisions of this bill meet 
your approval, please publish it, in order 
that it may receive that discussion at the 
hands of those interested which its im- 
portance demands. 

It also occurs to me that you might 
gg 7: greatly aid in the obtaining of the desired 
legislation, if you publish the statistics of 
the dairy interests of California, not only 
in lbs. of butter and cheese made, but 
of the amount of money invested in the 
business, and the number of people de- 
pendent upon it for their employment and 
support. I roughly estimate that the 
amount of capital invested in the dairy 
business in California is more than $8,000,- 
| 000; and the number of workingmen em- 
i ployed therein at not less than 2,000, Is 
not this an interest of sufficient magnitude 
to be conserved by our law makers? — J. 
A. S., San Francisco, Dec. 28th. 
Proposed Law Asralnst False Butter. 

A bill to be entitled "An Act for the protection 
of the dairy industries of tins State, and the con- 
Burners of dairy productions." 
The people of the State of California, repre- 
sented in Senate and Assembly, Uo enact as follows: 

Section 1. Every person who shall manu- 
facture for sale, or who shall offer or expose for 
sale any article or substance in semblance of 
butter, not the legitimate product of the dairy, 
aud not made exclusively of milk or cream, but 
into which the oil or fat of animals not pro- 
duced from milk enters as a component part, or 
into which melted butter, or any oil thereof has 
been introduced to take the place of cream, 
shall distinctly stamp, brand or mark upon every 
tub, firkin, box or other package of such article 
or substance the words "Oleo-Margarin — Imita- 
tion Butter," in plain letters, not less than one- 
fourth of one inch square each; and iu case of 
retail sale of such article or substance in par- 
cels, or otherwise, the seller shall, in all cases, 
deliver therewith to the purchaser a printed 
label bearing the plainly printed words, "Oleo- 
Margarin— Imitation Butter," the said woids to 
be printed with type, each letter of which shall 
oot be less than one-fourth of one inch square. 
And every sale of such article or substance, not 
so stamped, branded, marked or labeled, is de- 
clared to be unlawful and a misdemeanor, and 
uo action shall be maintained in any of the 
courts of this State to recover upou any con- 
tract for the sale of any such article or sub- 
stance not so stamped, branded, marked or 
labeled. 

Sec. 2. Every person dealing, whether by 
wholesale or retail, in the article or substance, 
the sale of which is declared unlawful by Sec. 1, 
unless stamped, branded, marked or labeled as 
therein required ; and every hotel or restaurant 
keeper in whose hotel or restaurant such article 
or substance is used, shall continuously keep 
conspicuously posted up, in not less than three 
exposed positions in and about their respective 
places of business, a printed notice in the fol- 
lowing words, viz: " Oleomargarine, or imita- 
tion butter, sold here" — the said notice to be 
plainly printed, with letters not less than one- 
half of one inch square each. 

Sec. 3. Every person who shall knowingly 
sell or offer to sell, or have in his or her posses- 
sion, with intent to sell, or for use in a hotel or 
restaurant kept by him or her, contrary to the 
provisions of this act, any of the said article 
or substance required by the first section of this 
act to be stamped, branded, marked or labeled 
as therein stated, not so stamped, branded, 
marked or labeled, or in case of the retail sale 
thereof, without delivery of the label required 
by Sec. 1 of this act, or who shall fail to keep 
continuously and conspicuously posted in and 
about their respective places of business the 
(Continued on Page 12.) 



10 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January t, 1881. 



Catalogue of European Vines, with Syn- 
onyms and Descriptions.* 

(Continued from Pa<ie 3.) 

Sigotier (Hautes Alpes). 
Plant fertile. Bunches ruther loose, with 
reddish-black, round berries. Produce a rather 
inferior wine. 

59. Bouteillan a Petits Gbains (Draguig- 
nnn ) . 
Esfouiaal (Herault). 

Fonirnl (Heranlt). 
Petit Bonteillnu (Draguignan). 
Long-jointed, erect-growing, yellowish wood. 
Leaves bright green, naked below; berries 
round, juicy, black. Yield inferior wine. 

CO. BOUTKILLAN A GRAINS Bl>AN'CS. 

A variety of last, with white grapes. Pro- 
duces tolerably good wine. 

01. Bouyssai.es (Tarn et Garonne). 

Bouysoulis (Tarn et Garonne). 
Variety of the Cote de Tourraine — bunches 
larger; more fertile. Tolerably good wine. 

02. Bowood Mcscat (England). 

Tynuinshani Muscat (England). 
The plant is not subject to coulure. Seedling 
raised from Muscat of Alexandria, which it 
resembles, but sets better. Tabla grape. 

C3. Brachet (Savoy). 
Brachetto (Savoy). 
Caneraon (Gard). 
Cahtor ( ?). 

Giron d'Casse (South of France). 

Nocords Courts (Dordogne). 

Peeoui Touar (Var). 

Picpouille Sorbier (Dordogne). 

Touar (South of France). 
Wood very short-jointed; bunches long, 
cylindrical, filled with large, round, reddish- 
violet berries, thick-skinned, with thick bloom; 
leaves very woolly, with red stalks; plant fer- 
tile, long-lived, hardy, and suitable for all soils, 
even when they are saline. Wine of inferior 
quality. 

04. Brachet dks Jardins. 
Variety of last, with naked leave*. 

05. Bkachetto Bianco. 

Juraucon Blanc (Moissac). 
Notre Damo de Quillan (Lot of Ga- 
ronne). 
Quillard (Roussillon). 
Quillat (Lot et GaronneJ. 
Blanqnotte du Tau Moissac). 
Very fertile plant, which yields an excellent 
white wine. 

00. BitosriANO (Corsica). 

Plant very vigorous, with large loaves. 
Bunches and berries nearly of the size of the 
Vernientiuo; berries slightly oblong, brownish; 
bunches rather close. Excellent table grape. 
07. BucKr.AND Sweetwater (England). 

Bunches large shouldered, well set; berries 
large, round, inclining to oval; skin thin, 
transparent green to amber-colored; contain 
only oue seed; flesh tender, melting, juicy, 
and very sweet. Good table grape. 
G8. General Della Marmora. 

Variety of last. English table grape. 
09. Buroundkr (Alsace). 

Auvernat uoir (Alsace). 

Blane Bodensee Traube (Rhine). 

Bonrguignou (Odurt). 

Pinot de Ribauviller (Rendu). 

Pinot de Schanemburg (Colmar). 

Rough-leaved Burgundy (Victoria)? 

Schwartz Kloefener (Alsace). 

Schwartz Salviner (Rhine). 

Schwartz Silvauer (Rhine). 

Silvaner (Austria). 

Small Black Cluster (Victoria)? 
Plant very fertile, and producing wine of 
good quality; wood dark brown; bunches small, 
rather loo.-e; berries round, black. 

70. Cabbal (England). 

Bunches medium sized, well filled, with 
very large roundish, oval, yellowish white, 
rough-skinned berries, with much bloom, on 
very short, warty stalks; flesh firm. Sweet 
table grape. 

71. Caii.laba (Hautes Pyrenees). 

Caillaba uoir Muesque (England). 
Bunches small, cylindrical, short shouldered; 
berries rather small, round, thin-skinned, black; 
flesh firm; muscat flavor; ripens early; fertile. 
Table grape. 

72. Calmim an Raisin (Brelain). 

Bunches large, long, tapering, slightly shoul- 
dered: hemes large, round, thick-skinned, 
transparent, white. Good table grape. 

73. Canary (Pyrenees). 

Carcasses (Pyrenees). 
Black wine grape. 

74. Cannono (Sardinia). 
Black wine grape. 

75. Caroaciola (Corsica). 

Bouifacieudo (Corsica). 
Short erect-growing shoots, and very woolly 
leaves; bunches small; berries oblong, medium 
sized, bearing very thick bloom; peculiar taste ; 
plant not fertile. Wine grape. 

" The present publication [copyrighted] is a part of a 
catalogue .if marly 000 varieties of the most useful and 
profitable European vines, with about 2.000 sviionrtns by 
which thine varieties are known in different countries and 
localities. The catalogue is eiiited hy Kev. Or. Bleasdale, 
Secrttary ol the California State Viticultural Cuiiiuiissiun, 
and will bo published in book-form by Dewey & Co., 20:2 
g y tmony St., Ban Francisco, The catalogue will contain 
especial reference to vines adapted to the various vine- 
zones of the Pacific coast. 

(To be Continued.) 



THE AMERICAN COLONY. 

Los Angeles County, Cal. 

This New Colony is now forming and will occupy 10,000 acres of the very best land, and in a most desirable 
location in Southern California. 

Good land, abundant water, delightful climate and an exceedingly advantageous and beautiful situation are some 
of the natural advantages of this Colony. 

The lands are being subdivided into !>, 10, 20 and 40 Acre Lots. 

The 40 Acre Farms will range in prices from $o00 to §1,000 There is also a Town Site. 

i>T For a beautiful lithograph plate and the Colony Prospectus, Maps, Plats, Circulars, Etc, send stamp, 

or apply to 

W. B. WILLMORE, Manager, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Or to the California Immigrant Union, W. II. MARTIN, General Agent, Chronicle Building, Room 3, San 
Francisco, Cal. 



SECURE PATENTS 




Through 
Dewey Ji Co. "a 



Scientific Press 



Patent 
Agency. 



Our U. S. and Foreign Patent Agency pre- 
sents many and important advantages as a Home 
Agency over all others, by reason of long estab- 
lishment, great experience, thorough system, in- 
timate acquaintance with the subjects of inven- 
tions in our own community, and our most 
extensive law and reference library containing 
official American and foreign reports, files of 
scientific and mechanical publications, etc. All 
worthy inventions patented through our Agency 
will have the benefit of an illustration or a 
description in the Mining and Scientific 
Press. We transact every branch of Patent 
business, and obtain Patents in all countries 
which grant protection to inventors. The 
large majority of U. S. and Foreign Patents 
issued to inventors on the Pacific Coast have 
been obtained through our Agency. We can 
give the best and most reliable advice as to the 
patentability of new inventions. Our prices are 
as low as any first-class agencies in the Eastern 
States, while our advantages for Pacific Coast 
inventors are far superior. Advice and Circu- 
lars free. DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents. 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. GEO. H. STRONG 



ST. DAVID'S, 

A FIRST-CLASS LODGING HOUSb 

CONTAINS 113 ROOMS. 

715 Howard St., near Third, San Francisco. 

This House Is especially designed as a comfortable home for 
gentlemen and ladies visiting the city from the interior. No 
dark rooms. Gas and running waU-r in each room. The floors 
are covered with body ! '■ r ■ ; ■ ■ ; carpet, and all of the furniture 
is made of solid black walnut. Each bed has a spring mat- 
tress, with an additional hair top mattress, making them the 
inoat luxurious and healthy beds in the world. Ladies wish- 
ing to cook for themselves or families, are allowed the free 
use of a large public kitchen and dining room, with dishes. 
Servants wash the dishes aud ke-ep up a constant tire from 
6 A. U. to 7 P. M. Hot and cold baths, a large parlor and read- 
ing room, containing a Grand Piano— ah free to guests. Price 
single rooms per night, 50 cts.;per week, from $2.50 upwards. 

R. HUGHES, Proprietor. 

At Market Street Ferry, take Omnibus line of street car? 

to corner Third aud Howard. 



AMERICAN 

MACHINE AND MODEL WORKS. 



Experimental and Fine Special Machinery, Planinc, 
Gear Cutting:, Patterns, Models for Inventors, etc. 
Printing Press and General Machine Repairing. 
Punches, Dies, Taps, Kcauicrs, etc., made and repaired 

I. A. HBALD, Proprietor. 

614 Commercial Street, above Sansome, San Francisco. 



AMERICAN EXCHANGE HOTEL. 

Sansome Street. (Oppoelte Wolla, Fargo 
& Co's Express), San Francisco. 



This Hotel, under the management of CHAS. MONT 
GOMEKY, has been thoroughly renovated, and being in 
the very center of all the Banks, Insurance Offices and 
Commission Merchants, it offers special inducements to 
Merchants from the Interior and Farmers. 

Board, with Koora, $1, $1.25 and $1.50perday. Special 
rates by the week or month. 

FREE* COACH from BOATS and CARS to HOTEL, 



M. COOKE. 



R. J. COOKE 



PIONEER BOX FACTORY, 

Corner of Front and M Streets, Sacramento 

ALL KINDS OF 

Fruit and Packing Boxes Made to Order, 

AND IN SHOOKS. 

tr Communications Promptly Attended to. 
COOKE Sz SONS. Successors to Cooki & Gkboort 



RUHL'S 
PATENT LIFT and SUCTION PUMP. 



On hand the following sizes Suction Pumps 3, 4, 5 6 7 8 
aud 10 inches in diaimter for shallow wells for irrigating 
purposes. Lift Pumps for deep wells, 3. 4, 5, G and 7 inches 
in diameter, warranted to draw water up to 200 feet. Half- 
Lift Pumps, 3 aud 4 inches iu diameter. All the above 
Pumps can be converted into a force-puma by attaching 
cast-iron air chamber, which makes the best ore for rilling 
tanks. Address 

FRED. A. RUHL, Stockton, Cal. 
Valves for the above Pumps cau bo had of the princina 
houses iu San Francisco. 



JOSEPH F. HILL, 

JUXI'VACTIRRR Of FIRST-CLASS 

Buggies, Farm & Freight Wagons. 

OF ALL DESCRIPTIONS 

Cor. Thirteenth and J Sts., Sacramento, Cal. 

*3T Repairing promptly atteuded to "B» 



Dr. Smith's Caloric 
Vita^>ils. 

£3T Improved Means and Methods of llealing. Why not ? 
Caloric Vita Oils, these wonderful ancient curative remedies 
restored to the healing art by a retired Chilean physician, 
through whose advice they are now variously prepared and 
used in Dr. Smith's Phreno-Medical Institute, 633 Califor- 
nia street. San Francisco, as sweating, absorbing, healing 
and pain-killing remedied, and which are by no means a new 
experiment, but have pruveu their wonderful healing virtues 
in over 25,000 cases in a single European Medical Sanitarium, 
and are now offered for sale and use, purely on their active 
healing merits. Accordingly, gentlemen or ladies are offered 
a free trial of these vita or life-giving oils, who suffer from 
Asthma, Bronchial. Lung or Throat Troubles, deep-seated 
inflammation or painful disease of any kind. Congestion 
Heart, Liver and Kidmys, Lame Back, Stiff Joints, Con- 
tracted Muscles or Teudons, Dropsy or Cold Extremities, 
Tumors or Glandular Swellings, in short, all forms of dis- 
ease that result from congestion or im|>eded circulation. In 
cleanBiut' the blood of scrofulous drugs or virus poisons, and 
iu the cure of chronic disease, the Institute employs all the 
Hygienic and Medical appliaucts of Eastern and European 
water cures. Since the fall of '63 we have given special at- 
tention to diseases of the brain and nervo-vital system, and 
for the past '22 years have had gentlemen constantly uuder 
treatment who have suffered from some form of muscular, 
nervous or vital debility, and by using an electric medical 
magnet of great power iu connection with the above reme- 
dies, we have quickly and permanently restored those who 
had even failed to get relief by other means. Phrenology is 
the key to physical as well as mental diseases. Health con- 
sultations are free, either verbal or by letter, barlow J. 
Smith. M. U. Proprietor, 633 California street, S. F. 



NEW OII^V311 > XOJN 




Price- Plain Barrels, 12 Bore, $15 OO. 

lO M 16 OO. 
Twist Barrels, 12 Bore, 17 OO. 
« « 10 " 18 OO, 

The frame and trimmlngsof all these guns are nickel plated. 
This gun possesses many advantages over any single breech- 
loading gun yet produced in this country. It has a patent 
Ride snap action with a safety attachment, by means of which 
it can be Opened only wheu the gun is at half-cock, thus in- 
suring perfect safety in loading. The workmanship and ma- 
terials used are tirst class; no gun being allowed to leave the 
factory until it has been thoroughly inspected. We take 
great pleasure in offering this gun to the public, and feel safe 
to say it is the best Am. Siugle Breech -Loader yet produced. 

E. T. ALLEN, Afft., 416 Market St., S. P. 



Jackson's Agricultural Machine Works 

AND FOUNDRY, 

6th and Bluxome Sts.. near S. P. II. R., San Francisco. 

Manufacturer of Feeders and 

Elevators, with recently invented 
Spreader. Horse Forks for Head- 
ings or Hay. Folding Derricks. 
Hoadley Straw-Huruer and Auto- 
matic Cut-off Governor for Por- 
table Engine. Separator Shoes 
and Repairs. WINDMILLS for 
Stockmen and Gardeners. Buy 
and sell secoud-hand Threshers 
and Engines. Machine Castings 
a specialty. Address 

BYRON JACKSON. Prop'r. 




AGENTS WANTED %Z2"Kd! r SJE 

ting Machine ever Invented. Will knit ajxur of 
hu>ckingn, with heel and toe complete, in SO min- 
ute*, willulao kuit a great variety of fancy articles, 
for which there la always a ready market. Send for cir- 
cular aud terms In The Twomhly Knitting Al u- 
chiue Co., 109 Washington St., Boston, Mass. 



Cfy—f* ,, ! n ,~ Superior Wood and Metal Entrrav- 
rnKlnViriK Ing, ElectrotyTping and Sterootyp- 
a-iiQI UI ""O'lngdon, at the office of the Mikino 
»u Sciumnc Prsss, Sau Francisco, at favorable rate* 



Agricultural Articles. 



READ THIS. 




THE CALIFORNIA 

Spring Tooth Harrow 

PROVES TO BE THE MOST PERFECT IMPLEMENT 

FOR VOLUNTEERING} 

Ever used nn this Coast. The stubble fields are made a* 
fine aud mellow as a summer-fallow. 

No Farmer Can Afford to be Without Them. 

It will cost nothing to try one and satisfy yourself. 

Manufactured and sold ouly by 

BATCHEL0R, VAN GELDER & CO., 

Nos. 900 & 902 K Street, Sacramento. 
AND THEIR AUTHORIZED AGENTS. 

The Famous "Enterprise," 

PERKINS' PATENT 
Self Regulating 

WINDMILLS, 

Pumps It Fixture*. 

These Mills and Pumps 
reliable and always give sat- 
isfaction. Simple, strong and 
durable in all parte. Solid 
wrought Iron crank shaft with 
double bearing) (or the crank 
to work in, all turned 
run in babbitted boxes.. 

Positively telf regulating 
with no coil spring or springs 
of any kind. No little rods, 
Joints, levers or balls to get 
out of order, as such things 
do. Mills In use six to nine years In good order now, that 
have never cost one cent for repairs. 

All sues of Pumping and Power Mills. Theusands In 
use. All warranted. Address for circulars and Infer 
■nation, 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES, LIVERMORE, 
ALAMEDA CO., CAL. Also, Best Feed Mills for sale. 

San Francisco Agency, LIN FORTH, RICE 
& CO.. 323 & 335 Market Street 




MATTES0N & WILLIAMSON'S 




Took the Premium orer all at the great plowing Match Iu 

Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who hare 
been long in the business and kuow what la required in the 
construction uf Gang Plows. It ia quickly adjusted. Bu'- 
ncieut play is given so that the tongue will pass orer cradle 
knolls without changing the working position of the shares. 
It ia so constructed that the wheels themselves govern the 
action of the Plow correctly. It has various points of supe- 
riority, and can be relied upon as the best and most desira- 
ble Gang Plow in the world. 

Iron Founders, Machinists and Manufacturers of ImproTed 
Agricultural Implements. General Jobbing and repairing 
done in the best manner at most reasonable rates. Send for 
circular to MATTESON tt WILLIAMSON. 

Stockton, Cal 

WEST SIDE GANG PLOW. 




With Patent Reversible and Double Pointed Sell -Sharpeu 
Ing Share. Suitable for any kind of soil. Best Plow in use. 
Send for Circular and PriceList. Manufactured*! f sold by 
THOS. POWELL, Stockton. Ca 



W. DAVIS, 

410 Market St.,S. P. 



SADDLES, = 

HARNESS, WHIPS i Manufacturer and Dealer 

I riTUCD — — — ln'All Goods In thU line. 
LLA I ntn, WSeudfor Catalog 



January I, 1881 ] 



TIE PACIFIC BUHL PRESS 



11 



B(\EE DEE\s' Dt^ECJO^Y. 

purcuasbrs op stock will find in this directory tub 
Names op bomb op thh Most Rbliablb Erbbdbrs. 

Gur Ratks.— Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
60 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 



CATTLE. 



HENRY PIERCE, 728 Montgomery Street, S. F. 
Jersey Cattle, bred from Importation direct from 
Jersey Island, and winners of most of the prizes at 
Oakland, Stockton and the State Fairs. " Victor of 
Yerba Buena," of noted butter strains oir the Island, 
and known to be the best Bull ever imported to this 
coast, now stands at the head of this famous herd. 
" King of Scituate," son of the famous 705 pound butter 
Cow, Jersey Belle, of Scituate, which now stands at the 
head of Mr. Pierce's noted herd, at Scituate, Mass., 
will soon be brought here. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, S. F. Importers 
and breeders of all varieties of Thoroughbred Cattle, 
Sheep, Horses, and Berkshire Swine. All animals fully 
pedi greed. 

PAGE BROTHERS, 213 Clay street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petal uma, Sonoma Co. ) Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and Spanish Merino Sheep. 

C. CLARK, Milpitas, Santa Clara Co. Importer and 
Breeder of Short-Horn Cattle. Has a herd of 14 Cows 
and Bulls, among which are one Gwynne-Princess Bull, 
by Imported Grand Prince of Lightburne, and cows 
of the Dutchess of York family: heifers being by the 
Imported Bull Sheriff, a Seraphina Bull and Kirkleving- 
ton Duke 2d, a pure Bates Bull. The whole herd for 
sale or single animals if desired. 



JESSE D. CARR, Salinas City, Monterey Co.Cal., Pro- 
prietor of Gabilan Herd. The foundation of theGabilan 
Herd was secured by importations of the best attainable 
representatives of the most popular families. The herd 
includes groups of the time-honored Louan and Hope 
families; also representatives of the pure Bates, Oxfords, 
Duchesses, Young Marys and Roses of Sharon. Fine 
Trotting Horses, Thoroughbred and Graded Merino 
Bucks, also Thoroughbred and Cross Bred Shropehire- 
down Bucks always on hand and for sale at reasonable 
prices. 

M. WICK, Orovillc, Butte County, Cal. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred Cattle, Short-Horns. Young Bulls and 
Heifers for sale at all times of the year. 

GEORGE BEMENT, Redwood City, San Mateo 
County, Cal. Breeder of Ayrshire Cattle and South- 
Down Sheep. Stock of each kind for sale. 

COL. C. YOUNGER, Forest Home Herd, San Jose, 
Cal. Breeder of Short-Horu Durhams, and pure bred 
Cotswold Sheep. Young Bulls and Bucks always for 
sale. 



HORSES. 



HENRY MILLER, San Francisco, Cal. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred Norman Horses of the Stock Imported 
by Mr. Perry, of Illinois, took First Premium at San 
Jose Fair, 1880. 

R. J. MEBKELEY, Sacramento, Cal., Breeder of 
Normau-Pcrcheron Horses and Short-Horn Durhams. 
My stock is all registered. Took three first-cluBS pre- 
miums on Horses at State Fair, 1880. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



JOHN S. HARRIS, Holliater, Cal. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred registered Goats. Took Eight Premi- 
ums at the State Fair of 1880. I had one Buck at the 
State Fair with staple IS inches long. Correspondence 
solicited. 



L. TJ. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 

J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Solano Co., Cal. Breeder 
and Importer of Shropshire Sheep. Rams and Ewes 
for sale. Also, cross-bred Merino and Shropshire. 



B. W. WOOLSEY <SS SON, Fulton, Sonoma Co., 
Cal. Importers and Breeders of choice Thoroughbred 
Spanish Merino Sheep. City oltice, No. 418 California 
St., S. F. 



POULTRY. 



ALBERT BURBANK, 43 California Market, S. F. 
Importer and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry, 
Dogs, etc. Eggs for hatching. Send for price list. 



WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Importer 
and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Berkshire 
and Magie Poland -China Swine. 



MRS. L. J. W ATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Pekin Ducks, etc. 



A. O. RIX, Washington, Alameda County, California. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for Circular. 



MRS. L. E. McMAHAN, Dixon, Solano Co.. Cal. 
Importer and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Eggs 
for Hatching. Send for price list. 



T. D. MORRIS, Sonoma, Sonoma County, Cal. Breeder 
and Importer of all the varieties of Land and Water 
Fowls. Eggs for hatching sent any distance with 
safety. Satisfaction guaranteed. Send for price list. 



SWINE, 



ALFRED PARKER, Bollota, San Joaquin Co., Cal 
Importer, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 



T. C. STARR, San Bernardino, Cal. Poland-China 
Swine and Black Cochin Chickens for sale. 



JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 



L. N. SCOTT, Lincoln, Placer County, Cal. Breeder 
of Pure Poland China Swine. My stock is shipped di 
rect from Iowa and is the purest breed. Took first 
premium at State Fair. 1880. 



ELI A3 GALLUP, Hanford, Cal. Breeder of Pure 
Poland China Swine, with recorded pedigree. My 
stock is from the celebrated "McCreary Bismarck" 
breed, by D. M. McQee, Oxford, Ohio. Took fire pre- 
miums at State Fair, 1880 



50 



Gold, Figured, aud Actress Chromos, 10c. Agent' 
SampU Book, 26c. Ssavy Bros., Northford, Ct. 



IRRIGATED LANDS FOR LEASE AND SALE. 

THE GREAT COLORADO VALLEY LAND AND IRRIGATING CO. 

Offer for Lease and Sale a large tract of land in small farms, on extra liberal terms to settlers. 
Adapted to the growing of Semi-Tropical and Deciduous Fruits, Fibrous Plants, Vines, Cereals, Etc. 
Situated on the California side of the Colorado river, opposite the town of Ehrenberg, and deriving its irrigating 
water by Canal from the Colorado river. 

Full particulars, terms, etc., will be forwarded on application to 

THOMAS H. BLYTHE, 724i Market Street, San Francisco. 

Or to GEORGE S. IRISH, Superintendent, (on the land). 



1 
# 



^littlT 



AGUE CURE. 

— A Positive Cure for— — 

* Chills and Fever, 

Dumb Ague, 
\ Intermittant Fever, 

Fever and Ague, 
(!") Night Sweats, 
\ Sallow Skin, 

Vjt Anil nil diseaiies resulting from a I 
<]7.j disordered Stomach or Liver. 



J> PRICE 75 CENTS 

f JOHN R. WILLIAMS, 

(Succedior to William it Moore.) 

3$ Proprietor. 
() STOCKTON, CAL. 



Poultry. 



Price List— 1880-81. 

NOW READY. 

UNLIMITED RANGE. 
116 Acres. 

HEALTHY STOCK. 

Brahmas, Brown Leghorns, Ply- 
mouth Rocks, Langshans. 
BRONZE TURKEYS, PEKIN DUCKS. 

Carbolic Powder— Four Pound Package $1.00. 
Pamphlet on the Care of Fowls, Diseases, Cures, etc. 
adapted especially to the Pacific Coast, price 15 cents. 
Plewe send stamp for Price List to 

M. EYRE, Napa Cal. 




GEORGE TREFZER, NAPA CITY, CAL., 

BREEDER OF 

Brown and White Leghorns, 

Plymouth Rocks, Light Brahmas. Hou- 
dans and Pekin Ducks. 

A from a very fine lot of Imported Stock. A fine lot of 
young stock for sale now at reasonable prices. 



BROWN LEGHORN EGGS FOR SALE. 

From selected birds. Also a few choice Fowls— Brown 
Leghorns, Spangled Hamburgs and Partridge Cochins. 
All yearlings or under. 

HENRY PETERSON, 
Near the University. Berkeley. A lameda Co., Cal 



I 



BEFORE BUYING OR RENTING AN 
ORGAN 

Send for our LATEST Illustrated Cataloodk (S2 pp. 
4to), with newest styles, at 351 and upward; or $6.3S 
per quarter, and up. Sent free. MASON & HAMLIN 
ORGAN CO., 154 Tremont St., BOSTON; 16 E. 14th St. 
NEW YORK; 149 Wabash Av., CHICAGO. 



Mason and Hamlin Organs. 

Wholesale and Retail Agents 

KOHLER &c CHASE. 

Post Street, near Dupont, - - - SAN FRANCISCO 



100,000 BLUE AND RED GUMS. 

200,000 Cypress, Pine and Acacia. 

Very fine Stock and Cheap. Beautiful, Fresh and 
Finest Variety of Monterey Cypress Seed, $3.00 per 
pound, pre-paid by mail. Blue Gum and Aca- 
cia Seeds. Postoffice address, 

GEO. R. BAILEY, Oakland, Cal. 

Nursery located at Dwightway Station, East Berkeley 



ANNUAL MEETING. 

The Annual Meeting of the Stockholder of the 
Grangers' Bank of California will be held at the oft'ee it 
the Bank, in the city of San Francisco, State of Califor 
nia, on TUESDAY, the Eleventh (11) day of January, 
1881, at one o'clock p. u. , for the election of Directors 
for the ensuing year. FRANK McMULLEN, S c ^ 
ALBERT MONTPELLIER, Cashier and Managei 

San Francisco, Dec. 13, 1880. 



DO 



HOT F All. W (•■!• 
for our Pric* List for 
18 SO. fui w» mmj 
address apon ap- 

Sllcatlon. OontalM 
ascriptions »f *rtry- 
thlng required fa* 



thing required fa* 
personal or family aja. 
wit* rrar l.SM Illustration*. Wo sou all 
roods at wholssala prices la qoentltloo to salt 
Ice purchaser. Tho only lnntltotlon la Amoiioa 
who aaaka this their special business. Address. 
MONTGOMKBY WARD ft CO., 

■>T at fit Wabaak At«„ Oataaaa, OL 



r j All Gold, Chromo and Lithograph Cards, no 2 alike, 
'J* name an, 10 cts. C. DePuy, Syracuse, N. Y. 



GRANGERS' BANK 

Of California, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Authorized Capital, - $1,000,000, 

In 10,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $400,000. 

OFFICERS: 

G. W. COLBY President 

JOHN LEWELLING Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 

FRANK McMULLEN Secretary 

'directors: 

G. W. COLBY President Butte Co 

JOHN LEWELLING, Vice-President Napa Co 

J. V. WEBSTER AlamedaCo 

URIAH WOOD San Benito Co 

J. C. MEHYFIELD Solano Co 

THOMAS McCONNELL Sacramento Co 

I. C. STEELE San Mateo Co 

SOLOMON JEWETT Kern Co 

C J. CRESSEY Stanislaus Co 

SENECA EWER Napa Co 

A. D. LOGAN Colusa Co 

The Bank was opened on the first of August 1874 for the 
transaction of general Banking business. 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and conducted in the 
usual way. 

GOLD and .SILVER .lens's received 

CERTIFICATES of DIOi'O 1 r issued fo Gold and Silver 

TERM DEPOSITS are rect-ivuu aud interest allowed as 
follows: 6/^ per annum if left for J niotiths^7^ per anauoi it 
left for 6 months; S7 < er annum if "lott #orJ« mouths. 

EXCHANGE on the Atlantic .States l.mught and sold. 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER, 
Cashier and Manager. 

San Francisco, Oet. 15, 1880. 



K. GUAM LiK ItLAIN, JT». 



T. A. ROBINSON. 




Life Scholarships, $70. 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 



MONEY TO LOAN. 

In sums of $2,0OO and upwards on Good, Productive 
Farms at fair rate of interest. Money also advanced on 
Wheats. Apply to A. SCHULLER, 

209 Sansome St. , S, F. 



THE CINCINNATI WEEKLY TIMES 

THE BANNER WEEKLY OF THE WEST. 
An Eight-page paper, only One Dollar a year, and a 
magnificent engraving " two feet wide and almost three 
feet long" free, and postage paid to every subscriber. 
Address 

WEEKLY T'-JES, Cincinnati, O. 



Lands for Sale and to 1 



AGRICULTURAL GRANT. 

150.000 ACRES. 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



By a recent order of the Hon. Commissioner of the 
General Land Office, the Regents of the University of Cal- 
ifornia are authorized to receive applications for land un- 
der the COLLEGE GRANT, not to exceed 11,400 acres. 

TERMS OF SALE. 

For Lands Outside of Railroad Grants, $5.00 
For Lands Within a Railroad Grant, $6.25 

If purchasers prefer, they can pay 20 per cent, (or $1.00 
per acre) as the first payment, and will be allowed a credit 
of five years for the remaining 80 per cent, (or §4 00 per 
acre). 

Printed blanks for making applications and full infor- 
mation will be furnished free of charge, by addressing 

J. HANI HARRIS, Land Agent, 

P. O. Box 2040, San Francisco, Cal. 

San Francisco, Dec. 20, 18S0. 

A GOOD HOME 

For sale, very cheap, in the very pleasant and healthy 
village of Soquel, Santa Cruz, Cal., near the famous water- 
ing place 

CAMP CAPITOLA. 

Also a well patronized 

BLACKSMITH SHOP, 

Together or separate. For particulars inquire o 

C. H. HALL, 
Soquel, Cal. 

FOR SALE. 

215 ACRES OF GOOD GRAIN, GRASS 
and Fruit Land. 

Two miles from the Soquel Wharf aud Railroad Depot. 
Price, $3,500. Four Good Springs and 

20 Acres of Heavy Timber 

On it. Also, 100 ac (s' ne mile from the Railroad, 
y 

cheap. For particul;i r s, inquire of 

J. PARRISH, 

Soquel, Cal 




For Salo in large or small tracts, on easy terms, in 
the best parts of the State. 

McAfee brothers, 

202 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



FRUIT AND GRAIN FARM FOR SALE, 

Near Sacramento, Cal. 

Eighty acres of choice land, two miles from city limits; 
half mile east upper Stockton road; 800 Fruit trees, on» acre 
Grapevines, two acres Blackberries. Sixty-rive acres in Grain 
will be sola with or without crop. Good House and Out 
Buildings. Farm well fenced; rive Windmills and Horse 
Power; Fish Pond; three-quarters of a mile from good 
School. This property will be sold cheap. Terms cash. 
Apply at the ranch. J. K. HOUSTON. 



SANTA CRUZ COUNTY. 

Good Crops every Season without Irrigation. 

Farms, Stock Ranches, Dairy Farms, Fruit Farms, 
Vineyards, Chicken Ranches, and Homesteads of every 
class anil description in this and adjoining counties for 
sale and rent on reasonable terms. State requirements 
and obtain suitable particulars from the Real Estate 
EXCHANGE & MART, 

Santa Cruz, Cal 



CRANDALL 
SPRING SKELETON BUGGY. 

LIGHTEST AND EASIEST RUNNING. 

Cannot he upset hy cramping or sudden turning. 

Will pass over the roughest road* or car tracks without 
jolting. Especially adapted for mountain roads. War- 
ranted for two years. 

A. MERSEREAU, 
No. 1927 Mission St., Manufacturer 

SAVE YOUR HORSES! 

Safety, Security and Economy. 

Haggard & Brown's Wagon Tongue Support. 

The undersigned has the agency for this coast. For 
trade price list or exclusive territory, address, 

W. E. LIVERMORE, Los Gatos, 

Santa Clara County, Cal. 

PATENT 
CAL. METALLIC WINDOW SCREENS. 

This is the Best and Cheapest Window Screen ever of- 
fered to the public. Useful and Ornamental. 

To exclude Flies and Mosquitoes, it has no equal. 

It is an article of comfort, convenience and economy, 
and needs only to be known to be deemed a household 
necessity. 

J. REARDON, 328 Bush Sc., S. F. 



12 



THE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS. 



[January t, 1881. 



Protection Against False Butter. 

[Continued from page 9.] 

printed notices required by Sec. 2 of this ' act, 
shall for each and every offense forfeit to any 
person who will or may sue therefor the sum of 
live hundred dollars in gold coin, to be recov- 
ered with costs, including a fee of one hundred 
dollars for the attorney of the plaintiff, in any 
Superior Court of this State. 

Sec. 4. Every person who shall fail to keep 
posted in and about his or her respective places 
of business, the notices required by section two 
of this act, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. 

Sec. 5. Upon the trial of any indictment or 
information for any misdemeanor, under the 
provisions of this act, or of any action brought 
to recover the forfeiture provided for by section 
three of this act, the sale, or offer, or exposure 
for sale, or for use in any hotel or restaurant of 
any article or substance required by section one 
to be branded, marked, stamped or labeled, 
not so marked, stamped branded or labeled, 
shall be presumptive evidence of the knowledge 
of such persons of the character of such article 
or substance. 

Sec. 6. Every person convicted of any mis 
demeanor under this act shall be punished by a 
fine of not less than $500, nor more than $1,000, 
or by imprisonment in the county jail, not less 
than one month nor more than six months, or by 
both such fine and imprisonment. 

Cereals from the University, 

Editors Press: — This institution has ready 
for distribution moderate quantities of the fol- 
lowing-named cereals, done up in packages of 
one pound each. Citizens who wish to procure 
them for trial, and to report results, can do so 
by sending the names of such as tbey choose, 
their own P. 0. address and 1G cents in postage 
stamps for each kind. The grains were grown 
on our grounds during the past season, and we 
are sure that some of them at least will prove 
valuable to the farmers of the State: 

L Defiance wheat (Priugle'B hybrid); very valuable in 
must parts of the Union, resists rust and drouth. 

2. Snowflake wheat; exceedingly productive, berry very 
large and light colored. 

3. Odessa wheat (Anaheim variety); small red berry, 
productive, and the least subject to rust that we know 
of. 

4. Clawson; a standard variety in Ohio and neighboring 
State*. 

5. Polish wheat (Trilicum Polonicum) (Wild Goose 
wheat); very large berry, valuable for macaroni and to sow 
for hay. 

6. Black -bearded Macaroni wheat; very glutinous, re- 
markably even growth, and good yield. 

7. Black-bearded Centennial wheat; from the U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture, large and apparently coarse va- 
riety, it may improve in the second year in the State. 

8. Atalanti Greek wheat; fur macaroni, large berry and 
coarse straw. 

8. Nepaul or Bald barley (Hordeum trifurcatum); 
smouth berry, no beard, makes the best of hay. 

10. Blue Smuoth barley; very curious in appearance, 
yields well, and may prove valuable for poultry and 
swine. 

11. Black Two-rowed barley; very bardy and produc- 
tive. 

1'2. Scotch Twc-rowed barley; perhaps the best we have, 
very productive, light colored and excellent quality. 

13. Chevalier Two-rowed barley; the brewers' stand- 
ard. 

14. Manchurian barley; resembles our common variety, 
but is very early. 

Applications will be filled in the order re- 
ceived as long as the supply lasts. Please in- 
dicate second choice, if the first is exhausted. 
C. H. Dwinelle. — University of California, 
Berkeley, Alameda Co., Cal. 

Grain from the Grangers' Bank. 

Albert Montpellier, Manager of the Grangers' 
Bank, S. P., has issued a circular offering seed 
samples of certain choice varieties of wheat to 
growers who wish to try them. He has some 
from the University and others of his own col- 
lection. We give the latter, as the former are 
noted by Mr. Dwinelle. Samples for sowing 
will be sent by express upon addressing the 
Grangers' Bank: 

Pride of Butte (bearded); originated in Butte county, 
has exceeded all others in yield this year in Suiter county 
—going as high as 60 to 60 bushels to the acre— is in high 
favor with farmers uf the northern counties. 

Genessee ; is smooth, yields well, excellent milling, 
rather stiff straw, belter adapted for winter Bowing than 
summer-fallow, as It grows very tall on the latter. 

Touzell; a French variety, yields well— as high as 50 
bushels to the acre this year— is smooth, large heads, but 
rather weak straw, although it does not lodge badly— 
there is but little cultivated in that county as yet— it was 
sant from Washington, D. C, about two years ago, prom- 
ises well. 

Snowflake Club (bearded); introduced some three years 
ago, large round kernel, yields well, and said to do well 
where Propo will. 

White Australia; a variety already known, yields well, 
excellent milling, sample sent for renewal purposes. 

Early Club; originated three years ago with Josiah Wills, 
Esq., near Autioch, who picked up a few riped heads in 
his field, while the balance was still green, sown it and 
proved to be two or three weeks earlier than the old va- 
riety, is plump and yields well. 

Propo (correct name Proper) (bearded); originated in 
Butur county, a well known and favorite variety, exten- 
sively cultivated both in the northern and southern coun- 
ties, where it has proved equally valuable. Samples sent 
|ur seed renewal purposes. 

The New York Tribune thinks a financial 
crisis, similar to 1873, is impending as the re- 
sult of railroad speculation. One would suppose 
that with a free oueauway, the Isthmus route, 
and two railroads in operation, all the traffic 
would be accommodated to and from the Pa- 
cific. Madness, born of cheap money, proposes 
tD build at least five more railroads; one on the 
Canadian, two on the Mexican Territory, and 
two, at least, on our own. 

Santa Rosa Pocltry. — We recently ob- 
served a variety of fine birds in the yards of 
Mr. H. K. Swett, including Bronze turkeys, 
ducks, geese, Brahma, Leghorn |and Plymouth 
Rock "chicks." 



Our Agents, 



Oca Friends can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
influence and encouraging favors. We intend to seud 
none but worthy men. 

J. F. Osborne— San Francisco. 

A. C. Knox— Pacific Coast. 

G. W. McGrew.— Santa Clara county. 
M. P. Owen— Santa Crux County. 

J. W, A. Wriout— Merced, Tulare and Kern counties. 
N. E. Boy d— San Bernardino and Los Angeles counties. 
Jarkd C. Hoag — California. 

B. W. Crowell— Co lusa and Yolo counties. 

D. W. Kklleiikr— Fresno, San Benito, Monterey and 
San Luis Obispo countieB. 
W. O. Warnock, Sonoma County. 



[coil. J 

Vaccination for Scab in Sheep' 

Editors Press s— I desire to announce to your readers 
lhat 1 have discovered a method of protecting sheep from 
the scab disease by vaccination. The principle is identi- 
cal with that involved in vaccination to prevent smallpox 
in the human species. I do not claim that my method of 
vaccinating sheep will prove an absolute prevention of 
skin disease, but it will either prevent it or reduce the dis- 
ease to a milder form, as vaccination in humankind reduces 
smallpox to varioloid. In the case of sheep there may, in 
some cases, be a slight surface irritation of the skin which 
can be easily removed, but there will be no attack of the 
scab in its well-known virulent and penetrating forms. 
Anyone deBirous of inquiring into this new method of 
meeting the scab disease may address me at the Baldwin 
Hotel, San Francisco. S. II. Kennedy. 

San Francisco, Dec. Sth. 

P. S,— Address, after January 15, 1881, Omaha, Ne- 
braska. 

In the Whole History or Medicine 

No preparation has ever performed such marvelous cures 
or maintained so wide a reputation, as Atrkb' Ciierrt Pec- 
toral, which is recognized as the world's remedy for all 
diseases of the throat and lungs. Its long coutinued 
series of wonderful cures in all climates has made it uni- 
versally known as a safe and reliable agent to employ. 
Against ordinary colds, which are the forerunners of more 
serious disorders, it acts speedily and surely, always re- 
lieving suffering, and often saving life. The protection it 
affords, by its timely use in the throat and chest disorders 
of children, makes it an invaluable remedy to be kept 
always on hand in every house. No person can afford to 
be without it, and those who have once used it never will. 
From their knowledge of its Composition and effects 
physicians use the Ciikkkv 1'kctoral extensively in their 
practice, and Clergymen recommend it. It is absolutely 
certain in its remedial effects, and will always curn where 
cures are possible. 

For Sals uv all Dbal«rs. 



Dobyn's Catarrh Cure. 

Editors Press:— 1 have had catarrh in its very worst 
form, and 1 have tried nearly every so-called sure cure 
(for catarrh), and I was about giving up in dispair of ever 
being cured when 1 was persuaded by a frieud to try 
"Dobyn's Sure Cure," and 1 am happy to say that it 
cured me, and 1 will recommend it to any of my friends. 

William Bakr. 

San Rafael, Cal., Dec. 27, 1880. 

[An advertisement of this remedy may be found in 
another columu. 



Attend to This. 

Our subscribers will find the date they have paid to 
priuted on the label of their paper. If it is not correct 
(or if the paper should ever come beyond the time de- 
sired), be sure to notify the publishers by letter or postal 
card. If we are not notified within a reasonable time we 
canuot be responsible for the errors or omission of agents. 

The Free Labor Exchange, established by 
voluntary donations, for the special object of 
providing work for the needy and destitute, 
free of charge to all, continues its benevolent 
designs and operations. Employers of all classes 
of help, male or female, are earnestly requested 
to patronize this institution, and send their 
orders to the Free Labor Exchange, No. 33 
O'Farrell St., San Francisco, Cal., G. W. 
Schroeder, Manager. 



First-Class is Evert Respect.— When you visit Stock- 
ton stop at the Mansion Mouse. Free Coach to the 
house. J H. CROSS, Proprietor. 



Thi Tosrmite Is strictly first class and the leading hotel, 
of Stockton. Prices moderate. Jas. Cavbn, Propr. 

Pay Cash in advanco $3 a year for the 
Rural Press Credit rates, $4. 



Notk— Our quotations are for Wednesday, not Saturday 
the date which the paper bears. 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE. ETC. 

Sam Francisco, Wednesday, Dec. 29, 1880. 
The mid-holidays are not conducive to trade, and mar. 
ket reports are of little momeut. A few changes in value 
and the mouotony of trade has not been otherwise inter, 
fercd with. 

To-day's dispatch from Liverpool to the Produce Ex- 
change Is as follows: 

Good to choice California Wheat, »s 8d(J10s. The mar- 
ket is of a holiday character. 

The Forelsm Review. 

Loudon, Dec. 24.— The Mark Lane Kzpreu, which, on 
account ef the holidays, is published to-day instead of 



Monday next, in its review of the British Grain trade for 
the present week, says: Land is generally too wet for cul- 
tivation. The samples at hand show that a very larye 
proportion of the English Wheat crop is injured by wet in 
the stack. Wheat in good condition will sell readily. 
Prices of Red are low. The sale of inferior English Red is 
very difficult. The yield of the English Wheat crop of 
1880 is turning out to be less than any of the published 
estimates. Barley continues to decline, in consequence of 
large Biipplies, though fine samples are very scarce, and 
occasionally command a fancy price. Oats are firmer. 
Foreign Grain was inanimate and drooping throughout 
the week, and even thing was cheaper. Wheat cargoes 
have been declining slowly, but surely. American Red 
Winter on the passage was offered at 45s 9d@40s 3d * 
quarter. Maize continues slow. American is quoted to- 
day at 26s tki. Imports into the United Kingdom, for the 
week ending Dec. 18th, were 1,010,382 cwts of Wheat, and 
257,738 cwts of f lour. 

Freisrhta and Charters. 

Recharters are reported as follows: British ship King 
Coelric, 1,612 tons. Wheat to Cork, £3 5s; British ship 
Roxcllana, 1,498 tons, Wheat to Cork, £.3 5s; German ship 
Andromeda, 1,932 tons, Wheat to Cork, £3 3s; British 
ship l'rinct Louw, 1,329 tons, with Wheat to Cork, £3 5s; 
Cork or Havre, £'S 7s 6d; British iron ship Dumbarton' 
shirr, 072 tons. Wheat to Cork £3 7s 6d. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

Boston, Dec 24. — The demand for Wool keeps up well 
for the season. Business has been larger since the com- 
mencement of the month than in any previous December 
on record. The transactions this week have been some 
3,350,000 lbs, including 1,000.000 lbs of Fall California, to 
arrive per ship, Indiana that left San Francisco December 
101b. Washed fleeces are a shade easier, as quite a num- 
ber of manufacturers are about trying to bear down prices, 
and in some instances have picked up a few lots of Ohio, 
Pennsylvania, Michigan and Wisconsin, at some conces- 
sion, but, generally speaking, all kinds of Wool are held 
with considerable firmness. For medium fleeces there 
has been a better feeling, and reasonable lots are difficult 
to obtain without some advance on recent prices; combing 
ami delaine fleeces are quiet, but this is ill consequence of 
the small Btotk. We shall probably import largely of this 
description, as the buyer of the largest mill in the country 
recently left for Great Britain, where, about this time last 
year, this mill bought several million pounds. About one- 
half the sales this week was California Wool, upward of 
1,500,000 B.8 having been taken by manufacturers. The 
clip of that State is fast passing into the hands of con- 
sumers. Sales of washed fleeces have been 275,0^0 lbs, 
and include Ohio and Pennsylvania XX and XXX and 
shawl, at 47(ft4Uc. The leading buyers are picking up all 
the XX that cotilu be had at 47 < 17 ■■■ No. 1 Ohio ranges 
from 49c to 50c; Michigan and Wisconsin X, : J. ' i : : ; 
combing and delaine floeces, 46; coarse, 50; fine delaine, 
52 J for fine and medium combing, and 40 for unwashed. 
Kentucky sales of unwashed and unmerchantable fieeces 
have been 500.000 lbs, from 19 to 40, as to quality and con- 
dition, un hiding, largely, medium grades at 33<£40 V lb. 
Sales of California have ranged from 27 to 47 for Spring, 
and 16 to 32 for Fall. Pulled Wools have been in moder- 
ate request, but are firm, with sales at 40,(350 for fair and 
good supers, and 52 for choice extra and main. The sales 
of foreign Wool huve been 206,000 fbs of Montevideo, at 
35(338; 115.000 lbs Australia, at 40(^45; 43,000 lbs of Cape, 
i -. > 1 in bond, and 30</r32 duty paid, and several small 
lots of car|>et at various prices, as to quality. Carpet 
Wools are scarce and firm. 

Boston, Dec. 18 —The Wool market is comparatively 
quiet This is usually a quiet season, but sales are larger 
than could reasonably be expected, with a prospect of an 
active market in January and February. There is no 
change in prices. Some buyers are anxiously looking up 
cheap lots, but holders are generally firm and indifferent 
about selling. Sales of Ohio and Pennsylvania fleeces, 47 
49 for X, XX and XXX; Michigan and Wisconsin X, 42} 
<«43}; medium fleeces, 33.S40, as to quality. Combing and 
delaine selections remain the same, and the most desir- 

le grades are firm at 50 for fine delaine and 62}@55 for 
fine and medium combing, but stocks are iiirht and sales 
are limited. California Wool is steady at25(J37 for Spring, 
and 28(332 for Fall, with a fair demand. Pulled Wools 
are firmer, with stocks well sold up. with common and 
good supers at 3 r <fM3. and choice 50<tt52. In foreign Wool 
there is no movement of any importance, but stock9 are 
held firm. 

Eastern Grain and Provision Markets. 

New York, Dec. 27 —Markets, as a rule, are generally 
quiet. Wheat is l)@2c higher and more active on cables 
from the British markets, announcing the deficiency in 
the yield and quality of English Wheat upon obtaining re- 
sults of the spring sowing. There was a good export in- 
quiry at the close, but higher prices are being asked. 
Business was checked, and the demand was partly on old 
contracts and partly on new orders from the other side. 
Barley is quiet and firm. Pork is dull and nominal Lard 
is 10c" higher and active. 

BAGS— There is no change in Bags, except the moving 
of Detrick & Co.'s establishment to a splendid store on 
Market St. 

BARLEY — The demand has slackened off, and rates are 
a little lower all around. We note sales: 400 sks good 
Chevalier, $1.15; and 600 do poor light Brewing, 11.10. 

BEANS— There is no change, except in Small White 
Beans, which have advanced 10c # ctl. Many Beans now 
arriving are touched by the weather. 

CORN— There is no White Corn now in. A little choice 
old Yellow is held above the market. Our prices in the 
table are for new Corn. 

DAIRY PRODUCE— Butter is still in slack supply, and 
rates are firm. Scarcely anything sells below 40c V tt>- 
The receipts are, as a rule, of good quality. 

EGGS— Eggs are unchanged, and the disposition a little 
weak. 

FEED— Corn Meal is reduced $2(32.50 V ton. 

FRESH MEAT— Meats are still abundant and low. 
They are lower than might be expected at this season of 
the year. , 

FRUIT -There is nothing new except an advance in Mexi" 
can Limes and a reduction in California Lemons In 
Dried Fruit there has been a decline of lc per lb on Dried 
Apples. 

HOPS— The choicest California Hops are lc lower, the 
price being now 20c per tt> for the best. Hops, by tele- 
graph from New York, are weak. Emmet Wells, iu his 
circular of December 17th, says of the New York trade : 

The dull season has commenced in good earnest. Aside 
from the small export movement very' '«» Hops have 
changed hands. The receipts show a falling off of some 
I,6u0 as compared with last week, while the shipments to 
London exceed last week's by 300 bales. A feature worthy 
of note is the continued arrival here of German Hops. 
The arrivals, though small, show a steady increase year 
after year, indicating that our German -American brewers 
—like English brewers— will use them to a certain extent, 
regardless of the cost. These Hops ars put up in round 
••pockets" weighing 400 to 800 lbs each, so that every 100 
pockets that are imported take the place of about 250 
balesof American Hops. No revival of business is now an- 
ticipated until after the new year, and if growers will only 
have the good sense not to force their Hops upon unwill- 
ing buyers, there is every chance that all the good Hops 
will be wanted at fair prices when buyers get ready to do 
business again. We widen the range of our quotations 
thia week, quoting Yearlings and low grades of new 2 eta 
off. 

OATS— The trade is still small, and rates anshauged. 



We note sales: 300 sks Black Norway, $1.30; and 400 de 
fair Humboldt Feed, $125. 
ONIONS— There Is no change. 

POTATOES — Many poor Potatoes are arriving, and there 
is a wider range in values, some Petalumas and Tomales 
Belling as low as 50c V sack. 

PROVISIONS— There is not much variation in Provis- 
ion prices. The trade is fair. 

POULTRY AND GAME — Hens and Roosters are lower. 
Ducks aud Turkeys maintain their values without change. 

VEGETABLES— A little Asparagus has sold at 30(835c, 
and Mushrooms sell at 8@l0c. Marrowfat Squash is lower 
and abundant. 

WHEAT— The current rates are reduced about 2}c pe r 
ctl. and there is little doing: 400 sks No. 1, to a miller, 
$1.46^; 100 tons and 350 sks No. 1, $1.46; 100 tons good 
Shipping, $l.42}<ai.45; 1,300 and 900 sks No. 2, $1.42}; 
1,300 do off grade, $1.37}; 1,300 and 600 do do, $1 35; 350 
do do, $1.27}; 1,100 do do, $1.15, and 240 and 200 tous No- 
1 Shipping, private. 

WOOL— There has been nothing done since the large 
sale of low grade Wool reported two weeks ago. There Is 
now not much on hand; one dealer says not more than 
1,500,000 lbs, and of this 350,000 is eastern Oregon. Most 
of that now held is of medium quality, with a few choice 
lots of Northern. Prices are unchanged. 

Signal Service Meteorological Report 

Sax Francisco. —Week ending Dec. 28, 1880. 

BTSHaST AND LOWEST SAROM ETia. 



Dec. 25 


Dec 26 


Dec. 27 


Dec. 28 


30.227 


30.246 


30.213 


80.256 


29.943 


80.197 


30.164 


30.211 



MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM 111 ERMGMBTBR. 



H 

62 



80 

63 



85 .3 | 



61 I CI 
| 63 | 66 | 64 

M KAN DA1LT IH Mll.ll V. 

| 84.3 1 $1 | 86.3 | 87.7 | 87.7 
prbvailino wind. 
SB | SE | 8 | 8 | N | W | SE 

WIND — MILES TRAVBLKD. 

138 | 329 | 252 | 397 | 78 | 160 | 169 

STATE Or WRATH EE. 

Cloudy I Cloudy | Cloudy I Cloudy , Clear. I Fair. | Cloudy 

RAINFALL U TWRNTT-rOOa HOUR*. 

.27 I .47 I .OS I .42 I | .41 I 

Total rain during the season, from July 1, ItSO. 12.55 lu 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Sotro A Co.] 

Has Francisco. Dec. 29, S r. u. 

Silvir i 

Gold Bars, 890@910. Silver Bars. 10(818 V sent, la- 

aount. 

Exchange on New York. 12J<315, on London bankers, 19} .{ 
49{. Commercial. 60; Paris, nve francs V dollar; Mexican 
dollars. B)<f(90. 

London Consols, 98 5-16; Bonds (4%), 117}. 

Uoiuksilver In 8. V.. by the flask. » 42J.tf4.-ie lb. 



Domestic Produce. 



kf.*** a pf. as, 

Bayo, oil 1 20 @1 25 

Batter 1 60 .'1 75 

Castor 3 25 W3 50 

Pea — @1 76 

Red 1 20 «1 25 

Pink 1 00 @1 05 

3m l White 1 70 <tl 80 

Lima — 6T2 75 

Field Peaa.b'lk eyel 25 al 37} 
do, green.. 1 10 M 16 
BKOUM t OB.V. 

Southern 3 @ 3 

Northern 4 sj 6 

4HI410BY. 

California (| 4 

German 6}@ 7 

D A I B 1 PBODIC'E, ETC. 

BUTTER. 

Cal. Freeh Roll, lb 37 

do Fancy Brands.. 37 

Pickle Roll 32: 

Firkin, new 32} @ 

Western 22} 

New York 

CHEESE. 

Cheese, Cal. lb 

N. Y. State 

EUOS. 

Cal. fresh, doc. . . . 
do. poor to good.. 

Ducks 

Oregon 

Eastern, by expr'ss. 

Pickled here 

Utah. 

nu. 

Bran, ton 

Corn Meal 23 60 (til 00 

Hay 19 00 tfl5 50 

Middlings 019 00 

Oil Cako Meal... 25 00 I 

Straw, bale 40 « 45 

II. OIK. 
Extra, City Mills 5 12 (35 25 



[wholesale. 1 
Wednesday 



M.. Dec. 29. 1880. 



. @14 00 



Softsh'l 14 & 15 

Brazil 14 A 16 

Pecans 18 a 17 

Peanuts 9 $j 10 

Filberts 17 V 18 

OMO.NM. 

Red - @S 00 

•Hirer Skin S 25 @2 75 

POTATOES. 

Peteluina, ctl 50 A 80 

Tomales 50 a 80 

Humboldt .. I <•< 

" Kidney — « 75 

" Peachblow. 75 » 90 

Jersey Blue 1 00 B 05 

Cufley Cove 1 00 ,< \ 10 

Early Rose, new.. 40 ■ 60 
H If M n Bay. Chile - 1 75 

River, red. 40 ■ 50 

Sweet 60 ' 1 25 

POULTRY at 4.AMK. 

Hens, dos. 6 00 (£7 00 

Roosters 6 00 W6 50 

Broilers 4 00 «<5 00 

Ducks, tame, dot 6 50 V 7 60 

Mallard 3 00 &3 50 

Sprig 1 75 mi 00 

Teal 1 ...H.'.i 

Widgeon 1 25 ml 50 

Gee**, pair 2 00 ml 50 

Wild Gray. doz. 2 00 mi 50 

White do 1 u. *il 25 

Turkeys 15 a 16 

do. Dressed IS £ 1$ 

Snipe Eng 1 25 »1 6C 

do. Common .... 40 W 50 

Quail, doz "1 "J 

Babbits 1 25 ml 50 

Hare 3 uo .at 50 

Venison — ■ — 

i'KIII N9. 

Cal. Bacon, extra 

clear. tt> 

Medium 

Light 

Lard. 



do. Oo'ntry Mills 4 75 #5 00 lOaL Smoked Beef 



95 
rl 25 



do. Oregon 4 75 (S5 00 

do, WaUa Walla 4 75 (35 00 

Superfine 3 75 («4 25 

t'BESU M 1.11. 
Beef. 1st gusTy, B> 5 a 6 

Second — m 4 

Third — & 3 

Mutton 9 « 3 

Spring Lamb 4 (5 4 

Pork, undressed... 4 a 4 

Dressed 1 i ' 6i 

Veal - ( 

Milk Calves 6J. 

do cholos... 7 I 
4. It 1 1 N . ET4-. 
Barley, feed. ctl... 90 i 
do. Brewing... 1 10 I 

Chevalier 1 15 f 1 w 

do. Coast.. 1 00 (gl 10 

Buckwheat 1 40 Ml 45 

Corn. White 97}§1 00 

Yellow 97i@l 00 

Small Round....l 05 Si 10 

Pop Corn - @3 00 

Oats 1 20 -4*1 35 

Milling 1 40 (gl 60 

Bye 1 55 ai 574 

Wheat. No. 1 1 45 ($1 47} 

do. No S. 1 40 ml 42} 

do. No. 3 1 l'i -<l 15 

Choice Milling.. «tl 50 
HIDES. 

Hides, dry - @ 13 

Wet salted 9}<g 10 

HONEY. IK. 

Beeswax, lb 22J«- 25 

Honey in comb.... IH<0 15 

do. No S - a 

Dark 6}<9 

Extracted 7 «9 

HOPS. 

Oregon 16 

California, new ... 18 

Wash. Tor 17 

Old Hops — 8 

M TS Jobbing. 

Walnut*. OaL 9 a 

do Chile 7M 

Almonds. hdsbJ t> * « 



Shoulders., 

Hams, Cal 

Dupee's 

Whlttaxer 

Royal 

BEED8. 

Alfalfa, 

do, Chile 

Canary 

Clover, Red 

Whit* 

Cotton 

Flaxseed 

Hemp • 

Italian Rye Grass 

Perennial SO $ — 

Millet, German ... 

do, Common . . 
Mustard. White... 

Brown 

Rape 

Ky Blue Grass..,.. 

2d quality 16 

Sweet V Grass.... — 

Orchard SO 

Bed Top 

Hungarian 8 

Lawn 30 

Mrxiuit 10 

Timothy 11} 

TALLOW. 

i 'ni.l.\ lb f.'W 6 

Refined 7} 3 7 

WOOL. ETC. 

SPRING-. 
Oregon. Eastern .. 26 Ht 30 
do flue, heavy.. 21 a 24 

do Valley 28 m 

FALL — Lamb's Wool. 

Southern 14 a 15 

Northern, burry... 15 at 17 

do free 18 | 20 

FalL ordin'y, south- 
ern 11 O 14 

Fall.free.mount'n.. 16 si 21 
Humboldt * Men- 
docluo. free, (all 
R Oregon (lamb) 
Valley. I* do... 



S3 O 26 
23 a 25 

■- ■ 



January i, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



13 



Fruits and Vegetables. 



FRUIT MARKET, 

Apples, box 50 @ 1 25 

Biunu, bnch.. 2 00 @ 4 00 
Cocoannts. 100. . 7 00 ® 8 00 
Cranberries. bbl.13 00 ®16 00 

Grapes <& 

Limes, Mex 11 00 ®12 00 

do, Cal, box. . . 8 00 @10 00 
Lemons. Oal bx. 4 00 @ 4 50 

Sicily, box ... . 8 00 # 9 00 

Australian.... @ 

Oranges. Cal M..25 00 @30 00 

do, T»biti... @ 

do, Mexican 25 00 @35 00 

Pears, box — 50 & 1 50 

Pineapples, doz. 8 00 (9 9 00 

Plums, bx @ 

Prunes. German. (8 

Quinces, bx <S 

Raspberries, ch't @ 

Strawber's.ch'st. — — <6C— — 
Sugar Cane, bdle 2 00 @ 2 25 

OKIEU UK I IT. 
Apples, sliced, n> 

do, quartered. 



| WHOLBBALI. i 

Wednesday m.. Dec. 29. 1880. 



Blackberries. . 

Citron 

Dates 

Figs, pressed., 
do, loose.... 



6 (3 


7 


5,f 


6 


20 (3— 


■a 


— <a 


15 


30 


2 9 H 


10 


1 <3 


8 


4 @ 


6 



Peaches 12*@ 15 

do pared... 18 @— 19 
Pears, sliced.... 9(d) 10 
do, peeled... 9@ 11 

Plums 5 ® 6 

Pitted 14 ®— 16 

Prunes 15 @ 174 

Raisins. Cal, bx 2 00 @ 2 25 
do, Halves... 2 25 @ 2 50 
do, Quarters.. 1 fO lit 2 75 

Eighths 2 75 @ 3 00 

Zante Currants.. 8 w 10 
VEUETABXKS. 

Asparagus — 25 @— 30 

Beets, ctl @ 1 00 

Beans, String...— 7 St— 8 

do, Lima.... @ 

Cabbage, 100 lbs (tt— 60 

Carrots, sk — 30 (9— 50 

Cauliflower, doz 1 25 @ 1 50 

Garlic, lb - 3 <|— 3J 

Green Peas, lb . . 

Lettuce, doz 10 

Mushrooms, lb..— 7 

Parsnips, lb 

Horseradish — 

iquasb, Marrow 

fat, tn 6 00 & 7 00 

Turnips, etl — 60 ««— 65 

Rutabaga 1 00 <2 1 25 



Bags and Bagging. 

[jobbing pricks ! 



Bug Standard Wheat. 9 <8 9j 

California Manufacture. 
Hand Sewed, 22x36.. 9 @ 9} 

22x40 - @ - 

23x40 12 @12J 

24x40 13 @13i 

Machine Swd. 22x36 . 9 @ 94 

Flour Sacks, halves.... 9 @10j 

Quarters 5|(8 6j 

Eighths 3J@ 4 

Hessian. 60 Inoh — @12i 



Wednesday m., Dec. 29, 

45 inch 

40 inch 

Wool Sacks, 
Hand Sewed, 35 lb. . 

4 lb do 

Machine Sewed.... 
Standard Gunnies. . . 

Bean Bags 

Twine, Detrick's A... 

A A. 



1880. 

m 

- @47 
52ir«j55 

- @4B 

- @>,0 
6J<a 7J 

- <»35 

- «37 



Commission Merchants. 

J. M. HIXSON. CHAS. JUSTI. W. D. HIXSON. 

HIXSON, JUSTI & CO., 
Commission Merchants, 

For sale of Green and Dried Fruits, Oranges, Rais- 
Idb, Honey, Beans, Potatoes, Onions, Poul- 
try and Eggs, Hides, Tallow, Wool, 
Grain, Hops, etc All kinds of busi- 
ness promptly attended to. 

403 Davis St, and 204 Washington St., S. F. 



EUGENE AVY, 
SHEEP and WOOL Commission Merchant, 

320 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 
Advances made on Consignments. 

GEO. F. COFFIN & CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

NO. 13 PINE STREET, 
UNION BLOCK, SAN FRANCISCO. 

Special attention given to Consignmentsof Grain and Fruit. 

SHOOBERT & BEALE, 
Commission Merchants, 

FOR THE SALE OF 

Wool and all Kinds of Live Stock. 

405 & 407 Montgomery St., S. F. 
ADVANCES MADE ON WOOL AND LIVE STOCK 

DALTON & GRAY, 

Commission Merchants 

And Wholesale Dealers In all kinds of 

Country Produce, Fruits, Etc. 

404 and 406 Davis St, 
Bet. Washington and Jackson, SAN FRANCISCO. 

CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED. 

SIMON SWEET &. CO., 
Wholesale Commission Merchants, 

GRAIN, POTATOES, FRUIT. BUTTER, EGGS, POUL- 
TRY, GAME, WOOL, WOOL BAGS, HIDES, 
PELTS, BEANS, TWINE, TALLOW, etc., 
and CALIFORNIA and OREGON 
PRODUCE of ALL KINDS. 
206 Washington Street, San Francisco. 
Consignments Solicited. 




Liberal advances on consignments. 

Wool Sacks, Twine, Shears, and Ranch Sunplles furnished 



PAGE, MOORE & CO., 

WOOL and GRAIN 

Commission Merchants. 
NOS. 211 AND 213 CLAY STREET. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



DAVIS & SUTTON, 

No. 76 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce 

RsywuKOE.— Tradesmen's National Bans, N. Y.; EU 
wanger k Bairy, Rochester, N. Y. ; C. W. Reed; Sacra 
mento, Cal : A. Lusk & Co. San Francisco, CaL 



(Established in 1863.) 

BRYANT & COOK. 
Commission Merchants, 

DEALERS IN GRAIN, FLOUR, ETC. 

8 Davla St.. near Market. S. F. 



SIOO PRESENT! 

For a Machine that will 
Saw as Fast and Easy 
as this one. 





This Is the Kin* of Saw Machines. It 
Baws off a 2 foot log- In 2 minutes. 
20,000 in use. The cheapest machine 
made, and fully warranted. Circular free. 
United States Manufacturing Co., Chlciflo, III. 

JAPANESE 

LILIES. 

Just received, NEW and RARE Varieties. Wholesale 
and Retail. Prices on application. For description see 
Catalogue, frte to all. 

Japanese Persimmon Trees, 

Large fruited— best sorts. One, Two and Three year 
old Trees. Address 

THOS. A. COX &CO, Seed Merchants, 

409 SANSOME STREET, S. F. 



JOHN SAUL'S 
Catalogue of New, Rare and Beau- 
tiful Plants 

Will be ready in February, with a Colored Plate. It is 
full in really good and beautiful plants. New Drarena*, 
New Crotoiis, New Pelargoniums. New Roses; Geraniums, 
Clematises, Etc., with a rich collection of Fine Foliage 
and other Greenhouse and Hothouse Plants, well grown 
and at low prites. Free to all my customers; to others 
10 cents, or a plain copy free. Catalogue of Seeds and 
Roses free. 

JOHN SAUL, Washington, D. C. 



HOPE ™ DEAF 

Garmore's Artificial Ear Drums 

PERFECTLY RESTORE THE HEARING 

and perform the work of the Nalural Drum. 
Always in position, but invisible lo others. All 
Conversation Ami even whispers heard distinctly. We 
refer to those using them. fVnd for descriptive circular. 

OAKMOKE A CO.. 11T \n St.. New York, 

or K W. Corner uth A Race Htm., CIimIiiiiiUI, O. 



Grape Cuttings for Sale. 



Charboneau, B. Malvoise, Muscat of Alexandria, Rose 
of Peru. $5 .00 per thousand, delivered at the Santa Clara 
Railroad depot. 
N. B.— Vines 8 years old and healthy. Address 
J. C MERITHEW, 

Santa Clara, (Sal. 



DOBYN'S Ml CUBE 

For CATARRH, COLD IN THE 
kHEAD, NEURALGIA. TOOTH- 
Iache and all kindred com- 
' plaints. 

H. LOOMIS, 
320 Sansome St.. S. F. 
ONE DOLLAR PER BOX 




CUTTINGS! 

White Muscat of Alexandria, 

83.50 PER THOUSAND. 
Cuttings rooted for next year if desired and ordered 
now. Refers to Onesti & Connor as to quality, etc., Of 
vineyard. Address CHAS. E. SHILLABER, 
Cordelia, Solano Co., Cal 



JOHN JENNINGS. 
Hoopers South End Grain Warehouses, 

Cor. Japan and Townsend Sta., S. P. 
First-class Fire-proof Brick Building. Capacity, 10,000 
tous. Goods taken from the Dock and the Cars of the C. P. 
R. R. and S. P. R. R. free of charge. Storage at Current 
Rates. Advances and Insurance effected. 



Lowest prices ever known 
on Ure«*<*h - Loader*, 
ltifles, and Revolvers, 

OUR $15 SHOT-GUN 

I tit greatly reduced price. 
' Send stamp for our New 
Illustrated Catalogue Mi) 
F.POWELL & BON, 838 Main Street, CINCINNATI, O. 





Is an Elegant Book of 120 Paees, One Col- 
ored Flower Plate, and 600 Illustrations, 

with Descriptions of the best Flowers and Vegetables, 
and directions for growing. Only 10 cents. In English 
or German. If you afterwards order seeds deduct the 10 
cents. 

VICK'S SEEDS are the best in the world. The 
Floral Guide will tell how to get and grow them. 

Vlck's Flower and Vesetable Garden. 175 
Pages, 6 Colored Plates, 500 Engravings. For 50 cents 
in paper covers; $1.00 in elegant cloth. In German or 
English. 

Vlck's Illustrated Monthly Magazine— 32 

pages, a Colored Plate in every number and many fine 
Engravings. Price $1.25 a year; Five Copies for $5.00. 
Specimen Numbers sent for 10 cents; 3 trial copies for 25 
cents. Address 

J A.MES VICK, Rochester, N. Y. 



SWINE! 



SWINE!! 



Having engaged in Fruit Growing, am determined to 
close out my entire stock of Thoroughbred Poland China 
Swine (all of good Pedigree) by the First of February 
next. Prices, Crated and delivered at the Railroad De- 
pot, with Food for journey. Brood Sows, in Pig, $20; 
Boars. 10 to 12 months old, $12; Shoats, 5 to 6 months 
old, $7 each, $12 a pair and $15 per trio. 

Also, Black Cochin Chickens and Eggs for sale, ' 
Jerusalem Artichokes for sale in large or small lots. 
Address 

T. C. STARR, 
San Bernardino, Cal. 



GRAPE CUTTINGS 

Send orders for all varieties required for planting to the 
undersigned. Prices, with advice as to selection of va- 
rieties, will he given on demand. Orders for Charbono, 
Mataro, Sauvign«n Verte, Folle Blanche, Golden Chag- 
selas, and other most valuable wine Grapes, should be 
sent promptly, bo that engagements may be in time from 
healthy vineyards. A fine as-sortment of raisin yjid table 
varieties to be had; alsn, a few thousand seedlings of the 

VITIS CALIFORNICA, 

Suitab'e for grafting. Wild Grape Seeds, $1 per pound. 
Missouri and Texas phylloxera-proof storks procured to 
order. CHAS A. WETMORE, 

111 Liedesdorff Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



TRADE 




MARK. 



LITTLE'S CHEMICAL FLUID. 

The New Non-Poisonous Sheep Dip and Disinfectant. 
Price reduced to $1.60 per gallon. For directions and tes- 
timonials apply to FALKNER, BELL Hz CO., 
Sole Agents, 430 California Street, S F. 

RUSBY & MERY'S 
IMPROVED FEED MILL, 

Using the Benoit Corrugated Rollers. 

More durable, crushes more grain. No danger of grain 
heating. It is used by the leading grain raisers in pref- 
erence to feed ground with burs. Sole Agents and Man- 
ufacturers for the Pacific Coast, Chico, Cal. 



JAMES HANNAY'S NURSERY. 

East San Jose, Cal. 



I offer for sale, at low prices, a well assorted, healthy, 
and well grown stock of one and two year old Nursery 
Stock. Prompt attention given to all orders. 

JAMES HANNAY, San Jose. 



FRUIT TREES FOR SALE. 

Apple, Peach, Pear, Apricot, Plum, Prune, English 
Walrut, Orange, and many other kinds of Fruit Trees, 
Vines, Etc., for sale at the lowest cash prices. Send 
for price list. 

MILTON THOMAS, 
Box 304, Los Angeles, Cal. 

"NEW" 
Hydraulic Ram! 

The only Horizontal Ram made. Will do 
good work on light fall. Send for Circular 

H. F. MORROW, Chester, Pa. 
GRAPE CUTTINGS. 



Orders for Malvoisie, Zinfandel, Muscat, Black Ham- 
burg, Rose of Peru, Riessling and 100 other different va- 
rieties of Grape Cuttings will be received at 

EISEN VINEYARD, Fresno, Cal. 



Mission Rock Dock and Grain Warehouse. 

San Francisco, Cal. 
40,000 tons capacity. Storage at lowest rates. 
CHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Supt 
CALIFORNIA DRY DOCK CO. • - Proprietors. 
Office — 318 California Street, Room S. 



J. H. Wythe, M. D. 

Residence: Office: 
965 West Street. Oakland. 759 Market St., San Francisco 
Before 10 A. M , after 5 p. M. | From 11 a. m. to 3 p. M. 



J. D. ENAS, Sunnyside, Napa, Cal. Breeds Pure 
Italian Queeu Bees. Cow } - Foundation. 



ALL KINDS OF 

Fruit, Shade & Ornamentu 

TREES, 

EVERGREENS, FLOWERING PLANTS, SHRUBBERY 
VINES, Etc. ORANGE and LKMON TREES of 
the best tested Varieties Budded ON 
THE ORANGE ROOT. 

Also a large stock of well rooted Grapevines, free from 
Phylloxera, having been grown by irrigation. We have 
the leading varieties for raisins, shipping or wyie, inclu- 
ding Muscat, Muscatelle, Gordo Blanco, Seedless Sultana, 
Emperor, Tokays, Hamburg and Zinfindel. 

Our specialties consist of many new fruits, tested by ug 
and known to he valuable. AIbo, Japanese Persimmon 
Trees, one and two years old from graft, and extra fine 
roots. We have Olive plants one year old, of both the 
Picholinne and Spanish varieties, in fact, everything us- 
ually kept in FirBt-class Nurseries. 

Office and Tree Depot, I Street, between 
7th and 8th, Sacramento Cal. 

Send for Price Catalogue. Address CAPITAL NURS- 
ERIES, Box 407 Sacramento, Cal., or Penryn, Placer 
County, Cal. 

WILLIAMSON 6L CO., Prop's. 

THE 

GIANT c SAW 

iM e 
MACHINE. 




TIiih Wonderful Improved 

SAW MACHINE 

Is warranted to saw a 2 r«m« l«c llirrc tnln- 
«ite»,and more cord won.] or logsof any 8ize in a 
day than l«o men pan chop or saw the old way. 
Every Farmer and I uiiiIk rinan needs one. 
ACENTS WANTED <li ( Mliuniid terms Free. 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR TO 

LINFORTH. RICE <fc CO., 

General Agents for the Pacific Coast, 
333 and 335 Market Street, San Francisco. 



H. S. SARGENT, 

Importer, Breeder and Shipper of 

Th.orough.bred Stock. 

Poland China or Magie Pigs 
from Imported Stock. 

Thoroughbred Jersey Bull. 
Abo two Jersey Bull Calves, 

Strictly thoroughbred, for sale cheap. 

Bronze Turkeys for sale, bred from 
Imported stock. 

Address H. S. SARGENT, Stockton, Cal 
(Care Grangers' Union. 



HOTEL De REDWOOD. 
100 ACRES OF LAND, 

At the summit of the Santa Cruz Mountains, near the 
Southern Pacific Kailroad, comprising the famous HO- 
TEL De REDWOOD, one of the most popular resorts in 
the country, everything in order for boarders and 

FOR SALE CHEAP. 

One half the land is first quality GRAPE AND OR. 
CHARD LAND, and the rest TIMBER AND PASTURE. 
Inquire of 

M. P. OWEN, 

Soquel, Cal. 



Santa Cruz Homes. 

365 Acres of Timber, Grass, Grain 
and Fruit Land, 2 Miles from 
Santa Cruz, at $30 per acre. 

Well watered and pleasantly situated to make three 
good homes or one good 

DAIRY FARM. 

It is all fenced, and good buildings on it. I offer at a 
bargain, to go into other business. G. H. SMITH. 

M. P. OWEN, Soquel, Cal. 



Giles II. Gray. James M. Hayek. 

GRAY & HAVEN, 
Attorneys and Counsellers-at-Law, 

530 California St., SAN FRANCISCO. 

A. Aitkin. F. N. Fisn. 

AITKEN & FISH, 

Premium Pioneer Marble Works, 

617 K St., Bet Sixth & Seventh, - SACRAMENTO, CAL. 



Cf\ Chromoa, name in new type. 10c. by mail. iO Agt' 
JU Samples, 10c. U. 8. Card Co., Northford, CU 



14 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January i, 1881. 




INSURANCE T COMPANY. 
ASSETS OVER ONE MILLION DOLLARS. 



The FIREMAN'S FUND INSURANCE COMPANY bases its claims to the best patronage upon its sound flDan 
cial condition, reinforced by its accession of capital, giving it over a million dollars in assets; its extensive system of 
Agencies, insuring it a large premium income, without the necessity of heavy concentration of lines; its adherence to 
he best principles and practices of Underwriting; by open, fair, and clearly expressed cuutractg, and prompt and 
equitable adju^ment and payment of legitimate losses. 

D J. STAPLES, President GEO. D DORNIN, Secretary. 

ALPHEUS BULL, Vice-President. W. J. DUTTON, Asst. Secretary. 

AGENTS IN ALL PRINCIPAL LOCALITIES. 



Nathaniel Oiirry <fc Bro., 

113 Sansome Street. San Francisco, 




Sole Agents for the 

Sharps Rifle Co., of Bridgeport, Conn. 

FOR CALIFORNIA, OREGON, ARIZONA, NEVADA, WASHINGTON TERRITORY AND IDAHO. 

Also Agents for W. W GREENER'S Celebrated Wedgefast, Chokebore, Breech-loading DOUBLE GUNS; and 
all kinds of GUNS, RI FLES and I'IsTi >LS made by the Lcuding Manufacturers of Eugland and America. 
AMMUNITION of all kinds in quantities to suit. 



LAUTZ BROS &, CO.'S SOAPS. 

Stearine, Marseilles, Cotton Oil and Acme'. 



THESE GOODS ARE THE BEST IN THE MARKET. ASK YOUR GROCER 
FOR THEM AND TAKE NO OTHERS. 

0. L. BECK & SONS, Agents Pacific Coast, No. 309 Sacramento Street, S. F. 



d 1 * DESCRlPj^r r Po^r 





&OK 1881 



Will h* mailed rutx to all ajpl Iran u, and to antomers without 
ordering it. It contains five colored pint* 1 *, 6U0 WflBflllA 
•bout 2i>0 p*cei, full dmcriptlcoi, friem and Mrv^tiofi for 
planting 1500 Yarwties of Y> fc *euM« and Klowr S*.>fi«. 1'lanta, 

IKosci, etc. InvuluaMe to all. Michigan grown aacdi will la 
found ninTa reliable faff plnnting in th<r tof fttw i m than th"s» 
pewn farther South. We make a tpecialty of supplying 
Market Gard>n<v«. Addro*, 

D. M. FEURY & CO. , Detroit, Mich. 



COMBINED 

Pantry Dresser & Side-Board. 

The most unique and useful article for the housekeeper. 
The Flour Bins can be cleaned from the bottom. Call 
and examine or send for circular and price. 

L. O. HUDSON, Stockton, Cal. 

VETERINARY HOMEOPATHY ! 

Every Farmer and Stock Raiser should have a Veterin- 
ary Honiceopatic Manual and Medicine Chest. 
Bend for Veterinary Index (mailed free on application). 

BOZSRICKZl df, TAFEL, 

Homoeopathic Pharmacy, 234 Sutter St., S. F 

AUZERAIS HOUSE, 

Santa Clara Street, San Jose, Cal. 

CHAS. E. PEARSON, Proprietor. 

Strictly First-Class and Moderate Charges. 

OTAuzerai* House Coach and Carriages in attendance 
on arrival of Trains. 



Notice! 
EEC- IEEE - IEEE 



Zimmerman 
Fruit and Vegetable 
DRIER AND BAKER. 

larsand read 

description and testimonials! LINFORTH, RICE 
& CO., General Agents for Pacific Coast, 323 & 325 
Market St., S. F. 




50 



New Style Cards. Lithographed in bright colors, 10c. 
i* Ag"ts. Sanolss 10c Ceun. Card Co. Nertbfurd, ft 



Horse Medicine, 

D. D. T. 1868. 



THE ORE AT POPULARITY OF OIK II. H. EL HORSE 
MEDICINE, D. D. T. 186$ AS A 

FAMILY LINIMENT 

HAS INDUCED US TO PUT UP A SMALL SIZE. 
THREE SIZES CAN NOW BE HAD AT EVERY 
DRUG STORE AND NEARLY EVERY GRO- 
CERY STORE on Tin PACIFIC COAST. 

Price of Large Size, $2.50. 

Medium Size. $1.00. 

Small Size, 50 Cents 



ABk your Druggist for it and if he ban not the size you 
want, request him to send tor it, either to the wholesale 
Druggists cjf San Francisco; Portland, Oregon; or Sac- 
ramento. 

KS" VVo recommend the largest sizes for use on horses 

as it contains more Liniment for the money. 

We Guarantee the Liniment to Have Ex- 
actly the Same Strength in 
all Three Sizes. 



Stockton, February 4, 1SS0, II. H. Moore A Son, having 
this day pucahased the r.ght, title and interest of Wil- 
liam k Moore, in the H. H II Horse Medicine, will con- 
tinue its manufacture as sole proprietors. 

H. H. MOORE & SONS, Druggists, 



Sole Proprietors, 



- Stockton, Cal. 



To Fis h R aisers. 

I am now ready to sell Carp which were imported from 
Germany in 1872, in lots to suit. Address 



J. A. POPPS, Sonoma, CaL 



1850. THE H. C. SHAW 1880 

Plow Works- 




GANG PLOWS AND EXTRAS. 

No. 201 and 203 El Dorado Street, Stockton. 

THE STOCKTON^ GANG PLOW, 

Over 2,000 of H. C. Shaw's Improved Patent Stockton Gang: Plows Sold in Five Years. 

Cahoon and Gem Seed Sower*, narrows, Etc. Buckeye Mower Extras, and Extras for all Plows and Machines 
I hare sold for the past TWENTY YEARS in this valley. i»-Send for Circular and price list. Always on hand 

a full stock of Single Plows. 



C. D. Ladd, 

821 Kearny Street, San Francisco Cal., 

C. D. LADD & CO., Branch House, 49 First Street, Portland, Or. 




Sole Agents for the Pacific Coast 

FOR THE 

BALLARD RIFLE. 

Full line of Winchester, Burgess and Kennedy Magazine Rifles. Sharps and Remingrton. 
Complete Assortment of Breech and Muzzle Loading Shot Guns of all Makers. 
Pistols of all Descriptions. Ammunition of all Kinds, Wholesale and Retail. 

SEND FOR 1880 PRICE LIST- 



E. DBTRICK. 



J. H. NICHOLSON 



E. DETRICK <& CO., 

SOLE PROPRIETORS AND MANUFACTURERS OF THE CELEBRATED 

DETRIGK "E W " 22x36 GRAIN BAG. 

CALCUTTA, DUNDEE and PACIFIC JUTE HAND-SEWED BAGS alway* on hand. 
OUR No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 SECOND-HAND GRAIN BAGS selected and graded with care. 



f ■ ! <B»TTT TaTT^O S, 4 and 5-ply for Grain Bags, 6 and 8-ply for Potato Gunnies, S-ply extra fini for Flour 
JL YV JL£% XslS> a Bags, made expressly for our trade and QUALITY GUARANTEED. 

FLOUR BAGS printed to order wrrnotrr extra cmR.es. POTATO GUNNIES, Wool, Bean, Or* and 

Salt and Seamless Cotton Bags. 

Sole agents west of the Rocky Mountains for Russell Manufacturing Company's 

Patent Solid Cotton Belting, 

tr CHEAPER THAN LEATHER OR RUBBER, AND BETTER THAN EITHER. ■» 

119, 121 and 124 Clay St., and 118 and 120 Commercial St., San Francisco 



IMPORTANT TO FARMERS! 
WHITE RUSSIAN SEED WHEAT. 

NEW VARIETY— SURE CROP — LARGE YIELD. 



This new variety of wheat commends itself to the California farmers, for its strong and healthy growth; its 
great productiveness, and above all, its NON RUSTING qualities. It has been successfully grown in Ventura Co., 
on the sea coast, where until the introduction of this variety and the " Odessa," all other kinds have invariably 
failed in consequence of Rust. It is a bald, white chaff wheat, stands well after ripening, and not liable to lodge 

lien green. It has proven itself to be ahealthy and sure crop wheat, yielding this year an average of 50 bushels to 

IS acre. The White Russian Wheat was first grown in Wisconsin, where it pioved itself to be the best spring 
Wheat over raised in that State. It astouished all who tried it for its great productiveness, and no Wheat ever 
thrown in this country received such unanimous commendation. It was increased from a small quantity received 
from Russia, and has been known as the White Russian, though it is not exactly white, but much lighter than 
most varieties of Spring Wheat. 

A limited quantity of this Seed Wheat, and of the Celebrated ODESSA NON-RUSTING Wheat grown 
from seed imported Irom Russia last year for sale by 

A. G-E3R.BERSI1VG-, 214 California Street, San Francisco. 



THE KENNEDY REPEATING RIFLE. 




24-inch Barrel. 15 Shots in Magazine. 
Weight, 8 1-2 to 9 Pounds. 

USES THE WINCHESTER MODEL 187S CARTRIDGE, 44 CALIBRE, 40 ORAIN8, CENTER FIRE. 
Out of 600 Glass Balls thrown from a trap, 479 werf broken with this Rifle. Prices Low. Circulars on application to 

E. T. ALLEN, Pacific Coast Agent, 

416 Market St., San Francisco, 



January i, 1881.] 



TIE P JL € I F I C RURAL PRESS. 



15 



Seeds, Plants, Etc. 




My Animal Catalogue of Vegetable and 
Flower Seed for 1881, rich in engravings from pho- 
tographs of the originals, will be sent FREE to all who 
apply. My old customers need not write for it. I offer 
one of the largest collections of vegetable seed ever-sent 
out by any seed House in America, a large portion of 
which were grown on my 9ix seed farms, full direc- 
tion* for cultivation *n each package. All seed warran- 
ted to be both fresh and true to name; so far, that Bboiild 
it prove otherwise, / will refill the order gratis The 
original introducer of the Hubbard Squash, Phinney's 
Melon, Marblehead Cabbages, Mexican Corn, and scores 
of other vegetables, I invite the patronage of nil who are 
anxious to have their eeed directly from the grower, 
fresh, true, and of the very best strain. 
NEW VEGETABLES A SPECIALTY. 

JAMES J. H. GREGORY, Marblehead, Mass. 

R.J. TRUMBULL & CO., 

Growers, Importers, Wholesale and 
Retail Dealers In 




►"LOWERING PLANTS, BULBS, FRUIT AND OR- 
NAMENTAL TREES, ETC. FANCY WIRE DE- 
SIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYRIN- 
GES, GARDEN HARDWARE, ETC. 

FREE TO APPLICANTS.— Odr Descriptive Ili.cs 
trated Catalogue of Sebds, Trees, Plants, Etc. 

B. J. TRUMBULL & CO., 

419 and 421 Sansome Street, S. P. 

"strawberry plants. 

Choicest Varieties for Home Use & Market 

SHARPLESS, CAPTAIN JACK, FOREST ROSE, CUM- 
BERLAND TRIUMPH, GLENDALE, BETH BOY- 
DEN, " MINER'S GREAT PROLIFIC," PRESI- 
DENT LINCOLN, PRESIDENT WILDER, 
HUDDLESTON'S FAVORITE, MARVIN, 
LONGFELLOW, WARREN, AND 
Many Otbbrs NEW and OLD. 

" CUTHBERT RASPBERRY " 

And 16 other Varieties, New and Old. 

Plants Large, Stocky, Healthy and carefully selected. 
A few thousand vines of Table Grapes, well rooted, one 
and two year old, $20 to $30 per 1,000. 

Send for circular giving honest descriptions and accu- 
rate illustrations. Address 

C. XVI. SILVA & SON, 

Newcastle, Placer County, Cal. 



1,000,000 

Strawberry, Raspberry and Cranberry 

PLANTS FOR SALE. 

Per Dozen, 100 1,000 

Strawberry Plants— Pres. Wilder 

N. J. Scarlet, Sterling. Great American. 

Pres. Lincoln. Triomphe de gaud 

Wilson Albany, Charles Downing 

Essex Beauty Earlv, Centennial 

Monarch of the West, Cinderella 

Raspberry Plants— Cutnbert Early 

Pride of the Hudson, Brandy wine 

Herstine, Clark, Philadelphia Red 

Henrietta, Hornet, Early Prolific 

Blackberry Plant*— Beering Seedling. . . . 

Mammoth Cluster, Vina Seedling 

Kittatinny. Dorchester, Karly Cluster... 
Graft Vines— Bl'k Hamburg, Bl'k Prince. 

Cranberry Vines I do not sell less than 10.000 vines in one 
order, at $10 per 1,000. If sent by mail add 20 cts. per dozen, 
and 50 cts. per hundred. Postottice address, 
H. NYLAND, Bouldin Island, San Joaquin Co. 



$ 0.50 


$ 1.50 


I 5.00 


0.60 


1.75 


6.00 


0.50 


1.50 


5.00 


0.50 


1.50 


5.00 


0.60 


1.75 


6.00 


1.00 


2 00 


10. 110 


1.60 


5.00 


35.00 


1.50 


4.00 


30.00 


1.25 


4.00 


25.011 


1.25 


4.00 


25.00 


1.25 


4.00 


25.00 


l.ou 


3. CO 


20.00 


1.00 


3.00 


20.00 


2.00 


8.00 


50.00 



Vitis Californica. 

Fresh seeds of the Vitis Californica, collected from 
selected vigorous and prolific wild vines in Lake county, 
near Harbin's Springs, furnished by mail in packages of 
one pound and upwards, on receipt of $1 per pound i" 
postage stamps, paper currency or coin, to any address in 
the United States. Address 

C. MATTIER, 
Middletown, Lake Co., Cal. 
Refers by permission to Chas. A. Wetmore, member of 
the State Yilicultural Commission, at whose suggestion 
the seeds have been carefully collected. 



Grape Cuttings Wanted. 

In order to be able to fill orders that are coming in for 
grape cuttings, I desire to know from reliable vine-grow- 
ers what qualities they can agree to furnish— stating place 
where grown, -varieties guaranteed and named, length of 
cutting and low est prices delivered at some railway station 
(or shipment, and time when they will be ready to deliver 
No cuttings accepted from diseased vines. 

CHAS. A. WETMORE, 
Viticultural Colonization Agency 
No 111 Leidcsdorft Street, S. F. 



GEO. F. SILVESTER, 

IMPORTER, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN 



Q 



2 Fruit and Evorgrson. Trees, Plants, Etc. 
q ALFALFA, GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS 

04 In Large Quantities and Offered in Lots to Suit Purchasers. 
< 

g Hedge Shears, Pruning and Budding Knives. Green House Syringes, Etc. 
Seed Warehouse, 317 Washington St., San Franciseo. 



r 
o 

W 

W 

w 

O 




ALBERT DICKINSON, 
Dealer in Timothy, Clover, Flax, Hungarian, Millet, Red Top, 
Blue Grass, Lawn Grass, Orchard Grass, Bird Seeds, Etc. 
POP CORN. 

115, 117 and 119 Kinzie Street, CHICAGO, ILLINO S. 



SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 

Importers, growers of, wholesale and retail dealers in 




Field, Grass, Flower and Tree Seeds. 

CLOVER, ALFALFA, 

BULBS, FRUIT, ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC. 

We call the attention of farmers and country merchants 
to our unusually low prices. £2TTrade price 
list on application. 

We issue the most complete guide to the Vegetable and 
Flower Garden ever issued upon this coast. It is hand- 
somely illustrated, and contains full descriptions of Vege- 
tables, Flowers, Grasses, Trees, etc., with full instruc- 
tions as to their culture; mailed free on application. 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 

607 Sansome Street, S. F. 



J. P. SWEENEY & CO., 
SEEDSMEN, 

Nos. 409 and 411 Davis Street, between 
Washington and Jackson, S F 



Having on hand the largest stock of Seeds of any house 
on the Pacific Coast, consisting in part, the following va- 
rieties, which we will offer in quantities to suit purchasers 
at reduced rates: 

20,000 Pounds Alfalfa Clover Seed. 

4,000 Pounds Red Clover Seed. 

6,000 Pounds Australian Rye Grass Seed. 

4,000 Pounds Extra Clean Kentucky Blue Grass Seed. 

4,000 Pounds Red Top Seel. 
10,000 Pounds Timothy Grass Seed. 

f.,000 Pounds Mesquit Grass Seed. 
10,000 Pounds Canary Seed. 
10,000 Pounds Rape and Hemp Seed. 

4,000 Pounds Mangel Wurtzel Beet Seed. 

1,000 Pounds Assorted Table Beet Seeds. 

1,000 Pounds Assorted Onion Seeds. 

1,000 Pounds Assorted Turnip Seeds. 

AND A YVbh StirPLT OF 

GARDEN, VEGETABLE & FLOWER SEEDS. 

Also, a large assortment of California Conifer and 
Forest Tree Seeds. Fruit Trees in any quantity at Nurs- 
ery prices. 

J. P. SWEENEY & CO. 



GARDEN SEEDS. 



Thos. Meherin, 

Importer, Wholesale and Retail 
Dealer in 

Seeds, Trees & Plants. 

Alfalfa, Red and White Clover, Australian 
Rye Grass, Timothy and Orcbard Grass, Ken- 
tucky Blue Grass, Hungarian Millet Grass, 
Red Top, Etc. 

Also, a Large and Choice Collection of FRUIT 
and ORNAMENTAL TREES, Bulbs, Roses, 
Magnolias, Palms, Etc., at reduced prices. 

Budding and Pruning Knives, Green House 
Syringes, Hedge and Pole Shears. 

THOS. MEHERIN, 516 Battery St. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

jtg-Send for Price List. 



Agt. for B. IS. Fox's Nursery. 




54 BARCLAY. ST. NEW YORK:) 



The Very Best! True lo Name! 
FELIX GILLET'S NURSERY. 

Nevada City, California. 
SPECIALTIES : 

Nuts of all Kinds and Strawberries. 
PREPARTURIENS WALNUT, 

(Introduced in California in 1871, by Felix Gillet)- 




The most precocious of all soft-shell varieties of Walnut, 
bearing even when three years old; hardy, a late bloomer, 
very productive. First hearing trees in California, at, Felix 
Gillet'e nursery, sixth crop 1880. Trees of that new and valu- 
able variety, raised in Felix Gillet's nurseries, Nevada City, 
sent to any part of California and the United States by mail, 
free of charge, in packages of two feet; well packed in damp 
moss and oiled paper, and guaranteed to arrive in as "fresh" 
a condition as when leaving the nursery, at the following 
prices: SI per tree for less than half a dozen; §10 per dozen. 
Larger trees sent by express or freight. See the catalogae 
and price list. 

Improved Kinds of Chestnuts. 

"Marron de L>on" and "Marron Oombale" (introduced in 
California iu 1871 by Felix Gillet). Grafted trees, from 6 to 
10 feet, $12 per dozen. 

Medlar fMonstrvrvxe) ', Black Mulberry (Noir of Spain)', 
Italian and Spanish Filberts; French Everbearing Raspberry; 
Wilson's Karly Blackberry; 27 varieties of English Gooseber- 
ries; 42 varieties of grapes; 100 varieties of Pears, Plums, 
Peaches, Cherries, Apples, Walnuts and Chestnuts; the finest 
varieties of French, English and Dutch Strawberries. 

itSTSEND FOR DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE AND PRICE LIST. 

FELIX GILLET, 

Nevada City, Cal. 



ROCK'S NURSERIES. 

TREES ! TREES ! 

The attention is called to my large and superior stock of 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees, 

SHRUBS, ROSES, 

Grapevines and Small Fruits, 

Of the most desirable varieties for general cultivation. 
Also many new and rare varieties of 

Japanese Plants, 

Semi-Tropical Flants, 

Greenhouse Flants, 

Bedding Flants. 

NEW VARIST1F.S OF 

ORANGES AND LEMONS- 

Italian Olives, Etc. 
Descriptive Catalogue will be mailed to all applicants 

JOHN ROCK, San Jose, Cal. 



Adams' Patent Pillow Sham Holder 

Prices reduced Can be adjusted to any ordinary sized bed. 
The best in the market. Try one. Sent post paid by mail. 
Stud for Illustrated Circular. G. W. » A(;<;OVCK,4»8 
Tenth ftt, Oakland, Cal., Gtsu. Ag't fur Pacific Coast. 



SANTA CLARA VALLFY 

NURSERIES, 

San Jose, Cal. 

I offer for sale the coming season a large and well se- 
lected general assortment of NURSERY STOCK, con- 
sisting of 

Fruit Trees, Small Fruits, Ornamental 
Trees and Shrubs. 

EVERGREENS, GREENHOUSE PLANTS, 

ROSES, DAHLIAS, PELARGONIUMS, Etc. 

— ALSO— 

Pear, Apple and Mahaleb Cherry Seedlings. 

I desire to call particular attention to 
my LARGE STOCK of 

CHERRY and FEAR TREES, 

At reduced rates in Large Quantities. 

I bave also on hand a Fine lot of Grafted ORANGES, 
which, being transplanted constantly, are sure to grow. 
Catalogues free on application. 

B. S. FOX, Proprietor, 

SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA. 

THOS. MEHERIN, Agent, 516 Battery St. 
San Francisco. 



HANNAY'S NURSERY. 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 

I OFFER FOR SALE THIS SEASON, A LARGE AND 
WELL ASSORTED STOCK OF 

FRUIT, SHADE & ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

MY TREES ARE WELL GROWN, AND 
HEALTHY, AND OF THE 

Best Known Varieties. 

JOHN HANNAY, 

(Successor to Hannay Bros.), San Jose, Cal 

PEPPER'S NURSERIES, 

Established in 1858. 
For sale, all kinds of Fruit Trees, Vines and Fruiting 
Shrubs raised wi'hout irrigation. Also, a geueral assort- 
ment of Evergreen Trees and Shrubs, deciduous Flower- 
ing Shrubs; Roses, in assortment. Conservatory and 
Bedding Plants in great variety. Send for Catalogue and 
List of Prices. Address 

W. H. PEPPER, 
Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 



LOS GATOS NURSERIES. 

I offer the trade this season a LARGE and GENERAL 
ASSORTMENT Of 

FRUIT TREES AND SMALL FRUITS. 

My trees are healthy, stalky and well grown. Prices 
low down. Address S. NEWHALL, 

San Jose, Cal. 

GRAPE CUTTINGS. 



B. Burgundy, Zinfindel, Charboneau, Mataro, B. Ham 
burg, B. Malvasia, Johannisberg, Riessling, Berger, 
Golden Chasselas, Seedless Sultana, Frankin Riessling. 
Price, $5 per M. Inquire of 

H. W. CRABB, 
Oakville, Napa Co., Cal 



MUSICAL CHRISTMAS 

GIFTS! 

Most acceptable gifts to players or singers will be th« 
following elegantly bound books. 

a®* Any one mailed, post free, for the price here men- 
tioned. 

ROBERT FRANZ'S SONG ALBUM. 

GEMS OP ENGLISH SONG. 
HOME CIRCLE. Three Volumes. 

WORLD OP SONG. 
PIANO AT HOME. 4-hand collection. 

OPERATIC PEARLS. 
SHOWER OP PEARLS. Vocal Duets. 

GEMS OP STRAUSS. 
CREME DE LA CREME. 2 Volumes. 

GEMS OP THE DANCE. 
CLUSTER OP GEMS. 

SUNSHINE OF SONG. 
Each of the above in Cloth, $2.50; Fine Gilt, $».00. 

STUDENT'S LIFE IN SONG, $1.50. 
CURIOSITIES OF MUSIC, $1.50. 
BEETHOVEN. A Romance by Rau, $1.50. 
RHYMES AND TUNES. Christinas Offering. $1.50. 
SULLIVAN'S VOCAL ALBUM, $1 50. 
FAIRY FINGERS. For Piano. $1.50. 

OLIVER DITS0N & CO., BOSTON. 

C. H. Ditson & Co.. 843 Broadway, N. Y. 



A. W. LOCKHART, 

N. W. Cor. 11th and J Sts, Sacramento, Cal. 
Sole Manufacturer and Proprietor of 

Lockhart's Patent Self-Feeder & Elevator. 

Admitted by those who have used it, for Regularity of 
Feeding, Simplicity, Cheapness and Durability, to bo Un- 
equalled by any other Feeder in use. Call aud examine 
before purchasing elsewh«re. 



16 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January i, 1881. 



IRRIGATED LAND TRIUMPHANT! 

From all parts of the State where wheat hag been irrigated, reports come that bountiful crops of plump jfraln have been secured by irrigation, in spite of the north winds, which hare reduced tba crop of wheat on lands not 
irrigated and, in the same localities, from one-quarter to only a crop of hay. 

WITH IRRIGATION A LARGE CROP OF PLUMP WHEAT AND A MORE VALUABLE ONE OF EGYPTIAN CORN CAN BE GROWN IN ONE SEASON. NO FAILURE OF CROPS. 

The Best "Vinev^^d Land, in California. 

FLOODING THE ONLY REMEDY AND SURE DEATH TO THE PHYLLOXERA! 



A few choice farms of rich bottom land of 320, 160, 80, 40 and 20 acres each, all irrigated, in the 

EASTERBY RANGHO, FRESNO COUNTY, 

For sale at *40 to >50 per acre including water rights, payable in 1, 2, 3 and 4 years. Interest, 9 per cent, per annum. This is without doubt the richest land in Fresno county. It has produced 50 bushels wheat per acre; two crops 

' one season, and will produce 10 TONS OF GRAPES PER ACRE, as at the Eisen Vineyard adjoining. DONT FAIL TO EXAMINE IT. 



of grain a year; five crops of alfalfa in one I 



Send for Maps and Circulars (Free) to office of M. THEO. KEARNEY, Manager 12 Montgomery St. (up stairs), S. F. 




S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Ave., San Francisco. 

IWFree Coach to the House. O. F. BECKER. Proprietor* 



MONEY IN CHICKENS AND ECCS. 

A good flock of Poultry, properly managed, and ecientifloally fed, given the same advantages as other stock, 
will prove the beet paying investment on the farm; hut they must be reared and cared for by the most improytd 
methods to insure the largest returns. Artificial means for batching, raising and feeding poultry, are as creat im- 
provements over nature's usual course as are the various means in use for sowing grain, improvements over the 
self-sowing process of nature. If then, you ghe >our train crop the advantage of improvements, do the same by 
your poultry, and the returns will be proportionately larger. 

I 




The Eclipse Self-Regulating Incubators 

Are now in actual use in most parts of this State, and giving 
Keueral satisfaction. They are a success, and being such are 
inraluabli- to all wbo attr-nipt to raise chickens; are easy to 
manage, and cost merely a trifle to keep in operation, and 
will do much betv-r work than can bo done with heus, with 
a small portion of the Ubor and risk. 

The "Bclipsk" is the only entirely self-regulating incuba- 
tor known; is the only one that will bear investigating, so it 
is the only safe one to purchase. Send Rtauip fur Circular 
giving California Testimonials (not Eastern). 




THE IMPERIAL EGG FOOD 

Will make your Hens Lay, keep them in the 
best possible condition and ward off disease. When fid 
according to directions, sick and drooping fowls are never 
seen. It furnishes the needed material for forming bone, 
muscle and feathers, and is invaluable for Young 
Chicks and Moulting Fowls. It comes packed in 
various sized packages, and being a powder is easily 
mixed with the customary feed. Give it a trial 
Agents wanted. 

Price, single pound, 50 cents; 2J pounds, $1 00; 6 
pounds, ?2 00; 25 pounJ keg, JC 25. Address: 



G. G. WICKSON, General Agent for Pacific -Coast, 319 Market Street, S. F. 



Phylloxera- Proof Grapevines 

A SPECIALTY AT 

Magnolia Farm Nurseries, Napa Valley. 

Send for Catalogue of Fruit and Ornamental Trees 
All free from disease and grown without irrigation. 
Addrosa 

LEONARD COATES, 
Yountville, Napa County, Cal. 



JOS. HANSEL, 
Carriage and Wagon Manufacturer. 



All kinds of Spring Wa?ona, Buggies, etc.. constantly on 
hand aud for Sale at th«* Lowest Rates, and guaranteed to 
give satisfaction. Blacksmithing and General Jobbing done 
with neatuess and dispatch. Also, on band of my own make, 
the Latest Improved Harrows and my Patent Buck Board 
a'i'l Breaking Carts. Carriage Painting and Trimming 
Neatlv Done HUNTER STREET, STOCKTON, Cal 
Adjoining the Bauti^t Cbureh. 



SEEDS! SEEDS! 

Wholesale and Retail. 

Handsomely Illustrated Catalogue with description and 
culture of the best Flowers and Vegetables. Mailed 
free to all. 

THOMAS A. COX & CO., 
SEED MERCHANTS, 

409 Sansome Street, San Francisco" 

Lithographed Chromo Cards, no 2 alike, 10c. Name 
in fancy type. Conn. Card Co., Northford, Ct. 



50 



>1i mM wTii 
HAY&:W0l 




EAGLE HAY PRESS, Old Style, - $200. 
EAGLE HAY PRESS, Improved, - $250. 
PRICES' PETALUMA HAY PRESS, $450 

All kinds of PRESSES MADE TO ORDER, to put 
TEN TONS in Box Car. Address 

PRICE PRESS CO., San Leandro. 

Or I. J. TRUMAN, San Francisco. 
Office with Ilaker Jt Hamilton, 17 Front Street, S. F. 

CLARK'S 

Grain Grader and Seed Cleaner. 

It is an attachment that can be used on all grain 
cleaner mills, lar^e or small. Took First Premium at State 
Fair and Stockton Fair. With Nash &. Cutts' No. 3 Grain 
Cleaner, its capacity is from 30 to 60 sacks per hour. 
Farm rights and other rights for sale. Address 

LEWIS CLARK, Sacramento, Cal. 



IMPROVED MACHINES 

FOR LAYING 

Asbestine Sub-lrritration Pipe 

For sale at Davisville, Yolo County, Cal. 
Apply to L. A. GOULD. 



NICOLL 

3U T J\. I L <3 IFt ! ! 

Branch, of XTew "York 

INSPECT OUR IMMENSE STOCK. 
Bo Not Fail to See 

THE ELECTRIC LIGHT ! ! 

Call and see the ELECTRIC LIGHT at NIOOLL'S, by which Colors and 
Quality may be Seen as Clearly at NIGHT as at NOONDAY. 



TO ORDER; 



From $5.00. 




Pants 
Suits 

From $20-00, 

Overcoats 

From $18.00. 

Ulsters 

From $15.00. 

Dress Coats f~^®£&xtkZZ 

From $20.00. 

GENUINE 6x BEAVER SUITS from $65. English Cords for Hunting Suits. 

Samples, with instructions for self-measurement, sent free. 

Only White Labor Employed, and none but Experienced and First-Class Cutters. 

A SMALL STOCK OF UNCALLED FOR PANTS, VESTS, COATS, OVERCOATS, ULSTERS, 

AT AN IMMENSE; REDUCTION. 

Nicoll the Tailor's Grand Tailoring Emporium 

727 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



TO ORDER: 
Black Doeskin Pants 

From $7.00 

White Vests 

From $3.00. 

Fancy Vests 

From $6.00. 




A NEW TREATMENT 

For Consumption, Asthma, Bronchitis, Dys- 
pepsia. Catarrh, Headache, Debility. Rheum- 
atism, Neuralgia and nil Chronic and Nervous Dis- 
orders. It is taken 

BY INHALATION, 

And acts directl}* upon the great nervous and organic cen 
ters, and cures by a natural process of revltali- 
zation. 

SENT FREE: 

A Treatise on Compound Oxygen, giving the history of 
this new discovery, and a large record of moat remarkable 
cures. Writ* for it. Address the proprietors, DR8. 8TAR- 
K KY A PAL EN, 11W and 1111 Ulrurd street. Philadelphia, 
Pa., or H. E. MATHEWS, 606 Montgomery street. Sao 
Francisco, Cal.. from whom can be procured both informa- 
tion and supplies. 

People May Hear With 

ATJDIPHONES 

OR WITH 

EARPHONES. 



DEAF 



Trial hefore purchase. Don't waste your money oth- 
eruine. Send for free pamphlets. (Address II. K. 
Mathews, us ahove.) 



Wilz Patent Pruning Shears. 

Simple, Cheap, Durable and Efficient. 

One man can do more work than two with any other 
kind. Ladders and steps dispensed with. The smallest 
up to branches two inches in diameter cut with ease. 
Suite, County or individual rights for sale. Agents 
wanted. Address 

JOHN WILZ. 
Santa Cruz, Cal. 



This paper is printed with Ink furnished by 
Chas. Eneu Johnson St Co., 609 South lOtb 
St.. Philadelphia & 69 Gold St., N. Y. Asrent 
for Pacific Coast— Joseph H. Dorety, 527 
Commercial St., 8. F. 



WIRE 



Baling 
Fencing 
Telegraph. 
Telephone 
Galvanized — 

Barbed Fence Wire. 

All kinds of Wire — iron, steel, 
Bessemer, spring, copper, brass 
and galvanized — on hand 
or Made to Order. 

A. S. HALLIDIE 

Wire Mills, 
Office, No. 6 California St. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

WIRE ROPE and CORDAGE 

Of every kind on hand or Made to Order. 




PEBBLE SPECTACLES. 




Muller's Optical Depot, 

135 Montgomery St., near Bush. 
SPECIALTY FOR 30 YEARS. 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL. 

The most complicated cases of defect- 
ive vision thoroughly diagnosed, free of 
charge. Compound Astigmatic Lenses 
Mounted to order, far 2 hours notice Tie. 



All Lithographed Chromo Cards, no 2 alike, 10 eta- 
Agts. big outfit, 10c. GlobeCardCo., Northford, Ct- 



50 




Volume XXI.l 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 8, i88r. 



Number 2 




A Fine Plant of Farm Buildings. 

In order to show our readers a fine set of 
horse barns we present engravings of the eleva- 
tion and ground plan of the barns of M. W. 
Dunham, at Wayne, 111., the widely known 
importer of Percheron-Norman horses. These 
barns and stables with their connecting yards, 
are regarded by competent judges as being 
about as near perfect for the uses they 
are intended to 
serve, as it is pos- 
sible to construct. 
While there are 
few farmers or 
horsemen who re- 
quire buildings on 
so extensive a> scale 
as this, it will be 
seen from the fol- 
lowing detailed de- 
scription that the 
plan is one that 
can be adapted to 
suit various r e • 
quirements, and 
many hints of con- 
struction can be 
derived for use in 
other farm struc- 
tures. 

Barn No. 1 is 
160 ft. long by 52 
ft. wide, with an 
awniog adjustable 
10 ft. wide, to 
raise and lower. 
The foundation is 
of stone, laid below 
frost; bottom of 
wall 16 inches, top one ft. in thickness. 
The wall is laid on east, north and west 
sides, and one wall of same dimensions is 
laid 16 ft. from north wall, and parallel 
to it. Cross walls 10 inches thick support 
the partitions of the box stalls. The south 
outside foundation consists of piers, 20 ft. 
apart, four ft. square on bottom, and 20 inches 
square on top, with 

cap of cut stone 20 

inches square on 
bottom, and 12 
inches square on 
top, to receive the 
post. Sixteen ft. 
north, and parallel 
to this line of piers 
is another line 
built in the same 
manner. The build- 
ing is constructed 
(as will be seen by 
position of wall), 
with four rows of 
posts, the two cen- 
tral rows standing 
16 ft. from outside, 
and 20 ft. from each 
other, both ways, 
extending to the 
purline plate, and 
supports the same. 
The outside posts 
are 20 ft. long, and 
on north side are 
16 ft. apart. All 
the posts are 8x8 
inches, and are con- 
nected by beams 
8x10 inches, and 10 
ft. from the bottom, 
upon which are laid 
2x12 inch joists. 



the same kind. In each end, as high as can be 
made in the gable, is a door 12 ft. high and 10 
ft. wide, through which the building is filled 
with hay. 

From each door to the center is erected a hay 
carrier, as near the ridge as possible. The 
building is supported by the usual cross-beams 
and braces. The roof is covered with the very 
best dry pine shingles, boiled in the very best 
West Virginia oil. (A vat of sheet iron, 20 



apart (cost about $35 per ton). Windows hang 
on weights. The north and south sides of the 
stalls are sealed with 2-inch matched plank, 5 
ft. high, and from there to top with 1-inch 
matched stuff. 

The partitions between the stalls are made by 
setting 2x4-inch studding flatwise, 6 inches 
apart on sill, and extending 5 ft. high; both 
sides are then sealed with common matched 
and dressed flooring, even with top of studding, 



inches deep and 21 ft. wide, and from 2 to 4 ft. I and an oak cap 2x6 inches spiked on top. The 



FRONT VIEW OF THE BARNS OF M- W. DUNHAM, BREEDER AND IMPORTER OF PERCHERON HORSES, 



long, according to extent of the job. Set the 
bunches in, and have oil enough to come up to 
the band; let boil five minutes, take out, place 
on an incline, with tight bottom, and drip back 
to the vat; in half an hour the other end of the 
bunch can be dipped and returned on 
incline. In one hour they will be dry.) 
The cost is less than one dollar per M. ; and 



top of this cap has 1 J -inch holes, 4 inches from 
center to center, and 1 inch deep, in which inch 
gaspipes, 3 ft. long are inserted, and capped 
with another oak cap firmly set at both ends. 
The floors are made of clay and gravel; an alley 
6 ft. wide runs the entire length of the barn, 
with manger on opposite side from stalls. 

The hay shoot is built in the outside corner, 



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SCALES 




ROAD 

GROUND PLAN OF MR. DUNHAM'S BARNS AND CORRALS CONNECTED THEREWITH. 



The two center lines of 
beams running lengthwise of building are addi- 
tionally supported by a cast-iron angle, bolted 
on the post under the end of each beam, and 
running down the post and out on under side 
of the beam 12 inches. The beams are also 
trussed on top, making a solid and safe support 
for the joists, which run crosswise of the build- 
ing. The roof is one-third pitch, and formed 
with gables and dormers, and surmounted by a 
cupola, as shown in elevation. The outside is 
girted with 6x6 and four ft. apart, and boarded 
with matched and dressed lumber. The posi- 
tions of windows can be seen in elevation. In 
second story there are four doors on the north 
aide, with transoms, and on] south side, eight of 



when prepared in this way they will, with an oc- ' with 2-ft. run, and extends 6 ft. above the up 



casional coating of oil, last indefinitely as the 
water will not penetrate them in the least. 

The squares indicated in plans are box stalls, 
16x16 ft. square, with one door, double thick, 4 
ft. 6 inches wide, and 8 ft. high. Latch, a 
straight piece of JxJ-inch iron, 1 ft. long mor- 
tised into center edge of door, end protruding 
one inch, to catch latch hook. An iron plate, 
with slot for the latch to play in, is screwed on 
the edge, and an inch hole is bored under the 
latch to raise with. There is a window, 12 
lights'12xl6 on outside, and 1 it-light window, 
from stall to alley, for each stall, covered with 
No. 9 wire screening. The outside window is 
grated with inch refuse gas pipe, set 3 inches 



per floor, and has a slide door on loDg side that 
can be raised, leaving an opening in shoot on a 
level with the floor when desired. % The bottom 
of shoot is grated with gaspipe 3 jft. 6 inches 
long, set on incline from corner to outside of 
bottom of shoot, which is 6 ft. from floor to 
stall. These pipes are set 6 inches from cen- 
ters at top, and one of them moves in a slot, so 
as to double the distance when required. 

Barn No. 2 consists entirely of box stalls, 
made on same plan as those described above, 
and open into yards to the south. ( It. is 16 ft. 
high at eaves, with loft for fodder. 

Barn No. 3 is 40x80 ft., 26,ft.f posts, with 96 
ft. extension to the south. All boxes are same 



as described. The single stalls are 5 ft. wide, 
and made on the usual plan, with plank floors, 
hay being fed in shoots from above. The upper 
part is reached by an embankment and bridge. 
A hay carrier is also rigged in it, door opening 
to the north. Large feed bins are located over 
north end of the alley, where water is marked 
in diagram, and a mixing box filled from spouts 
from bins, is placed beside the hydrant. 

No. 4 is an open shed facing south, with yard 
in front. No. 5 is 50x100ft., with stone base- 
ment, the walls 26 
inches on bottom, 
and 16 inches on 
top. The building 
rests entirely on 
the outside wall. 
The sills are 8x10 
inches, the posts 20 
ft. long and about 
14 ft. apart. The 
girths are 6x6 in- 
ches, and four ft. 
apart. The roof is 
a truss roof of the 
strongest kind. 
(See elevation for 
location of win- 
dows, cupola, etc.) 
The boarding is of 
the best dressed 
and matched floor- 
ing. On north side 
and center is a cut- 
ting room, 20x24 ft. 
cutter standing on 
a level with sec- 
ond floor (see ele- 
vation.) The base- 
ment is divided by 
three six-foot al- 
leys, running north and south, connected 
by one four-foot alley, running east and 
west along the north side. On each side of 
each alley are four box stalls, about 12x14 
ft., with plank partitions five ft. high, and 
doors opening from one to the other; to the 
outside. Hay comes from third story, through 
shoots opening in the alley, and is fed in man- 
gers. The second 
floor is divided en- 
tirely into single 
stalls, as will be se 
en on plans, with 
an alley in front of 
each row for feed- 
ing grain and wa- 
tering. Hay comes 
from above in 
shoots as in other 
stalls. The floors 
are 2-inch matched 
plank, tarred, and 
then covered with 
paper, two thick- 
nesses. On top of 
this laid 3 - i n o h 
plank, boiled in 
oil and keyed to- 
gether every five 
ft. Between the 
two floors is an 
iron gutter, just at 
the back end of 
the stalls, with iron 
outlets running 
down the basement 
into the ground for 
drainage. The 
stalls are 5\ ft. in 
the clear, and the 
partitions are 
3-inch plank, 
high, and the front 
rises in an oval shape, and is barred. The stall 
posts are 6x6, oak; 3x12 inch joints run from 
stall posts to outside building, and 2-inch 
matched plank is used for floor, above, so that 
the space over the horses' heads is perfectly 
smooth. The ceiling over the floor, back of the 
horses, is 12 ft. high and 20 ft. wide, with a 14- 
foot slide door at each end. Over each stall 
is a finished panel, set with pictures of Per- 
cheron horses. The stalls and ceiling are 
painted in nicely contrasting colors. The en- 
tire water system is supplied from a 2,000 bar- 
rel reservoir or cistern, constructed on a hill 

CONTIHUBD ON PAGE 28. 




No. 5. 



BBISS SCOT 



I doweled together 4J ft. 



18 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



[January 8, 1881. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



We admit, unendorsed, opinions of correspondents. — Eds 



Humboldt County Notes. 

Editors Press: — On the 22d of November, 
9 o'clock a. M. , we sailed from San Francisco 
for this place. The staunch little steamship 
Humboldt made the trip in just 24 hours. We 
have since been stopping at the Vance hotel. 

Eureka, lying upon the eastern shore of 
Humboldt bay, is a quiet little city, numbering 
at the present time about 4,000 inhabitants. 
It has seen better days, in a more prosperous 
condition of the county, and consequently 
there are too many hotels, too many private 
residences and too much Chinatown. Rents 
are exceedingly low and tenants few. 

Eureka has the finest market between San 
Francisco and Portland. It was built and is 
owned by Hon. Joseph Russ. It has also 
several public halls, a female seminary, an 
opera house and a sufficient number of church 
spires to establish its claim to morality; while, 
per contra, there are disreputable places 
enough to show that it is not yet under a mil- 
lennial dispensation. 

Humboldt county is large and has a variety of 
soil and scenery, and great mineral resources; but 
the chief interest at this point is lumber, there 
being no less than 16 steam saw-mills in and 
around Eureka. In the southern portion of 
the county are many tine farms and stock 
ranches. That these farmers and stock men 
are beginning to realize the importance of 
improvement is shown by the fact that 
Peter Saxe & Son have shipped into the 
county, during the last five months, over 200 
head of tine cattle and sheep. 

There is little excitement hero, except on 
"steamer day," when, sunshine or rain, every 
male citizen is on the wharf, in eager expec- 
tancy. A few days since there was a new sen- 
sation — a vessel was to be launched. Standing 
proudly upon its stocks where, during the past 
few months, it has grown a "thing of beauty," 
was the three-masted schooner of Jos. Russ & 
Co. The hour set for launching was 11 o'clock 
A. m. — high tide — and as the rhythmatic thunder 
of old Ocean came surging over the bar, we 
boarded the vessel to await the coming moment. 
The signal is given, and instantly a hundred 
sledges are knocking out the props. As one 
support after another falls away, the ship trem- 
bles, settles, slip3 slowly, then gathers momen- 
tum, and, as she glides gracefully iuto her 
proper element, Miss Maggie, the charming 
daughter of Mr. Russ, standing conspicuously 
upon the bow, breaks the traditional bottle of 
sparkling champagne upon her deck, and in a 
neat little dedication, baptizes her the "Maggie 
C. Kuss." Instantly, amidst a babel of steam- 
whistles, ringing bells, etc., goes up from 
hundreds of human throats the stentorian shout, 
"Long live the Maggie C. Russ!" — and thus, 
on the 15th of December, 1S80, was launched 
upon the capacious bosom of old Pacific, another 
comely daughter. Sarah K. Saxe. 

Eureka, Dec. 24th. 



Sau Diego Notes. 

Editors Press: — The crop prospects in this 
far away corner of the State are good. We 
have had plenty of rain, 5J inches, and a grati- 
fyingabsence of desert winds, and the early sown 
grain is pushing ahead in a manner unusual in 
this section. From present indications the 
acreage sown will be less than last year. The 
cause for this state of affairs is the low price of 
wheat and the distance fanners are obliged to 
haul to reach a shipping point, and they reason 
thuB: If there was no money in wheat last sea- 
son, with the abundant yield, we have no hope 
that we can make even a living raising it, take 
one season with another; therefore we will rent 
our ranches for a portion of the crop and let 
some one else get cinched. There are plenty of 
farms for rent, two lying within a mile aDd one- 
half of my place. On one was raised last season 
1,307 sacks of wheat, and the other 000, both 
are without tenants and will not be seeded this 
season, and there are many others that will be 
left to take care of themselves, while their own- 
ers will find employment with their teams on 
the railroad. 

Yes, we are to have a railroad at last, but it 
will be of little help to the farmer, as its pro- 
jectors ignore local trailic entirely, and are 
building with a view to connect with a through 
route at the earliest possible moment and at the 
least expense, and that means up the coast so 
far as San Luis Key at least, and the only hope 
of the farmers is to be able to produce some- 
thing that will pay for hauling to the always 
distant (in this county) shipping point. What 
shall the crop be is the question that is being 
agitated, and if any one can solve the problem 
for us he will be a benefactor indeed. 

Some are turning their attention to fruit, but 
the length of time it requires before an income 
can be derived from it will deter most men from 
engaging in its culture. The grape will be 
planted much more exteusively than in any for- 



mer year. There are several parties near here 
who will put out from 8,000 to 15,000 cuttings 
of the White Muscat, and an agent of a Los An- 
geles nurseryman has just sold 21,000 wine 
grape cuttings — variety not known. There 
would be a large number of apricot trees planted 
but they are not to be had at any price, except 
in dormant bud. Some parties are turning their 
attention to carp culture and are preparing 
ponds, which, it is their intention to stock with 
them. Indeed one party has already re- 
ceived a consignment of 114 from a Sonoma 
county dealer, and his only fear of success is in 
the fact that the water in his ponds is ex- 
tremely cold, perhaps too much so for the rapid 
development of the fish. 

The condition of bees was never better at 
this season of the year. I hear of no disease 
among them and no loss from any cause. Jas. 

Bernardo, San Diego Co. 



A Naturalist at Santa Barbara. 

Editors Press: — The best place at Santa 
Barbara for collecting marine mnimals is — 
Santa Barbara. To this conclusion I arrived 
after wandering to Hiucon, eastward, and al- 
most to Moore's Landing westward. The wind 
blew pretty roughly from the southeast the day 
I went to Rincon — the people called it a storm 
— and next day the beach at Santa Barbara was 
strewn with kelp. Huge taDgled masses of 
laminaria and other large algie, ending in 
"roots" formed of a maze of interlacing fibers, 
lay mixed with detached fronds and disjecta of 
all kinds. In these netted roots live many cu- 
rious objects, not often found on the sea-shore. 
There is the home of the serpent-star or ophiu- 
ran, who wriggles himself out as his homo is 
invaded by axe or knife, and cooly proceeds to 
drop himself to pieces before he can be secured. 
A quick plunge in fresh water is the only cure 
for this suicidal propensity. Probably his 
nerves are less shocked by the unsalted element 
than by alcohol; at any rate he drops to bits in 
the latter before he dies — a terrible warning to 
drunkards. 

All the serpent-stars were of one species (an 
OphiothrU), but in the same hiding-place live 
numerous crustaceans, the commonest of which 
is a little shrimp, (which isn't a shrimp, but its 
only right name is its scientific one, so shrimp 
is the nearest English), having two large front 
claws or hands, one of them much larger than 
the other. This little fellow has the power, 
by forcibly bringing together the fixed and mov- 
able fingers of his hand, to produce a snapping 
noise the loudness of which seems out of all 
proportion to the creature's size. His objec- 
tions to being disturbed, even though he be 
placed in salt water, are shown by vigorous 
snapping, and in alcohol he snaps tiU he dies. 
Then various curious worms, some living free, 
others dwelling in tubes of their own forma- 
tion, or in hollow twigs of the alga, are found 
in abundance, and a few shells are entangled in 
the meshes of the roots. 

What is this bright red object, about 10 in- 
ches long, with purplish-brown warts all over, 
that is crawling on the sand among the sea- 
weed? It is a holothurian or sea-cucumber, and 
I quickly secure it, although I know that in 
alcohol it will lose all its beauty of coloration. 
It is the first I have seen alive, so I must have 
it. In the ocean these sea-cucumbers are abun- 
dant, and are common on the sea-Bhores of the 
Islands of the Pacific. They are eaten, 
and considered a delicacy by many nationali- 
ties. They are the trepang of commerce, the 
beclie de mer of the French. 

And what is this bunch of elongated yellow- 
ish objects with bright red tips, their narrow 
ends united in a common stalk which is 
shrouded by a growth of sea-moss ? In shape, 
each one is like an attenuated Indian club. 
This is an animal, or rather a colony of animals, 
and is one of a tribe known to naturalists as 
compound ascidiaus. With this name the non- 
naturalist must be satisfied unless he can find 
another. Organless though they seem out- 
wardly, within they are tolerably complex, 
having a very elaborate breathing apparatus, 
stomach, intestine, heart and nerves. Cutting 
across the stalk to which the colony is united, 
tiny sparks of golden light appeared, and the 
same occurred when the animal was handled in 
the dark. The light was not a paly diffused 
phosphorescence, but in distinct sparks or 
points. 

Here is another ascidian. This is not a com- 
pound, but a simple or single organism. It 
looks like a leather bottle, or a small yellow 
squash— a living pulsating squash. Now we 
are vertebrate animals, or animals with a back- 
bone, so are all mammals, so are birds, so are 
reptiles, and so are tishes, (true fishes, not 
shell-fish and star-fishes); the lowest fish, 
called the lancelet. has a worm-like appearance, 
and little in common with other fishes except 
the possession of a back-bone; and, strange 
though it may seem, the larva}, or young of 
certain ascidians have a sort of back-bone, and 
many naturalists tell us that it is to these hum- 
ble creatures that we must look for the verte- 
brate parent stock. 

Compare a hag or a lancelet with an ascidian, 
and certainly one is about as good an animal as 
the other, so don't be too proud of your back- 
bone. 

Here is another soft, crawling, purple-striped 
object, with four horns or tentacles in front, 
and looking more like a prettily-colored slug 



than anything else. It is in fact a sea-slug — 
with a difference. A true sea-slug (and you 
can find them here, attached to the under side 
of rocks) has no tentacles at the head end, and 
bears its gills externally. This creature we 
have found does not have its gills exposed, and 
has a small shell under the skin in the broad 
slit you see on the back. Below, it has, like 
other mollusks, a fleshy foot, on which it 
crawls. Call it an aplysia, and you will err 
greatly. 

Many Kinds of Shells 
Are found at Santa Barbara, some of them 
quite rare, found only in certain localities, or 
when a storm tears off the alg» or stones to 
which they were attached, and hurls them on 
the shore. A large kind of cowrie or Cyprxa 
(C. spadicea) is one of the rarer shells, and I 
was told I was fortunate to pick one up upon 
the beach. A still rarer shell is sometimes pro- 
cured upon Santa Cruz Island, about 25 miles 
away. It is the delicate paper nautilus (Ai-'jo- 
nauta Pacifica) and is not truly a shell, but the 
egg-case of the female of a creature having eight 
long arms, and in its anatomy as weU as gen- 
eral appearance closely resembling the octopus 
or so-called devil-fish, so common all along our 
coast. So fragile are these floating shells, Boat- 
ing in from far away on the broad Pacific (for 
the Argonaut is a dweller in the open ocean) 
that they must be gathered as they come in 
upon the wave that bears them. A dash upon 
the rocks is fatal to their integrity. 

Another oceanio shell (Janthina Olobosa) 
floats in upon the shore at Santa Barbara in 
stormy weather. It is fragile, small, bright 
violet in color, and a true shell, but the crea- 
ture that forms it forms also a curious egg-raft, 
fitted to float upon the ocean wave. 

The Hermit Crabs 
May be thanked for examples of many shells, 
the original owners of which do not live within 
ordinary tide-marks. These curious-looking 
free tenants of houses they did not build, do 
not take possession by forcible ejection of the 
peaceful molluscan builder and owner, as their 
human equivalents sometimes do, but occupy 
shells deserted by the death of the latter. As 
each heir of the mollusk builds his own house, 
increasing it to suit, there is no dispute about 
titles, and the hermit trots off unmolested with 
his house on his shoulders, or rather, over his 
abdomen, a part of his anatomy which is not 
favored by nature with a hard covering. When 
he has outgrown his shell, he leaves it to look 
for another. Some singular forms of Crustacea 
live in holes in the sand; others are parasitic 
in tubes of worms, or inside the shells of clams; 
others inhabit the gills of fishes, while others 
are the so-called "whale-lice." The resident of 
Santa Barbara has every opportunity to make a 
large collection of this extennve class of 
creatures — the insects of the sea. 

On every pile of the old wharf, as evening 
approached, solemnly sat a black cormorant, 
and the gulls had a rich harvest on the kelp- 
strewn beach. 

Birds. 

Rincon, some 14 or more miles east of Santa 
Barbara, has quite a reputation as a good col- 
lecting ground, but we were unfortunate, pro- 
curing little but the large pyramidal shells pop- 
ularly called castle-tops, and some peculiar ma- 
rine worms. On our way we noticed the great 
abundance of the sparrow-hawk, which sat 
pertly perched upon the fences and telegraph 
wires as we drove by. A very useful bird to 
man is this same sparrow-hawk, and should not 
be shot, as he is too small to hurt poultry, but 
feeds largely on the young of such pests as the 
ground-squirrel and the gopher. 

There is only one native bird which, for con- 
summate impudence, can compare with the in- 
troduced English sparrow, and that one is what 
is called here the blackbird, or sometimes Brew- 
ers' blackbird. This bird will coolly let you 
drive within two or three ft. of him, and, when 
nesting, will brush close by you with a scream, 
as if to frighten you off. From birds to 
Whales 

Is a long stride, but we must take it. Evi- 
dences of the abundance of these monsters of 
the deep are plenty aU along our coast. Ribs 
and vertebra- are scattered upon the beaches 
from Humboldt to San Diego. With a "whale 
fishery" at almost every convenient point, at 
San Francisco, at Half Moon bay, at Monterey, 
at Port Harford, at Point Concepcion, and I 
know not at how many other points, the won- 
der is how the whale, at least the California 
gray whale, manages to exist. The broad en- 
trance path to Monterey Mission church is 
paved with the centra of the vertebra; of whales; 
and the threshold of many doors in the same 
place are similarly constructed. At Port Har- 
fordjthe first object I saw was the axis or sec- 
ond vertebra of some cetacean, and at Santa Bar- 
bara a jaw bone formed the curb of a drive in 
front of a villa. W. N.L 



The Formation of Mountains. — Speaking 
of the formation of mountains, Prof. Favre, of 
Geneva, has said that the three systems which 
account for the origin of mountains do not dif- 
fer greatly from each other. Those who admit 
the system of elevations as the principal cause 
would probably admit the formation of depres- 
sions as a secondary cause, while those who 
give depression the first place, would also admit 
elevation as a secondary factor. Lastly, in the 
system of lateral crushing there is a general de- 
pression of the earth, since there is a diminu- 
tion in the length of the radius of the globe, and 
yet there result elevations of the ground in the 
midst of this general depression. 



Plymouth Rocks. 

Editors Press: — The poultry business of the 
United States is one of its most important 
branches of industry, and deserves to be care- 
fully studied in all its details by everyone who 
raises a few chickens yearly, as well as by those 
who devote most, if not all of their time, to this 
pursuit. The difference between success and 
failure lies in being attentive to apparently 
small things. Of course, the food and manner 
of feeding it, makes a very great difference; but 
the fact remains, viz, that the breed itself is of 
the utmost importance. A large and constantly 
increasing'number favor the Plymouth Rocks. 
There is no doubt but that it is a very fine 
fowl, and probably is second to none *f properly 
bred and correctly managed. There exists, 
however, a variety of opinions as to the size of 
these birds. The Standard (correctly, I think), 
recognizes a large size; while the prevalence of 
the Cochin shape has caused some to favor 
-mall sized fowls. I suspect that in many cases, 
the real cause of such partiality is the inability, 
for divers reasons, to breed and raise first- 
class birds, which even approach the Standard 
in weight. One writer claims that the Ply- 
mouth Rock is simply an improved Dominique, 
and nothing more. If that position be correct, 
we certainly must expect small sized fowls; and 
I see no reason why they should be called any- 
thing but Dominiques. I believe, however, that 
they arelneither Dominique Rocks nor Cochin 
Rocks, but simply and solely Plymouth Rocks. 
In the matter of eggs, experiments have fully 
convinced me that large sized birds of this 
breed will produce as many, and those of greater 
weight than those which I consider undersized. 

In raising poultry for market purposes, the 
size and shape make a much greater difference 
than is generally supposed. For this purpose, 
I would not advocate a coarse, over-grown spec- 
imen of the Cochin type, but should prefer a 
large, square, heavy and compact body of what 
I consider the true Plymouth Rock shape, such 
as may be seen at my yards at any time. I 
know that flesh can be produced upon that class 
of birds at less expense than upon those of a 
dwarfed and diminutive size or Cochin shape. 
Let u% therefore, not lower the Standard for 
Plymouth Rocks, but rather breed them to 
such a degree of perfection, that as far as weight 
is concerned, all may be satisfied with the pres- 
ent Standard. F. H. Corbin. 

Newington, Conn. 



The French Way of Dressing Poultry. 

Lately :i dozen or so of gentlemen assembled 
at Mr. Christy's residence, Malvern House, 
Sydenham, to witness Madame Ailleroit's prac- 
tical exposition of the French method of pre- 
paring fowls for market. First, in regard to the 
killing — which was done by thrusting a pointed 
knife into the roof of the mouth — it was notice- 
able that the knife was thrust back rather than 
toward the top o'f the skull. There was very 
little struggling, and we think it probable that 
this downward slant of the knife pierces the 
cerebellum. It will be remembered that in the 
case of a game-cock lately reported, which was 
kept alive for months in America without a 
head (the fact is beyond dispute), there was 
a small portion, if not all, of the cerebellum 
remaining attached to the spine; and it is likely 
enough that to reach this may be the quickest 
way of destroying motion as well as conscious- 
ness. Madame Ailleroit remarked that the 
cross-bred English fowls operated on had more 
blood and nerve (strength) than the fatted 
French poultry. The tedious operation of pluck- 
ing being over, the fowl was washed, the head, 
legs, and lower bowel being washed most care- 
fully; after which the bird was laid back down- 
ward on a board, and the breast pressed in with 
the flat of the hand, the ribs being heard to 
crack slightly. Madame Ailleroit explained 
that when dressing old birds which were too 
rigid to give way, she pressed them between 
two hard, flat boards with a screw, but with 
young fowls the hand is sufficient. The gain in 
flatness was at once evident, and the process 
has the advantage not only that no bone is 
broken, but that more meat actually is forced or 
persuaded up to the region of the breast by the 
rising of the ribs. The hocks being tied and 
brought over the breast, and the wings through 
them, a wooden spindle was then run through 
the angle, and the ends of this spindle tied 
tightly down to nails driven for lashing along 
both edges of a board, on which the breast was 
laid, the rump being supported by a block of 
wood and the crop by a pad, the back lying up- 
ward with the tail plumes left in, as we do with 
pheasants. A cloth was then brought tightly 
over the whole back and strained to the lash- 
ing8, which was then drenched with water, and 
the bird left to set till stiff. The appearance 
even of a very ordinary fowl is certainly won- 
derfully better treated this way than upon the 
ordinary poulterer's method as pursued in Eng- 
land, and we were surprised that men did not 
take' advantage of the opportunity. We hear, 
however, that already several West End poul- 
terers have begun to expose their poultry with 
the back up, and hence we hope that the move- 
ment may spread.— London Provisioner. 



January 8, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FBESS. 



19 



TffE D^i^y 



Feeding Alfalfa Hay. 

Editors Press: — In answer to your request 
for readers' experience in feeding alfalfa hay, I 
will say alfalfa hay is a very poor hay to feed> 
except as a medicine to horses. A few weeks' 
feed in the spring acts as a dose of medicine to 
human beiDgs. In my judgment it should not 
be fed to road stock, except as a physic. It is 
a juicy hay and makes horses "washy;" or, in 
other words, loose in the bowels. For cow-feed 
it is a good material for milch cows, except for 
the taste it gives the milk; however, that can 
be remedied by cutting straw and mixing bran 
and shorts sprinkled with a little water, and 
mixed together and fed twice a day in a box or 
manger. Take good, bright straw; cut with a 
cutter the amount needed. Take one sack of 
bran and one sack of middlings and mix to- 
gether; or two sacks of bran and one of shorts 
and mix the same. Then use the amount 
needed and mix with the straw and feed. This 
makes good, wholesome feed. If the cows are 
stabled and fed as above, you will have hearty, 
fleshy and healthy cows, and plenty of rich 
milk. Other kinds of hay may be used instead 
of the alfalfa hay, with good results, but the 
latter will make more milk. 

Stabling Dairy Cows. 

I feed my cows in stalls the same as the 
horses, and they are bedded with good, dry 
straw, the same as the horses receive for bed- 
ding. They are cleaned every morning. I 
have not lost a cow or a calf in 1 1 years. We 
always have butter and milk winter and sum- 
mer; have sold butter at $1.20 per roll in win- 
ter. We never have to buy butter or milk. I 
have milked only two cows this year; one has 
been giving milk for 18 months, the other 13 
months. We sold from the two cows 141 rolls 
or 282 lbs. of butter, nearly all at CO cents per 
roll to regular customers. When we had extra 
we sold at market rates, from 40 to 80 cents per 
roll; besides that used for the family, of which 
we kept no account, but it is no small amount, 
as we have a great deal of company. Besides 
the butter, we sold and used fresh 548 quarts of 
new milk. This will not cover quite all the 
milk sold and used. My cows are treated as 
above stated in winter, and in pasture during 
the summer months, with no extra care; bul 
they are well cared for in winter. You will 
find this course of treatment not only profitable 
because of the larger returns in butter and 
milk, but there is a great saving of feed. It 
will save the price of a good stall in one winter's 
"feed. Cattle will waste more food than any 
other kind of stock by tramping under foot. 

A stall should be built just wide enough for a 
cow to stand so as not to be allowed to turn 
round. It requires no great expense to build a 
nice, comfortable stable for your cows, which 
will reward you in the saving one way and the 
extra produce in the other. 

W. A. Field. 

St. Helena, Dec. 28, 1880. 

Experience Favorable to Alfalfa. 

Editors Press: — In reading your issue of 
Dec. 18th, my attention was called to the 
article on alfalfa hay, and as you invite your 
readers to discuss its merits, I will briefly give 
my views. Your reply to your Colorado corre- 
spondent is widely at variance with my experi- 
ence and observation. 

My yield of alfalfa on eight acres is about 75 
tons per annum, and is largely consumed on my 
ranch. This amount was produced last year 
from seven cuttings, from April to November. 
I certainly know no reason why alfalfa hay 
should not bring the highest price of any in 
market, except grain hay, and I think it about 
equal to the best barley hay, but not quite as 
profitable perhaps to feed, as a larger amount is 
consumed. 

I have fed it constantly for a number of years 
to several pairs of horses, both at rest and while 
performing the hardest labor, and I have always 
found they keep in good condition with very 
little grain. I have never yet known a single 
instauce of horses bloating, either on the dry or 
green feed. I question whether such an in- 
stance can be found. The only instances of 
bloating that has ever come to my knowledge, 
and that very rarely, is in the case of cattle be- 
ing allowed to graze on green alfalfa when wet 
from dew or other causes, and then only when 
the plant is large. 

Your information was certainly very unre- 
liable in regard to the effect produced ©n milk 
and butter. I have not made any such dis- 
covery. It is equal to if not superior to the 
best clover or timothy hay for milk and butter, 
without any exceptions. We are making over 
one lb. of butter per day from each cow fed en- 
tirely on alfalfa, and among our best milkers 
are two twin heifers one year old last April. 
The milk remains sweet as long as on any other 
feed, and I can furnish many testimonials that 
the butter is "gilt edged." My wife thinks it 
would be more profitable, so far as our own 
family is concerned, if not so good. 



Alfalfa never produces any unpleasant taste 
or effect on milk or butter. I have never ob- 
served any difference one crop produces over 
another upon stock. It is excellent feed for 
hogs, either green or dry. I regard the object- 
ions urged against it as first-class feed, for any 
kind of stock, as entirely unwarranted. 

D. A. Shaw. 

San Bernardino, Cal. , Dec. 26, 1880. 

[The advantage of discussing this subject, as 
we suggested, is already apparent, and we hope 
it will proceed until all valuable experience is 
brought out. The letters we have printed from 
alfalfa growers and feeders in this and the last is- 
sue of the Press, and theabove experience of Mr. 
Shaw, show how wide a variation there is in the 
effects of the food. Now, who will reconcile 
the differences? What are the conditions which 
give different results in different cases? Let 
the discussion proceed. — Eds. Press.] 



^©^pakxiJ^E. 



Orchard Enemies. 

Editors Press: — I see a piece in my good 
old friend, the Pacific Rural Press, of 
date Dec. 25th, where one of your subscribers 
tells us how he destroys the borers by driving 
nails into the tree. I will tell you my remedy 
for killing the borer, which I have tried for 
several years with satisfaction, and it is not 
only good to exterminate borers, but to cure all 
kinds of wounds and bruises on all kinds of 
trees. 

In the spring when I get ready to prune my 
orchards I take a pail and fill it with fresh 
cow-droppings; then I tear up a lot of old rags 
for bandages, and then I tear up an old calico 
apron or gown into strings, just strong enough 
to hold the bandages on. Then with a shingle 
I make a shovel. With all these and with my 
knife, shears and saw, I begin. 

I examine every tree thoroughly. If I find 
any defective place of any kind I take my 
knife and cut off all the dead bark and scrape 
the cavity clean, then with my shovel I plaster 
the cavity over so that no air can get in; then I 
put around my bandage and tie it just tight 
enough to keep the bandage from falling off. 
I then leave it on until the next year when 
I take it off", and generally find the 
cavity entirely grown over with a new bark. 
When I find where the borers are, or have been 
at work, I treat it in the same way, and never 
fail to exterminate them; and the following 
spring I find a new bark covering the entire 
cavity. 

Last year the hare or rabbits got at three tine 
youug apple trees which were about six inches 
in circumference. The varmints completely 
pealed the bark off for 18 inches in length 
and left about one-fourth of an inch of 
bark on one side to carry the sap to the branches. 
I bound on my cow-droppings, being careful to 
cover the entire wounds. A few days ago I took 
off the bandages and found a Jiew bark covering 
the entire wounds, and the trees have made as 
good a growth as those not hurt. I treat all 
my trees the same way, and seldom lose a 
tree. 

We are also troubled with what we call the 
sap-suckers. Most orchardists know what they 
are. They generally come around about Novem- 
ber and tapthetrees just belowthe first branches, 
going entirely around the tree four or more 
times. As soon as I discover them I plaster 
cow-droppings all around the tree about where 
they work, and they will not touch the tree. 
I could say more but will do so next time. 

J. A. Elliott. 

Newcastle, Cal. 



Garfield Wheat. 

Editors Press: — I believe I promised you a 
report of the result of my experiment at hybrid- 
zing wheat. I have as yet but one cross to re- 
port. That of Propo on Sherman. All the 
rest, of a dozen or more, failed to become im- 
pregnated. The new hybrid above named, I 
call "Garfield" wheat. Only one grain of 
Sherman was impregnated with pollen from 
Propo and matured. 

On Dec. 20, 1879, the one grain of Garfield 
wheat was planted in my garden, and of course, 
well cared for. On July 4, 1S80, I gathered 
175 heads which averaged about 38 grains to 
the head, or 6,539 grains [in all, weighing 6| 
oz. avoirdupois. At this yield one bushel of 
seed sown should make 6,539 bushels. One of 
the heads had one mesh containing eight fully 
matured grains, and the other meshes in the 
same head, five and six grains each. 

If any of your readers can beat my "Garfield," 
I should very much like to hear from them. 

Claude V. Burke. 

Yolo, Yolo Co., Cal. 



Chinese Astronomy. — In the largest library 
in the world, in Paris, may be found a Cuinese 
chart of the heavens, made about 600 years 
before Christ. In this chart 1,460 stars are 
found to be correctly inserted, as corroborated 
by the scientists of the present day. 



TtfE Vineyard. 



Catalogue of European Vines, with Syn- 
onyms and Brief Descriptions.* 

[COPYRIGHTED. ] 

(CONIINUED FROM PACE 10. 

76. Cardendet (Gironde). 

Breton (Indre and Loire). 

Carmenet (Chinou). 

Carvernet gris Kendu). 

Frank Carbenet (Indre and Loire). 

Petite Vigne dure (Graves, Gironde). 

Petite Vuidure (Graves, Gironde). 

Verron (Nievres). 

Verronais. 

Vigne dure. 

Vuidure. 

Small ihin leaves, which are a little woolly 
underneath; bunches loose, generally badly 
filled with medium-sized round, black berries, 
of a peculiar taste; bunch-stalk violet. Excel- 
lent wine grape. 

.77. Grand Carbenet (Gironde). 

Grand Carmenet (Gironde). 

Carmenelle (Gironde). 

Carmenere ( Gironde ) . 

Grand Vigne dure (Gironde). 

Grand Vuidure (Gironde). 
Resembling 76, but bunches are larger, 
shouldered, conical, and very loose; berries 
thick-skinned, hard, with cracking flesh; shy 
bearer, but yields well-colored, good wine. 

78. Carbenet Sauvignon. 

Petit Carbenet. 
Variety of the above. Plant vigorous, but 
soon declining; shoots strong, short-jointed, 
erect; leaves rather small, much lancinated; 
bunch medium-sized, pyramidal, rather close; 
berries of equal size, round; black, very bloomy. 
Excellent wine grape, but bears (well) only in 
some localities. 

79. Caricante (Sicily). 
White wine grape. 

80. Carton an (Herault Gard). 

Bois dure (Shores of Mediterranean). 

Crinana (Gard). 

Crignane (Herault). 

Grenache de bois dure (Aix). 

Monasteon (Provence). 

Monestel (Provence). 

Morrastel (Spain). 

Mataro (St. Gilles). 

Perpignan Tarn et Garonne). 

Plant de Ledenon (Provence). 
Resembles the true Mataro; plant vigorous, 
with erect reddish-brown, short-jointed, hard 
shoots; leaves large, wrinkly, with long stalks, 
which turn red in autumn; bunches similar 
to Mataro; berries oblong, black; bunch-stalk 
woody; fertile, and yielding a highly-colored 
good wine. 

81. Carnaccia (Sardinia). 

Caruuche (Isere). 
Berries round, White. Good wine and table 
grape. 

82. Catalan (Shores of Mediterranean). 
Resembles Mataro; bunch-stalk woody (her- 
baceous in latter); bunches shouldered; berries 
large, juicy, very sweet; leaves very woolly uu- 
derneath; fertile. Good wine. 

83. Catalanesca nera (Italy). 

Bunches large, long, tapering ; berries olive- 
shaped, black, with blue bloom, and dark pur- 
ple berry-stalk ; flesh firm. Long-keeping table 
grape. 

84. Catharatta (Sicily) 

Catarato (Sicily). 
White wine grape.' 

85. Cauny (Gironde). 

Plant vigorous, but not fertile; shoots long- 
jointed, red; leaves spotted with red; bunches 
close, with oblong, black berries. Wine grape. 

86. Caussis )Pyreneea). 
Wine grape. 

87. Caylor noir musque. 

Numerous, but small bunches and berries, 
black. Good table grape. 

88. Cepin blanc (Varenne, Alliers). 

Grand blanc (Varenne, Alliers). 
Shoots red in summer, grey in winter; leaves 
entire, wrinkly, turned back on edges; bunches 
close; berries round, white. Good wine. 

89. Chalosse (Gironde, Dordogne). 

Fertile; bunches handsome, long, well filled, 
with golden-colored, oblong berries. Wine of 
medium quality, often used for distilling bran- 
dy- 

90. Chaptal. 

Bunches large; berries large, round, inclining 
to oval, white, juicy, and sweet. Table grape. 

91. Chasselas Tribr. 

Young shoots and leaves russet-color; berries 
round, mostly white, sugary; very fertile. 

92. Chasselas Commun. 

Amber Muscadine (England). 
Campanella bianca. 
Chasselas blanc de Fontainblean. 
Chasselas de Fontainbleau. 
Chasselas d'Ore". 



* The present publication [copyrighted] is a part of a 
catalogue of nearly 600 varieties of the mo8t useful and 
profitable Kuropean vines, with about 2,000 synonyms by 
which these varieties are known in different countries and 
localities. The catalogue is edited by Rev. Dr. Bleasdale, 
Secretary of the California State Viticultural Commission, 
and will be published in book-form by Dewey & Co., 202 
Sansome St., San Francisco. The catalogue will contain 
especial reference to vines adapted to the various vine- 
zones of the Pacific coast. 



Chasselas hatif de Teneriffe (England). 

Golden-colored Muscadine. 

Raisin d'Offlcier (Montpellier). 

Royal Muscadine (England). 

White Chasselas (Arbois). 

Weiss Gutedel (Germany). 
Bunches mostly rather loose, long-shoul- 
dered; berries large, round, with thin trans- 
parent greenish yellow to amber-colored skin; 
flesh tender, juicy, sweet Excellent table 
grape. 

93. Chasselas Hatif. 

Chasselas de Bar sur Aube. 
Variety of last, which ripens earlier. 

94. Chasselas Mares (England). 

Chasselas de Florence (England). 
Bunch small, loose, cylindrical. Table grape, 
of no great value. 

95. Chasselas Ceoquant. 

Diamant Traube (Germany). 
Blacksmith's White Cluster (Britain). 
Krach Gutedel. 
Grand Vert ( Vienne) . 
Laau Hatif. 
Mere avec ses Enfants. 
Portugais Blanc. 
Scotch White Cluster. 
Vander Laan Traube. 
Vert Doux (Vienne). 
Bunches long, loose; berries large, round, 
golden-colored. Excellent table grape. 

96. Cazalis Alut. 

Variety of last, seedling obtained from it. 
Bunches handsome; berries oblong. Excellent 
table grape. 

97. Chasselas de Montauban a Grains Trans- 

parents. 

Excellent variety of last; bunches longer; 
berries comparatively small, golden-colored, 
flesh very firm. Table grape, not so early. 

98. Chasselas de Montauban a Geos Grains 

Ronds. 
Chasselas Coulard. 
Chasselas Imperial Precoce. 
Frog de Boulogne. 
Gros Coulard. 
Prolific Sweetwater. 
Bunches short; berries large, round, of uni- 
form size, greenish-yellow. Excellent table 
grape. Fertile. 

99. Chasselas jaune de la Drome (Drome). 

Gamon (Drome). 

Gamot (Drome). 
Better even than Chasselas de Fontaine- 
bleau; bunches loose, berries large, golden, 
subject to coulure. 

100. Chasselas de Sillery (Champagne). 
Chasselas Musqu6 (Tourraine). 

Leaves small, thin, turned inward, dull 
green; plant neither vigorous nor fertile. Ex- 
cellent table grape; muscat flavor. 

101. Chasselas de Tonneins. 

Bunches and berries very large, sugary, melt- 
ing; very early. Excellent table grape. 

102. Chasselas Vibert (England). 
Chasselas Duhamel (England). 

Bunches long, cylindrical, well set; berries 
large, round, thin-skinned, yellowish white, 
transparent, tender, and juicy. Very good table 
grape. 

103. Chasselas Musque. 

Early Auvergne Frontignan. 

Muscat Eugenien. 

Muscat blanc de Puy de Dome. 

Muscat precoce de Puy de Dome. 
Early ripening variety, with much lancinated 
leaves; bunches cylindrical, rather; loose; ber- 
ries round, greenish white, muscat flavor. 
Table grape, belonging rather to the tribe of 
Muscats. 

All the above Chasselas have greenish-white 
or golden-colored berries. 

104. Diaminte Traube (Crimea). 
Excellent table grape, with slightly oblong 

golden-colored berries; leaves large, woolly 
underneath. 

105. Parsley-leaved Chasselas (Victoria.) 
Citat (France). 

v Chasselas d'Autriche (France). 
Gutedel (Germany). 
Malmsey Muscadine (England). 
Parisien. 

Petersilien Traube (Germany). 
Pey tress Szolima Szoello (Hungary). 
Raisin d'Autriche (France). 
Plant not fertile, and suffering much from 
coulure; bunches loose, badly set; berries good 
sized, round, golden-colored; leaves very much 
and deeply lacinated; ripens early. Table grape. 

N. B. Malvoisie blanche, a feulles tres de 
coupe; a variety of the above. 

106. Merlinot (Charente). 

Variety of Chasselas; bunches rather loose, 
smaller than those of other Chasselas; berries 
medium sized, round, flesh cracking, pleasant 
and sweet; leaves deeply lobed, with long 
stalks. Early table grape. 

107. Chasellas Royal Rose (France). 
Barbaroux precoce (Provence V 
Chasselas d'Alsace. 
Chasselas Rose. 

Fendant Rose. 

Fendant Rous. 

Geisler (Germany). 

Rother Susseling (Upper Rhine). 

Tramontaner (Germany). 

Tokay des Jardins (England). 
Dark-colored Chasselas, resembling Cerne. 
Table grape. Berries color only when nearly 
ripe. 

(To be Continued. ) 



20 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



[January 8, 1881. 



Grange Progress. 

Appropriate to the late meeting of the Na- 
tional Grange in Washington, the Orange Bul- 
letin mentions the changes which have occurred 
since the N. G. met in Washington before. Af- 
ter swinging around the circle and holding 
meetings in seven different States, in as many 
years, and at all points of the compass, it once 
more gathers at the home place — the place of 
its birth. The last session held at Washington 
(or rather at Georgetown, a suburb and really 
a part of the city) was in January, 1873, nearly 
eight years ago. Then the Order was weak; 
now it is strong. Then it was an experiment, a 
beautiful theory, an almost untried plan, its 
best friends hopeful, but sometimes doubting 
its permanency; now it is an undisputed success 
and acknowledged as a permanent institution of 
the country. Then it was before the battle; now 
it is after victories gained. Then our ranks 
were just being recruited, and were unused to 
the stern duties and trials of war; now it is an 
army of veterans purified and tried by fire. 
Then it numbered ' hardly 1,000 Subordinate 
Granges; now it has as many in a single State. 
Then it covered but a portion of our country; 
now it o're spreads the entire union, and has ex- 
tended beyond our borders. Then it had all 
the trials and troubles, diseases and dangers of 
childhood before it; now it is a lusty youth ap- 
proaching manhood's estate and years of dis- 
cretion, with its trials past, its dangers sur- 
mounted, ready to grapple the great industrial 
questions of the age. Then the child was sneered 
and scoffed at by monopolies and giant corpora- 
tions, whose hand was just being felt in oppress- 
ing the people; then it found enemies even in 
the house of its friends, farmers themselves be- 
ing among its most bitter opponents. Now, the 
young giant, strong in his added years, bold 
because of the justness of his cause, and strip- 
ped of all entanglements and hindrances, com- 
mands the respect of those who jeered and is 
receiving the most hearty support of many of 
his earlier foes; Then the few plain, but earn- 
est farmers, with a small following gathered 
quietly, performed their work, did it well, and 
returned again to their homes unnoticed and un- 
recognized by the Government, its Congress or 
any of its departments; now they gather as rep- 
resentatives of hundreds of thousands of earnest 
men and women, already recognized by the high- 
est Executive of our country, by some of its 
departments after having gained even the ear 
and heed of Congress itself. Now they go for- 
ward cheered by past successes, firm in the 
right, demanding full and complete recognition, 
with justice as their watchword, asking noth- 
ing more, determined to accept nothing less. 

Yes, the seed that then was only being scat- 
tered, has sprung into full life and is deeply 
rooted in the affections of the people. The 
ground that then was only being cultivated, is 
now yielding its harvest in 10,000 neighborhoods 
and in the brighter homes all over our land. 

Different leaders gather now at this the head 
and front of our cause, but none the less faith- 
ful than those of old, some of whom have passed 
to the Great Grange above. Tried on the many 
and different fields of our Order, they have 
come up some of them from the ranks to take 
a foremost place. Different hands are at the 
helm, but we doubt not that after their work 
is done it can be said of them also, "They are 
noted for their fidelity." 

Yes, under far brighter auspices does this ses- 
sion open at the capital of our country, than 
did that other in '73. Guided by the lessons of 
the past, every danger and difficulty that has 
been overcome being made plain by the light of 
experience; with a better conception than ever 
of the great mission of our Order, we feel sure 
that this session will result in great good and 
that the advance and progress made will be equal 
if not greater than that which followed the ses- 
sion of 1873. 



Elections. 

Bennett Valley Grange.— Election Dec. 
18. Nelson Carr, M. ; B. Lacque, O. ; Isaac De 
Turk, L. ; R. A. Temple, S.; P. Whittaker, 
A. S.; Charles Lyman, C.; Mrs. H. Talbot, 
T.; W. H. Lnmsden, Sec; J. M. Talbot, G. 
K. ; Mrs. J. M. Talbot, Pomona, Miss Fannie 
Lumsden, Flora; Mrs. C. Lyman, Ceres; Mrs. 
L. H. Carr, L. A. S.; L De Turk, Trustee for 
three years. 

Sutter Mill Grange, No. 102, Coloma. — 
Election Dec. 10. J. G. O'Brien, M. ; Albert 
Mosley, O.; W. P. Vernon, C; Geo. W. Ram- 
sey, L. ; Will Veerkamp, S. ; Wm. Nicholls, 
A. S. ; Dan'l Haggart, T.; Lew H. Valentine, 
Sec. ; Jas. Quirk, G. K. ; Mrs. A. Veerkamp, 
Ceres; Mrs. L Rasmusson, Pomona; Miss Edith 
Vernon, Flora; Miss Annie Hume, L. A. S. ; 
Mrs. M. J. Stearns, Trustee, Installation 
Jan. 14. 

Rosevtlle Grange— Election Dec. 4. V. 
M. Leonard, M. ; J. F. Cross, O. ; N. Mertes, 
L.; Fred Leonard, S.; F. T. Cavitt, A. S.; 
Mrs. J. Cross, S.; E. Daly, OLj J. Johnson, 
Sea; Wm. S. Cook, G. K.; Miss Gussie A. 
Mertes, Ceres; Josephine Daly, Pomona; Mrs. 
M. Mertes, Flora; Miss Hannah Daly, L. A. S. ; 
Installation Jan. 8. 

Washington Grange, No. 228. — Sam. C. 
Waters, M.; W. B. Stamper, O.; R. D. Wil- 



Plumas Grange, No. 245.— W. E. McVeiL 
M.; W. E. Sperry, O.; A. Hubbard, L.; A. B. 
Huntley, S.; G. W. Cramer, A. S.; A. Trim- 
ble, C. ; J. L. Crow, T. ; Thos. Black, Sec; O. 
McElroy, G. K.; Sister A. F. Hubbard, Ceres; 
Sister Annie Sperry, Pomona; Sister J. Crow, 
Flora; Sister Annie Bringham, L A. S. 

San Luis Obispo Grange, No. 28. — Geo. 
Steele, M.; W. P. Barnett, O.; Mrs. E. W. 
Steele. L.; L. Fersler, S.; J. Lewis, A. S. ; 
Miss E. Barnett, L. A. S. ; Mrs. Geo. Steele, 
C; L. M. Warden, T.; R. E. Jack, Sec; T. T. 
White, G. K.; Mrs. J. Vincent, Ceres; Mrs. L. 
M. Warden, Pomona; Mrs. B. T. Pettit, 
Flora. 

Enterprise Grange. — G. Beckley, M. ; A. 
M. Gunter, O.; J. M. Bell, L; M. Toomy, 8.; 
H. F. Wilson, A. 8.; A. M. Plummer, Cj Sis- 
ter E. Bell, T. ; Sister Minnie Plummer, Sec. ; 
E. Ames, G. K.; Sister L. L. Beckley, Ceres; 
Mrs. Plummer, Pomona; S. A. Reese, Flora; 
J. M. Wilson, L A. S.; S. Parker, Organist; 
J. Hanlon, Trustee. 

Danville Grange.— Election Dec. 18,1880. 
M. W. Hall, M.; S. F. Ramage, O.; Chas. 
Wood, L.; S. L. Moore, S.; L. Wood, A. S.; 
R. S. Symington, C; R. 0. Baldwin, C; E. 
Howard, S.; U. W. Cox, G. K.; Clara Stone, 
C; Lina Jones, P.; Ada Flournoy, F.; Mrs. U. 
W. Cox, L. A. S.; D. A. Caldwell T. 
son, L.; S. W. Sollars, S.; Wm. Lyons, A. S.; 
M. L. Cook, C; J. C. Blyter, T.; Chas. Bam- 
ert, Sec; L. L. Giles, G. K. ; Mrs. Minerva 
Holman, Ceres; Miss Gertie Holman, Pomona; 
Mrs. Emelia Clinker, Flora; Josie E. Stamper, 
Organist; A. A. Van Standt, Trustee. 

Florin Grange, No. 130.— C. Towle, M.;L. 
Crenshaw, 0.; J. K. Chandler, L. ; J. Reese, 
8.; J. P. Brown, A. S.; D. H. Buell, T.; J. 
T. Amos, Sec; W. A. Smith, C; D. Reese, 
G. K.; Mrs. D. Moffet, Ceres. 



CALIFORNIA. 

COLUSA. 

Dr. Glenn and Grapes. — Dixon Tribune: 
We are informed that Dr. Glenn, the great 
Colusa wheat farmer, has recently been making 
Blowers, the Yolo county raisin-maker, a visit 
of several days' duration, during which he in- 
vestigated the raisin business, and went home 
with the intention of starting a vineyard of 000 
acres. If the doctor should find raisins more 
profitable than wheat, and plant his 45,000 acres 
with vines, it would make a nice family vine- 
yard. 

EL DORADO. 

Prosperous Farmers. — Republican, Jan. 1: 
That the people of this county, as a rule, are 
prospering cannot be gainsaid. The larger acre- 
age of crops, the neat and tidy appearance of a 
large majority of country homes, the new 
houses, barns and fences, new wagons and car- 
riages, comfortable clothing, and best of all, no 
one idle because employment is not to be had, 
assuredly establish this fact. One of the prin- 
cipal reasons for this is that men have gone to 
work in earnest to turn something up, instead 
of sitting around saloons guzzling whisky, as 
they were wont to do, waiting for something to 
turn up; and while this new departure has been 
a little rough on the whisky business, the gen- 
eral prosperity of the country will compare fa- ' 
vorably with those of the best. We have argued 
from the start that our abundance of undevel- 
oped natural resources would eventually be re- 
alized by those who had the energy or capital 
to make the most of them, and a glance back 
to so short a period as 10 years ago, compared 
with the present, confirms the opinion we then 
formed. No man with energy and steady hab- 
its need be in want here, nor even be depend- 
ent up jn others for employment for any length 
of time, as they can follow mining or devote 
their time to the various agricultural pursuits 
with much better ultimate results. 

FRESNO. 

Rainfall. — Editors Press: We have had 
C.G inches of rain — a greater amount than I 
have ever before seen here so early in the sea- 
son. Good crops are assured. Seeding is being 
pushed to the utmost ability of the farmers 
of this region of the country. — W. A. Sanders. 

Oranges. — Republican: On Christmas we 
were presented by Jo. Burns, of CenterviUe, 
with samples of oranges grown on his farm. 
They constituted a gift of which we are exceed- 
ingly proud. One cluster of four, of the "Mis- 
sion" variety, weighed three and one- third lbs., 
and presented a sight fair to look upon. 
LOS ANGELES. 

Ripening Persimmons. — Anaheim Gazette, 
Jan. 1 : We are indebted to Mrs. L. Parker for 
some choice specimens of Japanese Imperial 
persimmons. The lady has two trees which are 
loaded with the fruit. The trees present a sin- 
gular but very fine appearance. Every leaf 
has fallen from the branches, and the large, 
red fruit hangs in great profusion on every 
bough. It maybe that some of our readers are as 
ignorant as the writer was a short time ago as 
to the treatment which should be given per- 
simmons before they are edible. It won't do 
to pluck them from the tree and eat them; they 
must be laid aside in a dark place for a month 
or two until they are soft "or look like they 
were rotten." The taste of the persimmon, 
when eaten before they reach that stage of de- 
velopment, is abominable; but when they are 
allowed to become thoroughly ripe, it is said 



that they are as rich and luscious a fruit as any 

that grows. 

MONTEREY. 

The Carmelites. — Corr. Index: Though 
Carmel valley is small, as a general rule the 
people are more comfortable than those on the 
larger valley of the Salinas. Many of them 
own the land they farm or dairy on, have pleas- 
anter homesteads, orchards, good barns, shade 
trees near them, own live stock, make their 
own butter and some cheese, and some raise 
their own fruit, which is more than can be said 
of most of the farmers on the Salinas river, 
who are only renters, apt to have the rent 
raised on them yearly, and also are subject to 
having to quit their farms at short notice. Then 
as the Carmelites don't confine themselves to one 
article of produce as most of the farmers do on 
the Salinas they have more to fall back on; 
while on the Salinas plain if the grain crop 
fails everything is gone in for a season. 
NAPA. 

Editors Press: — Not seeing our beautiful 
Napa valley represented in your valuable pa- 
per for a couple of weeks, I thought a few 
items might not be amiss. We do not feel 
jealous of Santa Cruz, but admire their pros- 
perity and feel as though we share a like pre- 
mium for Napa. We, too, feel jubilant, while 
the new year starts in with warm sunshine and 
our fields covered with green grain, not having 
to wait till next month to sow the seed, and 
we, too, always have plenty of rain, and sit 
under our own vine and fig tree. We raise 
our own bread and butter, our wine, our ber- 
ries of all varieties, our fruits. We crack 
nuts raised in our own gardens, eat perfectly- 
matured persimmons, and we think the Lord 
fitted up Napa county for pleasant and pros- 
perous homes. The vineyards are being pruned 
as rapidly as can be expected, owing to the 
number of acres planted, and all the land avail- 
able is being bought up and set apart for plant- 
ing the same to vines the coming spring. The 
cuttings are nearly all engaged, and the farmers 
generally feel encouraged. — F. A. W., Pine 
Station. 

PLACER. 

The Weather not Welcome. — Auburn 
Herald, Dec. 25: The protracted wet weather, 
while not detrimental to the interests of the 
miners, but rather beneficial, is to use a vulgar- 
ism, tough on the farmers. The ground in the 
valley is now too wet for either the plow or 
the harrow, and consequently all seeding opera- 
tions are at a standstill. Only a few days fine 
weather at a time will do no good, as, when the 
ground is thoroughly soaked with water as at 
present, it takes some time after the storms 
have ceased before it can be worked to advan- 
tage, and this especially where the soil is of a 
clayey nature, as is the case throughout most of 
the farming regions' of Placer, except on the al- 
luvial creek bottoms. This continued very wet 
weather comes worst, though, on those who 
have not sowed their summer-fallow, and there 
are many, we believe, in this fix. All the rains 
are now beating the ground that much more 
solid, and leaving the time for the growth of 
the crop that much leas. Even should we have 
a considerable spell of fine weather commenc- 
ing at once, and it is hoped we may, the seed- 
ing season must necessarily be extended later 
than usual. Last year the heft of the crops 
were in the ground by the holidays. Unless 
a change to finer weather shall occur soon the 
large area of grain that it was anticipated a 
short time ago would be sowed this season, 
must be greatly reduced. It is possible, and 
it is well to be prepared for possibilities, that 
little more seeding will be done this season. 
In 1867-68 the weather continued from early 
in the fall to late in the spring very similar to 
the weather of the last week or two, and we 
remember that many thousands of acres of 
ground that it had been the intention and de- 
sire to seed that winter, remained untouched 
and were either summer-fallowed or allowed to 
run to volunteer. For the grain that is in the 
ground the late warm rains, if they don't come 
in too great abundance, are rather more favor- 
able than otherwise. 

Vineyard Distances. — In conversation with 
H. H. Johnson the other day we gathered an 
idea that is worth disseminating. He is a vine- 
yardist of many years' experience, and a gen- 
tleman of far more than ordinary intelligence, 
and, of course, calculated to gather ideas from 
observation. His grapevines were originally 
six ft. apart each way. He noticed in gath- 
ering the grapes that the outside row would 
yield as much as two or three rows a little way 
from the edge of the vineyard. This, he con- 
cluded, was because the outside row got more 
air, and had more room to grow and 
thrive, and if so, it was only necessary to 
give the other vines more room to have them 
do as well. He accordingly dug out every 
other row in his vineyard, and, as a result, he 
says he gets equally as many pounds as form- 
erly, and all of them are larger and of a far 
better quality. In setting out a vineyard he 
says he would not put the vines less than 10 ft. 
apart each way. 
SAN BERNARDINO. 

Riverside Citrus Fair. — Press, Jan. 1: 
The third annual exhibition of the citrus and 
semi-tropical fruits grown in California, will be 
held at Riverside, San Bernardino county, on 
Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, March 9, 
10 and 11, 1881. The Executive Committee 
would respectfully direct the attention of the 
fruit growers of southern California to the great 
value of these annual meetings. Through them 



an excellent opportunity is given for the com- 
parison of fruits, and the methods of cultiva- 
tion. We therefore solicit the assistance of all 
in making this exhibition a greater success than 
any held heretofore. We would also respect- 
fully suggest that the best specimens of the 
citrus fruits grown be preserved for exhibition, 
especially of all new varieties. In order to 
make the comparison of lemons of more practi- 
cal value we would recommend that all fruit in- 
tended for omparison be picked upon the same 
day, say the 25th day of January, 1881, and 
kept in a dry, cool place until needed, as it has 
been found in former experiments that the 
quantity and quality of the acid is much im- 
proved by keeping the lemon a few weeks be- 
fore using. As specimens of the new crop of 
Malaga raisins will be on exhibition for com- 
parison with those made in southern California, 
we would urge all interested in this industry to 
be present, and bring samples of their raisins 
with them. A list of committees together 
with the premium list will be shortly pub- 
lished.— H. J. Rudisill, A. S. White, Jas. Bett- 
ner. 

Raisins Lost. — More than 500 boxes of rai- 
sins were destroyed by the long continued 
rains. 

Dormant Buds. — E. G. Judson, in Press : 
I prefer peach trees in dormant bud but not the 
apricot ; as I stated in your columns some 
months since, my experience in planting them 
resulted in a loss of just 54 %. I set the 
trees in cool, cloudy weather, in the middle of 
the season, with an abundance of good, fibrous 
roots, but it was not a successful experiment. 
My trees were all on their own roots, and I 
have since learned that parties who set the 
same with peach roots met with great success 
when the tops were cut off as soon as the trees 
were transplanted. I did not cut mine for three 
or four weeks. I have some 6,000 budded on 
peach this year and do not expect to plant or 
sell them this season. 

Raisin Comparisons. — The fruit growers of 
Riverside held a meeting last week to institute 
comparisons between Riverside raisins and im- 
ported raisins. From the Press and Horticul- 
turist we learn that the conclusions arrived at 
were — 1st, that the packing of the imported 
raisins was inferior to Riverside raisins; 2d, 
the berries of the imported raisins were smaller 
than the Riverside product; 3d, the seed in the 
imported raisins were a leetle smaller than in 
the Riverside raisins, but the size of tbe seed 
was not less in proportion to the size of the 
berry; 4th, the thickness and toughness in the 
skins was much in favor of the Riverside rai- 
sins ; 5th, in flavor there was but little differ- 
ence, the Riverside raisins being slightly ahead; 
6th, the general appearance of the raisins when 
piled up was decidedly in favor of the Riverside 
article. There was much rejoicing over the de- 
cision of the stern and unbiased judges, and 
one of the gentlemen present solemnly warned 
the assembled fruit growers against copying 
after the imported method of putting up 
raisins. 

SANTA CBUZ. 

Editors Press: — We are still getting dis- 
patches from the Atlantic States, telling of ter- 
rible storms of wind, sleet, snow and unprece- 
dented cold weather, clear into the "sunny 
South." We are having pleasant sunshine, 
gentle breezes, green pastures, good roads, 
good health, peace and plenty, ana all nature 
in the best condition for producing more. Thus 
the New Year finds us at Santa Cruz. We 
have had rain enough to put the ground in good 
order for the plow, and to produce a good crop 
of new grass, and the dairy cows are taking 
advantage of it. Now, with all these blessings 
surrounding us on the first day of January, 
1881, why should we not have a happy new 
year ? and with this note I extend my sympa- 
thies to those suffering from an Arctic winter at 
the East— M. P. Owen. 
SAN JOAQDIN. 

Legislation for Reclamation. —Cor. Stock- 
ton Independent: Mnch is done to make the 
reclamation works strong and lasting. A large 
amount of capital has been spent to cultivate 
the land and in improvements. Still said 
works, in all probability, don't afford one-half 
the security from overflow they ought to give, 
just from want of uniformity and system. The 
legislation in regard to the reclamation for the 
last 15 or 20 years was good in theory and in- 
tention, but poorly in its results, considering 
the many natural advantages we have above 
other counties, and even above the Sacramento 
valley. Much labor, capital and valuable time 
have been lost, but what is worse, under the 
present order of things, discontent and strife 
have entered otherwise peaceable communities, 
and the most progressive members of society 
are the most abused. It is well worth the 
while to find the cause of the evil and the rem- 
edy and look to our law-makers for relief, if 
properlv pointed out to them. And it is not too 
much to expect that some of our prominent cit- 
izens, so largely interested in the reclamation of 
land, will support them and keep the delegation 
of San Joaquin county well informed of our 
need of reform of the reclamation laws and the 
execution of the same. 

River Improvement. — The engineer en- 
trusted with the work of making a survey of the 
San Joaquin river has recommended an appro- 
priation of $50,000 for the improvement of ita 
navigation. The sum designated has been in- 
corporated in the River and Harbor Improve- 
ment Bill pending in Congress. The sum, pru- 
dently and economically expended, will accom- 
plish a good deal of work urgently necessary to 



January 8, i88t.] 



THE PACIFIC HUB At 



2i 



be done, but three times the amount could be 
advantageously utilized in that direction. The 
appropriation of $50,000 will be accepted on the 

Erinciple that half a loaf is better than no 
read, and the hope will be strongly entertained 
that the sum named may only be an earnest of 
more to follow. 
SAN LUIS OBISPO. 

A Wood Famine. — Tribune, Jan. 1: This 
city is threatened with a wood famine. The 
supply of the local wood dealers has been ex- 
hausted for several days, and the condition of 
the roads has rendered it almost impossible for 
the farmers to haul even small loads. In the 
meantime several families have run entirely out 
of fuel, and have been compelled to skirmish 
around for enough to cook with. Fortunately, 
the weather has been unusually mild, otherwise 
there would have been actual suffering. If the 
weather continues pleasant, no doubt those who 
have wood will take advantage of the high 
prices now ruling for that necessary commodity 
and commence hauling. The scarcity of labor 
last summer and fall prevented many farmers 
from chopping, and there are, consequently, 
very few who have wood for sale. The ruling 
prices are from 50% to 75% higher than last 
year at this time. 
SHASTA. 

Timber Destruction. — B. F. Roberts, in 
Shasta Courier, Jan. 1 : The protection of tim- 
ber is a duty our government owes itself and its 
future citizens. In its effort to perform this 
duty every true citizen will lend his assistance. 
A century hence will not see agriculture pushed 
beyond the valleys and foothills of these west- 
ern States and Territories, while the half of 
that time will see the greater portion of our 
timber gone at the present rate of destruction. 
The cutting of trees for lumber is a legitimate 
industry, and one that should not be interfered 
with, but let the lumberman confine himself to 
his own trees and utilize as much of each tree 
as possible; if not as lumber, in some other use- 
ful manner. The western slope of the Sierra 
Nevadas, contains to-day more abandoned tim- 
ber, slowly decaying than would be required to 
furnish fuel for every home in the State for the 
next five years. 
SONOMA. 

Winter Ripening Melons. — Healdsburg 
Enterprise: We return thanks to J. H. Curtis 
for some winter musk-melons, which he raised 
on his farm below town. The melons were 
finely flavored, and seemingly as good as any 
we ever ate. Ripening, as this variety does, 
through the winter months, they prove a rare 
treat. Mr. Curtis' success in raising them is 
evidence that they might be abundantly pro- 
duced by our farmers. 

A Monstrous Ox. — Healdsburg Enterprise, 
Dec. 29: That big ox of Ransom Powell's, 
which he sold to Delano & Miller, for Christ- 
mas beef, for $100 gold coin, weighed 2,136 lbs. 
on the mill scales. A large crowd gathered to 
see the ox weighed, his prodigious size having 
collected together a ourious assembly. The 
general opinion was that the steer would weigh 
less than a ton, and it was a surprise when he 
tipped the scales at over 2,100. Beyond doubt 
it is the finest beef steer ever slaughtered in 
Healdsburg. , 
STANISLAUS. 

Sheep for Utah. — News, Dec. 17: Mr. A. 
G. Stonesifer, well known as a breeder of fine 
French Merino sheep, has just sold 1,200 of his 
fine ewes to a sheep-raiser in Utah. Mr. S. has 
also sold in the last few months many fine bucks 
to sheep-raisers of Montana, Colorado and 
Utah. It looks somewhat strange that Cali- 
fornia sheep should be sent back eastward, yet 
such has been the care and management of 
many Californian breeders that purchasers from 
the Territories are beginning to learn that they 
can do better here than anywhere else. Mr. 
Stonesifer's ranch is on the Orestimba, near 
Hill's Ferry. He informs us that the demand 
for his sheep is already much greater than the 
supply. 
YOLO. 

Raisins in Fancy Boxes. — Yolo Democrat, 
Dec. 30: R. B. Blowers, the vineyardist and 
raisin producer, is about to have a number of 
boxes made of the wood of the Sequoia gigan- 
tea, or big tree, highly polished, filled with the 
very best raisins, and having in each box a card 
giving the hight and size and locality of the 
growth of the tree from which the boxes are 
made. These will be forwarded to New York 
city, where they will no doubt attract great 
attention, and will serve to make the Califor 
nia raisins better known and appreciated. 
NEVADA. 

Early Work, — Reno Journal, Jan. 1: Some 
of the farmers are already plowing for their 
spring crops. George Alt is already sowing 
and J. C. Smith will commence sowing his 
grain next week. They propose to get their 

grain in early so as to give it a chance to ripen 
efore the next crop of grasshoppers get large 
enough to do much damage. The hoppers do 
no damage until they begin to fly, and it is 
thought that by sowing early, grain can be har 
vested before they get that far along. 



Bone and Meat Manure. — Krarap Bros, 
of Diamond Springs, write to Mr. Haas that 
they have been using his bone dust and blood 
manure to improve their land, and- have very 
good results. They say also that they have 
distributed the fertilizers among a good many 
of their neighbors, and they all say that the 
manures do much good to their crops. This 
experience may lead others to experiment. 



Our State Government 

The following list comprises the representa- 
tives of the Executive, Judicial and Legislative 
departments of the State of California. It is 
worthy of preservation as a means of reference : 
Executive Department. 

Governor George C. Perkins 

Lieutenant-Governor Gen. John Mansfield 

Secretary of State D. M. Burns 

Controller D. M. Kenfield 

State Treasurer John Weil 

Attorney-General A. L. Hart 

Surveyor-General J. W. Shanklin 

Superintendent State Printing John D. Young 

Superintendent Public Instruction F. M. Campbell 

Adjutant-General Samuel W. Backus 

State Librarian R. O. Cravens 

Railroad Commissioners — JoBeph Cone, C J. Beerstecher, 
George Stoneman. 

State Board of Equalization— James L. King, M. M. 
Drew, Warren Dutton, T. D. HeiskelL D. M. Kenfield. 

Supreme Court Judges— R. F. Morrison, Chief Justice. 
Associate Justices— E. W. McKinistry, J. D. Thornton, S. 
B. McKee, M. H. Myrick, D. M. Ross, J. R. Sharpstein. 
Legislative Department. 

SENATE 

NAME. P08TOFFICE. COUNTY. 

(First District— San Diego and San Bernardino.) 
J. W. Satterwhite (D.) San Bernardino 

(Second District— Los Angeles.) 
J. P. West (W. & N. C.) Compton. Los Angeles. 
(Third District— Ventura, Santa Barbara, and San Luis 
Obispo.) 

Warren Chase (W.) Santa Barbara. Santa Barbara. 

(Fourth District— Fresno, Tulare, Kern, Mono, and Inyo.) 
Chester Rowell (R.) Fresno. Fresno. 

(Fifth District— Mariposa, Merced and Stanislaus.) 
D. M. Pool (D.) Hornitos. Mariposa. 

(Sixth District— Monterey, San Benito, and Santa Cruz.) 
W. J. Hill (W., N. C. & R.) Salinas City. Monterey. 

(Seventh District— Santa Clara ) 
George F. Baker (R.) San Jose. Santa Clara 

J. C. Zuck (R.) Gilroy. " 

(Eighth District— San Franoisoo and San Mateo.) 
James D. Byrnes San Mateo 

(Nin|h District— San Francisco.) 



1420 B dway St. 
2120 " '• 



San Francisco. 



C. C. Conger (W.) 
W. W. Traylor (R.) 

(Tenth District— San Francisco.) 
Paul Newman (R.) 1718 Bush St. San Francisco. 

John H. Dickinson (R.) 2021 California St. " 

(Eleventh District— San Francisco.) 
Thos Kane (W.) 8Zoe St. b . 3d & 4th. San Francisco.* 

T. K. Nelson (W.) 546i Bryant St. 

(Twelfth District— San Francisco.) 
Joseph C. Gorman (W.) 5341 Natoma St. San Francisco. 
Martin Kelly (W.) 872 Mission St. " " 

(Thirteenth District— San Francisco.) 
John S. Enos (W.) Chenery St., bet 30th St 31st, S. F. 

Theo. H. Hittell(R.) 808 Turk St. San Francisco. 

(Fourteenth District— Alameda.) 
S. G. Nye (R.) Oakland. Alameda. 

E. H. Pardee (R.) 

(Fifteenth District— Contra Costa and Marin.) 
W, H. Sears (R.) San Rafael. Marin. 

(Sixteenth District— San Joaquin and Amador.) 
B. F. Langford (N. O.&D.) Lockford. San Joaquin. 

A. T. Hudson (R.) Stockton. 

(Seventeenth District— Calaveras and Tuolumne.) 
R. M. Lampson (R.) Chinese Camp. Tuolumne. 

(Eighteenth District— Sacramento.) 
Grove L. Johnson (R.) 5th St. bet 1 1 J. Sacramento. 
William Johnston, (K.) Richland. 

(Nineteenth District— Solano and Yolo.) 
J. H. Harlan (N. C. & D.) Woodland. Yolo. 
J. T. Wendell (R.) Suisun. Solano. 

(Twentieth District— Napa, Lake and Sonoma.) 
W. L. Anderson (D.) Lakeport. Lake. 

(Twenty-first District— Sonoma ) 
W. W. Moreland (D.) Healdsburg. Sonoma. 

(Twenty-second Distriot— Placer.) 
S. B. Burt (R.) Bath. Placer. 

(Twenty-third District— El Dorado and Alpine.) 
W. H. Brown (R.) Shingle Springs. El Dorado. 

(Twenty-fourth District— Napa and Sierra.) 

B. J Watson (R.) Nevada City. Nevada. 
William George (R.) Grass Valley. , 

(Twenty-fifth District— Yuba and Sutter.) 
E. A. Davis (R.) Marysville. Yuba. 

(Twenty-sixth District— Butte, Plumas and L&ssen.l 
W. A. Cheney (R) Quincy. Plumas. 

(Twenty-seventh District— Del Norte, Humboldt, and Men- 
docino.) 

P. H Ryan (W.,N.O.,&D.)Eureka. Humboldt 
(Twenty-eight District — Siskiyou, Modoc, Trinity and 
Shasta, 

A B. Carlock (R.) Fort Jones. Siskiyou. 

(Twenty-ninth Distriot— Colusa and Tehama.) 
B. B. Glascock (D.) Dunnigan. Yolo. 

Members of Assembly. 



W. W. Camron (R.) 
L B. Edwards (R.) 
Valentin Alviso (R.l 
Chapman Warkins (R.) 
C. B. Swift (D.) 
Jos. C. Wertsbaugher (R. 
Leon D. Freer (D.) 
Joseph P. Jones (R.) 
J. B. Reddick (R.) 
W. P. Mathews (D.) 
W. B. Mason (R.) 
Thos. Fraser (R.) 
Cyrus Coleman (R.) 
E. J. Griffith (D.) 

G. C. Mudgett (D. and G 
Joseph Wasson (R.) 

J. F. Crank (R) 
R. F. Del Valle (D.) 
H J. Crumpton (D.) 
J. W. Bost (D.) 
C. L. Estey (R.) 
Wm. Holden (D.) 
P arris Kilbum (R.) 
Chancellor Hartson (R) 
W. D. Long (R.) 
J. B. Patterson (R.) 
Thomas Mein (R.) 
J. E. Hale (R.) 
W. W. Kellogg (D.) 

(Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh, 
Timothy O'Connor (D.) 
Jno. D. Siebe (R) 
Horace G. Piatt (D.) 
T. J. Pindar ID.) 
W. B. May (R.) 
David McClure (R.) 
Ira G. Hoit (R.) 
Oscar Lewis (R.) 
Edward Keating (D.) 
Dennis Geary (D.) 
J. J. McCallion (D.) 
J. G. Noonan (D.) 
M. Lane (D.f 
Jno. Burns (D.) 
W. J. Gavigan (D.) 
J. H.Gilmore(D.) 
J. W. McDonald (D.) 
P. Garrity (D.) 

H. J. Jackson (D. 
M B. Howard (D.) 
J. N. Young (R) 



Oakland. 

Oakland. 

Livermore. 

Sutter Creek. 

lone City. 
) Chico. 

Oroville. 

Martinez. 

San Andreas. 

Tehama. 

Orescent City. 

Placerville. 

MarkleeWUe. 

Fresno City. 
) Areata. 

Bodie. 

Los Angeles. 

Los Angeles. 

Lakeport. 

Merced. 

Nicasio. 

Ukiah. 

Salinas City. 

Napa City. 

Nevada City. 

Nevada City. 

Grass Valley. 

Auburn. 

Quincy. 

Twelfth and Thirteenth Districts.) 
1424 Kearny San Francisco. 
631 Greenwich San Francisco 



Alameda. 

Alamechm 

Alameda. 

Amador. 

Amador. 

Butte. 

Butte. 

Contra Costa. 
Calaveras. 
Colusa fcTTi'ina. 
Del Norte. 
El Dorado. 
Alpine. 
Fresno. 
Humboldt. 
Inyo & Mono. 
Los Angeles. 
Los Angeles. 
Lake. 

Mariposa & M'd. 

Marin. 

Mendocino. 

Monterey. 

Napa. 

Nevada. 

Nevada. 

Nevada. 

Placer. 

Plumas 4 Las'n 



1407 Jones 
416 Broadway 
1114 Clay 



San Francisco. 
San Francisco. 
San Francisco. 



Occidental H't'l. San Francisco. 



907 Bush 
2608 Sacram'to. 
142 Second 
249 Fremont 
69 Natoma 
711 Howard. 
1268 Market. 



San Francisco. 
San Francisco. 
San Francisco. 
San Francisco. 
San Francisco. 
San Francisco. 
San Francisco. 



Brya'tt Park av. San Francisco 
638 Stephenson. San Francisco. 



130 Clara. 
1314 Scott. 
30 Dorland. 
221 Linden ave. 
242 Oak. 
Sacramento. 



San Francisco. 
San Francisco. 
San Francisco. 
San Francisco. 
San Francisco. 
Sacramento. 



W. C. Van Fleet, (R.) 
J. E. Baker (R.) 
E. W. Hendricks (R.) 
H. M. Streeter (R.) 
P. W. Murphy (D.) 
Milton Wason (R.) 
Jno. Reynolds (R.) 
Milus H. Gay (R.) 
Chrislian Wentz (R.) 
J. F. Cunningham (D.) 
J. H. Mathews (D) 
R. Sargent (R.) 
C. C. Paulk(R.) 
Jno. Patterson (R) 
C. N. Felton (R.) 
Geo. Wood (R.) 
Jno. Daggett (D.) 
L. C. Branch ID) 
E. E. Leake (D.) 

E. L. Whipple (D.) 
Ed. C. Hinshaw (D.) 
James Samuels (D.) 
A. L. Chandler (R.) 
Jno. McMurray (D.) 
R. E. Arrick (D.) 

T. C. Binney(D.) 

F. E. Baker (D.I 
W. H. Parks (R.) 
J. P. Brown (R.) 



Sacramento. 
iBleton. 
San Diego. 
Riverside. 
Paso Robles, 
Santa Paula. 
San Jose. 
San Jose. 
Gilroy. 
Santa Cruz. 
San Benito. 
Stockton. 
Stockton. 
Linden. 
Menlo Park. 
Sierra Valley. 
Klamath Mills. 
Modesto. 
Dixon. 
Santa Rosa. 
Petaluma. 
Healdsburg. 
Nicolaus . 
Weaverville. 
Bakers field. 
Sonora. 
Woodland. 
Marysville. 
Camptonville. 



Sacramento. 
Sacramento. 
San Diego. 
San Bernardino. 
San L. Obispo. 
Santa Barbara. 
Santa Clara. 
Santa Clara. 
Santa Clara. 
Santa Cruz. 
San Benito. 
San Joaquin. 
San Joaquin. 
San Joaquin. 
San Mateo. 
Sierra. 
8iskjyou. 
Stanislaus. 
Solano. 
Sonoma. 
Sonoma. 
Sonoma. 
Sutter. 
Trinity. 
Kern. 
Tuolumne. 
Yolo. 
Yuba. 
Yuba. 



Sympathy 



With the Mussel 
Settlers. 



Slough 



There was a public meeting held in this city 
last week to express sympathy with the set- 
tlers, who were convicted of resisting the U. S. 
Marshal, and those suffering in the Mussel 
Slough oppression generally. There was a stir 
ring speech made by F. J. Clark, one of the 
settlers, and afterwards the following action 
was taken : 

Whereas, A great corporation, opulent in 
means by a gift at its feet by the General Gov 
ernment, is seeking to rob a whole community 
of our citizens of their hard-earned homes 
whereas, it is the province of the whole people 
to lift up their voices in condemnation of this 
crime; whereas, the time has come when their 
voices should be heard, and must be heard. 

Resolved, By the people of San Francisco in 
mass meeting assembled, that we denounce as 
criminal the attempt on the part of the South 
ern Pacific Railroad Company to evict from 
their homes and firesides the hundreds of fami- 
lies in the Mussel Slough district, and call upon 
the good people of the civilized world to join 
us in denouncing these unparalleled acts of 
wrong. 

Resolved, That law is, or ought to be, founded 
upon justice. Justice demands that the mailed 
hand of corporation power shall let loose its 
hold upon these outraged citizens, who have re 
claimed for themselves happy homes from bar- 
ren deserts ; that they must be respected and 
protected in their peaceable enjoyment, and to 
that end we denounce as wicked the use of the 
name of our government by these corporations, 
as a means of adding a few paltry thousand 
acres more to the millions already held by 
them. 

Resolved, That we, the citizens of San Fran- 
cisco, will render to these persecuted and op 
pressed settlers of Mussel Slough our moral and 
financial support in the further prosecution of 
their rights before the courts of our country. 

The only dissenting voice to the adoption of 
the above was Alfred Critch, who said "No! 
That is milk for babes. We want meat for 
strong men, and I have the meat here. " He 
then read the annexed resolutions, which were 
also adopted. 

Resolved, That the history of railroad tyranny, 
monopoly and extortion, East and West, proves 
that the State must either own and control the 
railroads, or the railroads will own and control 
the State; that in order that such control by the 
State may not result in an increase of the number 
of political bummers in Government employ, par 
ties must be abolished and the people enabled to 
sceure direct and proportional representation, 
until which they are not morally bound by laws 
which they had no part in enacting. 

Resolved, That late experience in courts and ju 
ries proves, that while the guilty cannot be pun 
ished if they have political and clerical influence, 
the innocent are imprisoned as felons. 

Resolved, That the Democratic and Republi 
can parties are also responsible for outrages 
against which they have never raised a remon 
strance. 

After a few remarks by R. Guy McClellan, 
Mr. Ayers, of Fresno, and D. J. Toohey, a res 
olution requesting the President to pardon the 
settlers recently convicted in the United States 
Circuit Court of resisting Marshal Poole, on the 
11th of May last, was adopted, and the meeting 
ad j ourned . 

Death of a Well-Known Horticultur 

jsx. William Meek, an old resident of San 

Lorenzo, died at his residence last Monday. He 
was a native of Ohio, aged, 63 years. He came 
overland to Oregon in 1847. He brought a 
quantity of fruit trees, the first grafted trees 
this side of the Rocky mountains. He first set- 
tled a few miles from Portland, and engaged in 
the nursery business with Mr. H. Lewelling as 
a partner. Late in 1848, he came to California 
with an ox team, and remained in the mines 
until the spring of 1849 when he returned to 
Oregon. In 1859 he came to California and 
bought 400 acres of land of H. W. Crabb at 
San Lorenzo. By subsequent purchases he in- 
creased his domain, until at the time of his 
death, he had about 2,800 acres, the greater 
portion of which is the choicest fruit growing 
and farming land. He was one of the most 
successful fruit growers in the State. His large 
almond grove was an experiment upon a large 
scale, but unless within the last year or two, 
we believe was not a financial success. It is 
said that his profit upon cherries alone, has 
been as much as $10,000, in a single year.— 
Alameda Co. Reporter. 



News in Brief 

Slight earthquake at Tehama on the 3rd 
inst. 

Heavy rains have caused great damage in 
Sicily. 

Sea-lions are destroying the fish in Monte- 
rey bay. 

The upper Columbia river Is again open to 
navigation. 

Two envoys of the King of Abyssinia have ar- 
rived at Paris. 

The 34th case of cremation has occurred at 
Gothau, France. 

Napa City has adopted a stringent ordinance 
on the opium question. 

The decrease in the public debt during De- 
cember was $5,699,430. 

There have been heavy falls of snow in Geor- 
gia, Louisiana and Texas. 

The Government is feeding the destitute 
Wallapai Indians, Arizona. 

The New York tenement house fire on Thurs- 
day, caused a loss of nine lives. 

The recent sleet storm in Oregon damaged 
orchards to the extent of $30,000. 

The Chileans had arrived within 20 miles of 
the Peruvian Capital December 23rd. 

The total expenditure of the Canada Pa* 
cifio to the end of November was $18,500-, 
000. 

The gross revenue of the United Kingdom 
for the quarter ending January 4th, was £19,- 
500,000. 

There are nearly 10,000cordsof wood piled up 
at Brown's station, on the Virginia and Truckee 
railroad. 

During 1880 immigrants to the number of 
320,808 arrived at New York — an unprecedented 
number. 

Counterfeit silver dollars, dated 1879, are 
in circulation. They are lighter than the genu- 
ine coin. 

Scott, champion shot of England, is to shoot 
a match of 100 pigeons with Dr. Carver for £2,- 
000 a side. 

The demonstrations against the Jews in 
Berlin continue, and the crusade seems to be 
gaining force. 

The $20,000,000 loan of the Northern Pacific 
railroad was all subscribed for yesterday in New 
York and London. 

By an accident on the Sioux City and Omaha 
railroad Tuesday, six men were killed and one 
was badly injured. 

The annual report of the Union Paoific shows 
gross (earnings of $25,000,000, a large increase 
over the previous year. 

Unusually high tide occurred along the coast 
on Saturday last. The predicted storm did not 
arrive on time, however. 

The cold weather continues throughout the 
East, West and South, although at some points 
it has slightly moderated. 

Amity is said to be restored between Egypt 
and Abyssinia, and the roads connecting the 
two are ordered reopened. 

The receipts from customs for December 
amount to nearly $13,000,000, and from internal 
revenue nearly $12,000,000. 

The Western Union Telegraph Co., has 
turned over to the Dominion Government all 
its lines in British Columbia. 

The United States Mints distributed this 
week 310,993 silver dollars, against 2,070,988 
during the corresponding week of 1879. 

According to the terms of the new treaty be- 
tween Russia and China, the latter will open 
the whole country to Russian commerce. 

The claims of Mills and Sargent of Califor- 
nia; Routt of Colorado and Mitchell of Or- 
egon are pressed for a place in Garfield's Cab- 
inet. 

The population of the Moquis villages, in 
Yavapai county, Arizona, is 1,103, and of the 
Orabi village 675, making the total population 
of the seven villages 1,778. 

The new apportionment on a ratio of one Rep- 
resentative to 100,000 will give the Western 
States 116 members, the Eastern and Mid- 
dle States 88 and the Southern States 86. 

Raritan bay is frozen solid from South 
Amboy to Perth Amboy, and as far out as 
Staten island sound. Several vessels with 
cargoes, and others in ballast are frozen in the 
ice. 

A scheme to blow up the ironclad, Lord 
Warden, the guard ship of the Firth, is sup- 
posed to have existed for the past week. A 
torpedo has been found beneath the bow of the 



A Chinese Consul will probably be appointed 
for Denver. Colonel Bee has reoommended 
the step, and has named for the place Chin 
Poo, an intelligent Chinese who speaks English 
well and lives in Denver. 

Tramps in considerable numbers are be- 
ginning to arrive in Los Angeles from Ari- 
zona. They say that the Territory is over- 
run by people who get there by way of New 
Mexico, Nevada and Colorado, as well as Cali- 
fornia. 

The Panama Star and Herald of the 25th of 
December says the foreign fleet will shortly be 
the most powerful ever seen in the Paoific. H. 
B. M. steamship Garnet, recently in the Pacific, 
is reported in quarantine at Montevideo with 
yellow fever on board. 

A. D. Goodrich, manager of the transporta- 
tion company, which had charge of the wrecked 
steamer Alpena, declares untrue the finding of 
the Coroner's jury at Grand Huron, Mich., that 
the Alpena was unsea worthy, manned by an in- 
experienced crew and without proper life-saving 
apparatus. 



22 



THE PACIFIC BURAL PRESS 



f January 8, 1881. 




California. 

Betwixt old Ocean's dread and angry crest 
That sweeps her rock-bound confines on the west, 
And mountain chains with giant peaks sublime, 
Rearing her domes alsng her oastern line, 
Proud California lies ; the noblest state 
In all Columbia ; first among the great. 
There ancient woods unfading verdure wear, 
Whose floral perfumes lade the healthful air; 
The Sire of Frost ne'er comes with frozen chains 
To hold an animal ruin on her plains. 

There pleasant homes the cultured vales adorn 

Like jewels set amid the fields of corn, 

And burdened orchards skirt the winding rills 

That well far up among the vine-clad hills. 

"fwas this far western land in former time. 

That brought her golden treasures from the mine, 

Displayed on high before her sister states. 

While myriads flocked to pass her mountain gates ; 

And all the world transported 'gan amain 

To seek her wealth across the ocean plain. 

From far Del Norte to the genial clime 

Arjund Los Angeles where bio mis the lime, 

E'en to the regions where the burning South 

Wraps Arizona in perpetual drouth. 

Extends her realm of mountains, moors and dales. 

Lakes, rivers, woods, broad plains and fertile vales, 

Luxuriant fields, where prosperous plenty crowns, 

With ten-tiold store, the toil of Labor's sons ; 

A laud where Empire might have fixed a seat 

To bring surrounding nations to his feet. 

All hail, fair daughter of the Western queen. 

Bright star midst her bright constellation seen ! 

While island thrones Ind and Mongolia wait 

To pour their commerce through the Uolden Gate, 

While thy swift fleet shall ride the Asian seas 

To waft Columbia luxury and ease ; 

Forever loyal, may thy glory shed 

H ch luster round Columbia's sainted head ; 

Long may thy beams with hers in union blend, 

Till Destiny shall sea] the nation's end. 

— C. h. Wheeler in Yvxing Folks' Rural. 



Hope. 

O'er daily cares, why anxious grow, 
And load the heart with sorrow, 

The winds to-day that rudely blow 
May softly sigh to-morrow. 

Why look for bliss to coming years, 

Our happiness o'erreaching ; 
To day's bright smile may change to tears, 

With stern to-morrow's teaching. 

When motives pure are misconstrued, 

Why yield to vain repining? 
All goodly acts will end in good, 

Through paths oft hid from finding. 

Wby think our own peculiar ills 

Are greater far than others, 
The pain that one sore bosom fills. 

As sharply sting* another's. 

Life's lesser ills and greater cares, 

Its trials and its grieving. 
Are steps in the ascending stairs, 

To peace — for the believing. 

— Albany Sunday Pre**. 



The Deacon's Experiment. 

"I hope the children haven't been any trouble 
to you, Miss Peck?" said Deacon Grinder, as 
his one-horse chaise drew up on the green in 
front of Miss Philena Peck's house. 

Miss Peck hurried out, all smiles, to greet 
the portly widower. "The littleRdarlings!" she 
cried effusively, "Trouble indeed! Why, dea- 
con, how you talk! It is a positive pleasure to 
have them here. I should like to keep them a 
week." 

The deacon smiled and shook his head. 

"That would be a little too much," said he. 
"Come, children, jump into the wagon." 

And the three apple-cheeked little Grinders — 
two girls and a boy — were hugged and kissed, 
and lifted into the wagon by the beaming epin- 
ster. 

"I shall be lonely when they are gone," she 
said. "I do so dote on children ! Remember, 
darlings, that the gooseberries will be ripe next 
week and that your Peck will be only too happy 
to see you again." 

The widow Clapp came hurrying out as the 
chaise rattled by, with a tin pail in her hand. 

"Dear me, Deacon Grinder," Baidshe. "You 
are always in such a hurry. Do stop a minute, 
can't you ? Here's a pail of new honey in the 
comb. I know the darlings will like it on their 
bread and butter of an evening. When are you 
coming to spend the day with mej? I declare, 
Josie is growing a perfect beauty I 

"Tut, tut, Mrs. Clapp !" said the deacon. 
" 'Handsome is, that handsome does.' That's 
my motto." 

"Nobody can't do handsomer than my little 
Jo," said Mrs. Clapp. "And there's Tommy 
grown as handsome as ever was, and Dolly the 
very picture of you; drop into tea some evening 
this week. " 

The deacon had hardly guided his old horse 
around the corner of the village green when 
Miss Barbara Bowyer tripped out of the millinery 
store. 

"I do hope you will excuse me, Deacon 
Grinder," saul she with all the pretty confusion 
which naturally belonged to a maiden of six and 
thirty summers, "but I was so edified with your 
beautiful remarks in prayer meeting Monday 
night, that I couldn't help setting myself to 
work to think what I could do for you. And 



here's a collar I've stitched for dear Tommy, 
and a handkerchief I've embroidered for Josie, 
and a doll as I've took the liberty to dress for 
Dorothy. Oh, don't thank me pray. It ain't 
nothing, compared with the peace of mind I got 
listening to your precious remarks ! 

But Naomi Poole, sitting at her needle work, 
by the old red farm-house window, had only a 
smile and nod for the party as they drove by. 

"Pa," said Josie, who was a shrewd, sallow- 
faced child of 11, don't Miss Poole love us as 
well as Miss Peck, and Mrs. Clapp and Miss 
Barbara?" 

"I hope so, my child," said the benign deacon. 
"Why do you ask the question ?" 

"Because she never gives us anything," said 
Josie. 

"She is poor, child — she is poor," said the 
deacon. "But I am sure you all have her good 
wishes. 

"I'd rather have the honey," said Tommy. 
"And gooseberries and dolls," added little 
Dorothy. 

But when the deacon sat alone by his hearth- 
stone that evening, his sister, Miss Mahala Ann 
Grinder, expressed herself on the subject with 
a great plainness and perspicuity. "If you've 
really made up your mind to marry again, Jo- 
si ah," said she — 

"I think it would add to my domestic felic- 
ity," said the deacon serenely. 

"In that case," said Miss Mahala Ann, "I 
do hope you'll make a sensible choice, not allow 
yourself to be imposed upon by a uet of selfish 
widows and scheming old maids." 

"Sister," said the deacon mildly, "you are 
severe." 

"No I ain't,'' said Miss Mahala Ann. "If 
you wasn't well to do in the world, and hadn't 
a nice home and farm, and money at interest, 
they wouldn't none of them look twice at you." 

"Do you think so?" said the deacon, and he 
pondered the question long and earnestly in his 
own mind. "Upon the whole," said he, bring- 
ing down his palm upon the table, "I ain't sorry 
that those investments of mine in the Mariposa 
Silver company have proved a failure." 

"What do you mean?" said Miss Mahala Ann, 
curiously eying him over the top of her specta- 
cles. 

But the deacon only shook his head and 
smiled. "Time will show," said he, "time will 
show." 

The news that Deacon Grinder was wrecked 
in Mariposa Silver mining stock, Hew like wild- 
tire through the peaceful community at Fitch- 
ville. Four Corners. 

"Well," said Miss PhilenaPeck, "I am beat!" 

"He never had no judgment in money mat- 
ters," said the widow Clapp. 

"fve thoughtall along he was living too fast," 
said Barbara Bowyer. 

"Those poor little children. What is to be- 
come of them?" said Naomi Poole, wistfully. 

The next day the deacon made bis appear- 
ance at Miss Peck's homestead, pale and rather 
shabby, with a child in one hand and one fol- 
lowing him. 

"Miss Peck," he said, "I suppose you have 
heard the news?" 

"Yes," said Miss Peck, looking vinegar and 
tack nails. "If it's your failure as you mean." 

"I think of going to California," said the dea- 
con, "to see what I can do, and in the mean- 
time, could you be induced to give my children 
a home — " 

"Oh dear, no!" said Misa Peck. " I never 
could get along with a pack of children! I dare 
say you could find some half orphan asylum or 
place of that sort by enquiring around a little." 

Miss Peck sat very upright, and glared so 
frightfully out of her light blue eyes at the dea- 
con, that he was fain to beat a retreat as soon 
as possible. 

He knocked next at the widow Clapp's door. 

"Is Mrs. Clapp at home?" he asked. 

A head was thrust over the stair railing, and 
the widow's shrill voice called out: 

"Is that Joslah Grinder with his swarm of 
youpg ones? Tell him I'm particularly en- 
gaged. Do you hear Betsey, — particular." 

Miss Barbara Bowyer, was arranging trimmed 
hats and rolls of bright-colored ribbons in her 
bow window as the deacon and his little ones 
entered the shop. 

"Miss Bowyer," said the deacon, "you were 
ever a genial and charitable soul, it is to you 
that I trust to make a home for my motherless 
ones, while I endeavor to retrieve my fortunes 
in the far West." 

"I couldn't think of such a thing," said Bar- 
bara, dropping a box of artificial rosebuds in 
her consternation. "And really, I think, 
Deacon Grinder, you haven't no right to expect 
it of me! It's all I can do to support myself, 
let alone a pack of unruly children! I dare say 
the poor master could do something for them, 
or — ' 

"I thank you," said the deacon, with dignity. 
"I shall trouble neither you nor him." 

"Well," said Miss Bowyer, with a toss of her 
head, "you needn't Hy into a rage because a 
neighbor" gives you a bit of good advicel" 

But Naomi Poole ran out to the little garden 
gate, as the forlorn deacon went by. 

"Deacon Grinder," she hesitated, turning 
rose red and white by turns, "is this true?" 

"About my Mariposa investment? Yes." 

"And that you are going to California?" 

"I am. talking of it," said the Deacon. 

"Would— could you let me take care of the 
little ones while you are gone?" said Naomi, 
tenderly drawing little Dolly to her side. "I 
am very fond of children, and I would take the 
best of care of them. And you have been so 
kind to mother and me, Deacon Grinder, that 



we should feel it a privilege to be able to do 
something for you." 

And poor soft-hearted little Naomi burst into 
crying. 

There was a moisture on the Deacon's eye- 
lashes, too. 

"God bless you, Naomi!" said he "you are a 
good girl — a very good girl." 

***** 

"Ain't it true ?" said Peck. 

"Well," said Mrs. Mopsley, "it is, and it 
ain't. He [did lose what he invested in them 
Mariposa mines, but only a thousand dollars; 
and the rest of his money is all tight and safe 
in United States bonds and solid real es- 
tate." 

"Bless me!" said Barbara Bowyer. 

"Well I never," said the widow Clapp, with 
discomfited countenance. 

"And," went on Mrs. Mopsley, with evident 
relish at the consternation she was causing, 
"they are building a new wing to the house, 
and he is to be married to Naomi Poole in the 
fall." 

"A child like that!" said Mrs. Clapp. 

"With no experience whatever!" said Barbara 
Bowyer, scornfully. 

"I only hope he won't repent of his bargain," 
sighed Miss Philena Peck. 

And Miss Philena's charitable hopes were 
fulfilled. The deacon never did repent his 
bargain. 

Advice to Young Housekeepers. 

[Written for the Rural Prkss by Ada E. Taylor ] 

Please allow me to say a few words to young 
housekeepers. It is only a little advice to be- 
ginners, and I do not wish them to be offended 
at what I am going to say. Now a great many 
would give advice in this manner: "Everything 
should be scrupulously clean; " which, of course, 
should be kept so; that is, to the best of one's 
ability, for on wash days people have gener- 
ally.got to do the best they can. Then, again, 
some would say, "always have on snow-white 
collars and cuffs." No matter how scorching 
hot the day is — ironing day included. Bat 
then I guess they are supposed to change them 
every half hour. 1 believe in always being neat 
when possible, but always being dressed accord- 
ing to one's work. You know it is all well 
enough to write about "exquisite neatness" and 
"snowy linen," especially by a man who doesn't 
know anything about the trials of housekeeping. 
But I had almost forgotten to give my advice. 

Do not commence to keep house too extrava- 
gantly. Young folks, generally, like to have 
everything done up in grand style. Kit if your 
husband cannot afford it, be a little moderate 
at first ; never mind what Mrs. Grundy says. 
If your home does not suit you exactly when 
you first go into it, do not commence to grumble, 
but furnish it little by little to suit your circum- 
stances. Then, when it is completed, you can 
appreciate its comforts. 

And another thing, do not think you must 
have one or two servants, to be aristocratic. A 
young husband thinks a great deal more of 
things made by his wife's own hands. If you 
do not know how to keep house, you must learn, 
and go about it systematically, too. Don't be 
afraid of soiling your hands. Have large, ging- 
ham kitchen aprons, and dark dresses ; never 
mind your cuffs while you are washing and 
scrubbing ; wait until you have finished, and 
then tidy up. When you are arranging the 
things on the table, have every thing, if possible, 
clean and in order ; if convenient, have a nice 
bouquet of flowers placed in the center of the 
table. It fills the room with a fragrant odor, 
and is also very pleasing to the eye. When 
your husband comes home from his work or 
business, meet him with a pleasant smile and a 
few cheerful words; never look cross or glum, 
simply because something has gone wrong during 
the day; just let him think you are a model 
housekeeper. I think I have written sufficient 
for the present. If acceptable, I will write 
more at a future time. 

I bid young housekeepers all adieu, with this 
advice to expectant housekeepers. Be sure you 
know how to make nice, light bread, broil a 
steak, and finally, to be enabled to cook a savory 
meal, while yet in your teens, and the lesson of 
married experience will be easier practiced, 
when the necessity occurs. It certainly be- 
comes a great pleasure to prepare palatable food 
for those we love, and whose approval we so 
much desire and appreciate. 

Mt. Pleasant, Tuolumne Co., Cal. 

[We shall certainly be pleased to have this 
subject pursued by our correspondents. Doubt- 
less, nearly every reader can find in her experi- 
ence some ray of light to guide the one entering 
upon new paths. Therefore let us have many 
housekeeping notes. — Eds. Press.] 

A Galveston gentlemen was pricing an old 
sofa at an auction room. "This sofa once be- 
longed to Lafitte; it is full of historical remi- 
niscences." "There is one now, pa, crawling 
right up the back," observed the gentleman's 
little boy. "That's a fact, it's alive with his- 
torical reminiscences," said the gentleman, 
punching in a corner with his cane. 

Will " R. A. W." send full address to the 
editor ? 



Mountain Top Letters— No. 12. 

[Written for Rural Prkss by "Jewell."] 
A trip on foot down our mountain side is no 
joking matter, I assure you, provided you go far 
enough to make it a two-hours' walk. I tried it 
not long ago, and tho' weary and worn, felt fully 
repaid for my t.-ip,by the kind welcome extended 
me by the residents of the little valley which 
neBtles among the hills, about half way down 
the mountain side towards Saratoga There 
are half a dozen farmhouses in the little plateau 
or valley. 

One of the residents there, Mr. Jacob Davis, 
has taken a step in the right direction, by add- 
ing to his farm two fine fish ponds, and intends 
making more. They were begun, or rather 
stocked, two years ago last June, with 10 carp, 
and the fish are now numbered by the thousand. 
Why could not other farmers have like ponds, as I 
am assured the whole cost of these was $80, 
outside of their own labor ? There are about 
two and a half acres in the two ponds, which 
unite by a single ditch or channel, through 
which the fish pass into either pond. The water 
is brought from the mountain side through , 
wooden Humes, and has an outlet, which is used 
to irrigate with, thus keeping the water pure. 

The fish are fed every day with boiled barley, 
cabbage cut fine, and other vegetables ; and I 
am assured that the profit of the tish will ex- 
ceed that of the best kept poultry yard, with 
less trouble, too. Beside, it is a work women 
can engage in with but little assistance. Nearly 
all small farmers in the mountains are capable 
of having fish ponds. Why do we not see more 
of them? Certainly for home consumption, 
alone, it would pay for time and expense. 

Deer Ridge, Santa Cruz Co. 

Women in the Laboratory. 

At the late session of the womans' Congress, 
the paper on "Woman's Work in the Labora- 
tory," by Professor Ellen Richards, of the Insti- 
tute of Technology, Boston, was a contribution 
to human need beyond price. What has been 
lost to the physical and mental stamina of this 
nation by the ignorance of women of household 
chemistry can never be measured. Professor 
Richards uttered simply the truth when she 
said: "Let me not be misunderstood when I say 
that laboratory work, rightly carried out, makes 
women better housekeepers, better cooks, better 
wives, and mothers more fitted to care for the 
versatile American youth, to whom knowledge 
is the chief divinity to be worshiped." She 
might have added that the woman who, reign- 
ing in her home, understands the properties of 
the materials which she combines for the food 
of her family, the chemistry of the very wall pa- 
per that may poison the breath of her children, 
who can detect the thousand adulterations which, 
entering our homes, are now destroying human 
life, is doing a work not second in practical im- 
portance to that of any scientific professor. It 
means something bearing directly on the health 
and comfort of every home it touches. The 
class of women now connected with the School 
of Technology inBoston are study ing practical 
chemistry — as many other women are studying 
painting, languages and music — not to make 
themselves professional experts, though a 
few may become such, but that they 
may know enough to understand the 
chemistry which enters so largely into the 
comfort or discomfort of every kitchen and 
home. This study, put to practical use, must 
lead to the largest and most beneficent results. 
Already in the increasing stamina of the Ameri- 
can people we see the proof of the growing in- 
telligence, larger knowledge, and finer physique 
of its women. Despite the too many false con- 
ditions of oar civilization — its excited haste, its 
greed for gain, its passion for display, its luat 
for place and power, that consumes while it im- 
pels — muscular men and deep, broad-chested 
women are no longer to be exceptional as they 
used to be. Picture, then, what the Anglo- 
American race may become when knowledge of 
all the forces of life put to practical use by 
women and men shall add to nervous energy the 
conditions of- high health, to endless activity 
the capacity for repose, to sordid ambitions the 
possibilities of high and fine aspiration. — Mary 
Clemmer. 



Hippophaoy in France. — Some very inter- 
esting statistics have been published by the 
society for promoting the use of horse flesh and 
the flesh of .asses and mules as food, showing 
how steadily the consumption of these articles 
of diet has been increasing in Paris and the 
provinces since the foundation of the society in 
1866. The weight has increased from 171,300 
lt.3. in 1866 to 1.982,620 lbs. in 1870. In the 
prinoipal cities of the provinces the consump- 
tion of horse-flesh may be considered to have 
fairly taken root. At Marseilles, in 1870, there 
were 509 horses eaten, 1,031 in 1875, and 1,533 
in 1878. At Nancy, 165 in 1873, over 350 in 
1876, and 705 in 1878; at Rheims, 291 in 1874, 
423 in 1876 and 384 in 1878; at Lyons, 1,839 in 
1873 and 1,313 in 1875. In both the latter 
cases some difficulties had been thrown in the 
way by the town authorities, as was the case 
recently at Chalons-sur-Marne, where the 
Mayor fixed the price of the horse-flesh at a 
higher rate than that of beef. The average 
price of horae meat is from 25 to 30 cents per 
tb. Each horse furnishes about 200 kilo- 
grammes (four cwt. ) of meat, which is capable 
of being prepared in many by no means unap- 
petizing ways, such as pol-au-feu, boiled, 
roast, hashed, haricot, jugged fillet, etc. 



January 8, 1881.] 



Tfifi PACIFIC BUBAL 1 P MISS. 



23 



Chatf. 

Bound to succeed — A new book. 

Michigan has produced a pig with a trunk. 
This thing should be checked. 

There are some men so mean that they will 
not give others the benefit of a doubt. 

The ladies are wearing little gold tuning- 
forks for hair-pins, which indicate that 
"There's music in the hair." 

Little boy — "Grandmamma, has my rocking- 
horse got rheumatism?" Grandmamma — "No, 
my love. Why?" Little boy — "Because its 
legs are stiff like yours." 

"No m arm, " said the shoe-dealer; "I would 
like to give you a smaller pair, but to sell you 
anything below eights would render me liable 
under the statute for prevention of cruelty to 
animals." 

Toddlekins is a very small man indeed, but 
he said he never minded it at all until his three 
boys grew up to be tall, strapping young fellows 
and his wife began to cut down their old clothes 
and cut them over to fit him. And then he 
said he did get mad. 

"What is a crime?" asked the grave profes- 
sor. "A crime!" answered the wit of the class, 
"why it is when a man does something." 
"Then," said the professor, as he looked over 
his glasses at the youth, "I think no one could 
accuse you, Mr. Brown, of ever committing a 
crime." 

Wives ought really to be more careful 
about telling all the truth to their husbands. 
"Why do you start so when I come into the 
room?" asked a brusque man of his better half. 
"It is only my nerves, my poor nerves," she re- 
plied, "which are so very weak that I am star- 
tled at every stupid thing 1 see." 

FITTING emblems are not always appreciated. 
The neighbors of a poor fellow who died 
erected a tombstone to his memory, and had 
placed above it the conventional white dove. 
The widow looked at it through her tears, and 
said: "It was very thoughtful to put it there. 
John was very fond of gunning, and it was an 
especially suitable emblem." 




A Judicious Wife. — A judicious wife is 
always nipping off from her husband's moral 
nature little twigs that are growing in wrong 
directions. She keeps him in shape by con- 
tinual pruning. If you say anything silly she 
will affectionately tell you so. If you declare 
that you will do some absurd thing, she will 
find some means of preventing you from doing 
it. And by far the chief part of all the common 
sense there is in this world belougs unquestion- 
ably to women. The wisest things a man com- 
monly does are those which his wife counsels 
him to do. A wife is a grand wielder of the 
moral pruning knife. If Johnson's wife had 
lived, there would have been no hoarding up 
of orange peel, no touching all the posts in walk- 
ing along the streets, no eating and drinking 
with a disgusting voracity. If Oliver Gold- 
smith had been married he never would have 
worn that memorable and ridiculous coat. 
Whenever you find a man whom you know lit- 
tle about, oddly dressed, or talking absurdly, 
or exhibiting eccentricity of manner, you may 
be sure that he is not a married man, for the 
coiners are rounded off — the little shoots pared 
away — in married men. Wives have generally 
much more sense than their husbands, even 
though they may be clever men. The wife's 
advice is like the ballast that keeps the ship 
steady. 

The Game of Roly-boly. — This is a great 
amusement to the smaller children of the fam- 
ily, and may be made a source of instruction to 
them. Take the tea tray and divide it into six 
parts, more or less, with a piece of chalk. Then 
number the parts 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30. Then 
one of the family group rolls a marble quickly 
round the tray. If it stops at the division 
marked 5, we set down five to the credit of the 
person rolling. So of the other numbers. If 
it it stops on a line we count it 0. After each 
member of the party has rolled five times, the 
amounts are added together, and the one who 
has the highest number has the game. If each 
member of the party adds up his or her own 
score it may be made quite an exercise in 
arithmetic. 



The Ice Harvest. — Prosser creek, Boca and 
Camp 20 are the points at which natural ice is 
cut for the market below. Prosser creek is 
about seven miles below Truckee, where Prosser 
creek forms a junction with the Truckee river. 
Boca is about a mile and a half beyond, and 
Camp 20 about four miles still further down the 
Truckee river. These points, though consider- 
ably lower than Truckee are much colder, the 
thermometer at Prosser creek frequently being 
from 10 Q to 15" lower than at this point. At 
Boca, Wednesday morning it was 15S below 
zero. The low temperature of these points and 
the almost chemically puro water with which 
they are supplied, give them great advantage 
over any other section for the production of 
good marketable ice. At Prosser creek is loca- 
ted the works of the Summit Ice Co. At Boca 
the Pacific Ice Co. is located, and at Camp 20, 
the People's Ice Co., holds forth. The capacity 
of the Summit Co., is greater than either or 
both of the others. Mr. James' McDonald is 
the foreman and J. B. Brogan the agent. They 
have had a hard fight to make this season against 
I le snow. They have had between GO and 100 
men employed for a week scraping snow from 
off their immense pond. — Truckee Republi- 
can, 



The Discontented Chair. 

"Oh, dear! I'm sick of having so many peo- 
ple sit in me! The boys get on my arms and 
play horse; and then, when the girls undress 
their dolls, they stick pins into my back, just 
as if I was an old pin-cashion. I don't believe 
any one in the world has such a hard time!" 

"Would you really be glad never to have any 
one sit in you again ?" asked a little voice right 
by the side of the chair; for it was an old green 
leather chair that had just spoken. 

The chair was very much surprised to hear 
the voice so near it, and asked: 
"Who is talking to me?" 
The voice answered: 

"I am a fairy. I have heard all you have 
said, and feel so sorry for you that I am going 
to give you a present that will prevent any one 
going near you. When the next person sits 
down you shall make a noise like a pistol, 
which will frighten him away, so that you will 
never complain of being tired again." 

The chair thanked the fairy, but it did not 
speak again. The chair almost believed it had 
been dreaming — the voice and what it had said 
seemed so strange. 

Soon after dinner old Mr. Lee, the grand 
father, thought he would take a little nap in 
his favorite seat. The poor old gentleman had 
no sooner sat down than "bang" went the chair, 
with such a noise that grandfather forgot all 
about his rheumatism, and jumped so high in 
the air that he lost off his wig. 

"Those bad boys have put torpedoes in my 
chair, and they deserve a good whipping," said 
he. "I shall tell their father." 

When his son John came home that night he 
told him all about it, and John promised they 
should never do such a thing again. He went 
down stairs, but the boys were not there, so 
he thought, he would wait until tea time, and 
then speak to them. 

Being very tired, he threw himself into the 
chair, when "bang" it went again. He did not 
wonder that his poor old father had been fright 
ened. 

"They do deserve a good whipping, and no 
mista-ke about it," he remarked. 

Going to the door he called, "Harry! Walter 
Ned!" The boys hearing his voice rushed down 
stairs, wondering what papa could want. 

"Harry, what do you and your brothers mean 
by frightening your grandfather?" he asked. 

"Why, papa," said Harry, "we hav'n'tdonea 
single thing." 

"Don't tell me a story, Harry, but go and sit 
down in that chair," said Mr. Lee. 

Poor Harry had no sooner sat down than he 
was up again, looking terribly scarpd. 

Their father saw by their looks that they did 
not know anything about it. Of course, every 
one in the house wondered and wondered what 
could be the matter. They turned the chair 
upside-down and all around, but not a thing 
could they find that should cause a noise. 

The next morning Mr. Lee had a man take 
the chair apart to see what the matter was. Af 
ter working at it a long time, he said he could 
not find anything wrong. 

Of course the chair could not be used; so it 
was sent up into the garret, where it stood for 
a long time. 

One day it began to think how nice and warm 
it jwas downstairs in the library, among the 
birds and flowers, and how much it would like 
to know what the family were doing and talk 
ing about. At last, it could not stand it any 
longer, so it said to itself: 

"Oh, how foolish I was to be so cross and 
discontented I If I could only be downstairs 
once more, the boys might ride and whip me 
as much as they pleased; and if the girls wanted 
to put a whole paper of pins in my back I 
never would say a word. Anything is better 
than being covered with dust and having mice 
run all over you." 

"I am glad you have learned a lesson of con 
tentment," said the fairy voice that it had heard 
once before, "and that you find that idleness 
does not bring happiness. Shall I take my gift 
back again?" 

"Oh, yes," said the chair; and if it had had 
eyes it would have cried for joy. 

That same day it rained so hard that the 
boys could not go out to play, and as their 
cousin Tom had come to see them, their 
mother said they might go into the gar- 
ret, and make all the noise they wanted 
to. The boys were delighted, and rushed 
upstairs shouting like a band of wild Indians. 

After they had played everything they 
could think, they saw the old chair, and thought 
it would be great fun to have Tom sit in it. 
Now, you know boys don't like to have any 
one think they can be frightened; so, when they 
dared Tom to sit in it, he said, "Who thinks I 
am afraid V and marched up as bold as a lion, 
and down he sat. 

But not a sound was heard. The children 
were at first perfectly astonished; but after 
they had tried it all around, they ran down 
and told their mamma, who was as much pleased 
as any one, and had it moved right down stairs, 
to surprise papa at night. 

It seems so nice to see it in its old place 
again; and when little Nellie went up, patted 
its back, and said, "Dear old chair," the chair 
was so proud that it puffed out its cushions to 
be as soft as possible, and wondered how it 
could have ever been so foolish as to think itself 
abused. 



Pertinent Facts Abont Eating. 

In a recent number[of the London iStaMcZartZ un- 
der the query, "Do we eat too much?" the writer 
gives many interesting facts. He says, for in- 
stance, that the amount of nourishment which 
a person needs greatly depends on his constitu- 
tion, state of health, habits and work. A sed- 
entery man requires less than one whose duties 
demand the exercise of his muscles, and a brain 
worker needs more than an idler. But unques 
tionably the majority of us take more than we 
need. Indeed, food and work are distributed 
most unequally. The man of leisure is also the 
man of means, and accordingly fares sumptously 
every day; while the laborer toils for eight hours 
and finds it difficult to get enough to repair the 
waste of his tissues. Yet a Chinaman or a 
Bengalee will toil under a tropical sun, and find 
a few pice worth of rice or jowrah sufficient to 
sustain his strength. A Frenchman will not 
eat half what an Englishman engaged in the 
same work will demand, and a Spanish laborer, 
content In ordinary times with a watermelon 
and a bit of black bread, will toil in the vine 
yards and grow fat on a dietary of onion por 
ridge and grapes. 

It is true that Mr. Brassey, when building 
the Continental railways, found that one Eng. 
hsh navvy was worth a couple of spare-fed for 
eigners. But, on the other hand, the British 
Columbian and Californian gold-diggers, than 
whom a more magnificent set of athletes does 
not exist, live in the remote mountains of the 
far West mainly on beans flavored with a few 
cubes of pork. But they also obtain the best 
of water and the purest of air, and their out 
door life and active exercise enable them to di 
gest every ounce of their frugal fare. The Eng. 
lish soldiers, though better fed than those of 
any army except the American, do not get one 
half the solid nutriment which the idlest of 
club-loungers considers indispensable for his 
sustenance. An athlete in training is allowed 
even less food; yet he prospers on the limited 
fare, and prolongs his life by the regimen by 
which he has been subjected. 

King Victor Emmanuel was a monarch of the 
most robust physique; yet he only ate one meal 
per day, and it is manifestly absurd for any 
man to require three more or less weighty meals, 
and an afternoon cup of tea, to support the ex 
ertion of walking to the club, riding an hour in 
the park, writing a note or two and dancing a 
couple of miles around a ball room. The an 
cients had their "amethustoi,"or "sober stones' 
by which they regulated their indulgences at 
table. The moderns have not even this. But 
they have their gout and their livers to warn 
them, when it is too late, that nature has been 
overtasked. 

The Air We Breathe. 

It is composed of one part of oxygen and four 
parts nitrogen. The former supports life, the 
latter extinguishes it. The more oxygen there 
is, the livelier, the healthier and the more joy. 
ful are we; the more nitrogen, the more sleepy 
and stupid and dull we become. But if all the 
air were oxygen, the first lighted match would 
wrap the world in instant flame; if all were 
nitrogen, the next instant there would not be 
upon the populated globe a single living crea- 
ture. When oxygen was discovered by Priest- 
ley," nearly 80 years ago, there was great jubila 
tion among doctors and chemists. The argu 
ment was plausible, and seemed perfectly con- 
vincing: "If oxygen is the life and health of 
the atmosphere, as we have found out how to 
make oxygen, we have only to increase the 
quantity in the air we breathe, in order to wake 
up new life, to give health to the diseased, and 
youth to the aged." But, on trial, it was found 
that it made a man a maniac or a fool, and if 
continued, a corpse. Various other experiments 
have been made to improve upon the handi- 
work of the Allwise Maker of the Universe, 
but they have been successive failures, and 
thinking men have long since come to the con 
elusion that, as there can be no improvement 
upon the cold water of the first creation in slak- 
ing thirst, so there can be no addition made to 
pure air which will better answer its life-sus- 
taining purposes. And as there is not, in all 
nature, a still, warm atmosphere that does not 
instantly begin to degenerate decay, corruption 
and death, so there is no chamber of the sick, 
graduated to a degree, that will not hasten the 
end desired to be averted. 



Espc Ecq 



Too Much Cigarette. — There is too much 
cigarette. The small boy has got it into his 
mouth, and it is using him up. The Philadel- 
phia Times says physicians and other people 
in that city are pained by the spectacle, growing 
more common every day, of pale-faced lads, 
ranging in age frdtai 6 to 20 years, who are puff- 
ing their little lives away in smoking. Day and 
night they throng the streets, where the pecu- 
liarly effensive odor generated by cigarettes made 
of cheap paper and bad tobacco renders their 
smoking as obnoxious to others as it is hurtful 
to themselves. Every evening before the doors 
of the theaters they raise a cloud of foul smoke 
that is equally injurious to their own rickety 
constitutions and to the noses of their victims. 
Doubtless, also, they carry their pernicious 
habit into their homes — when they are old 
enough to do so without risk of the spanking 
that they deserve — thus still further doing 



Braising. — By this process more than hk 
"stewing" is of course intended. In braising, 
the meat is just covered with a strong liquor of 
vegetable and animal juices (braise or rnirepoix) 
in a closely covered vessel, from which as little 
evaporation as possible is permitted, and is ex- 
posed for a considerable time to a surrounding 
heat just short of boiling. By this treatment 
tough, fibrous flesh, whether of poultry or of 
cattle, or meat unduly fresh, such as can alone 
be procured during the summer season in towns, 
is made tender, and is furthermore impregnated 
with the odors and flavor of fresh vegetables 
and sweet herbs. Thus, also, meats which are 
dry, or of little flavor, as veal, become saturated 
with juices and combined with sapid substances, 
which render the food succulent and delicious 
to the palate. 

Fruit Pudding.— Two quarts of Graham 
flour, one cup of buttermilk or sour cream, one 
teaspoonful soda, salt to taste, two quarts of 
fruit (fresh); sugar according to kind of fruit. 
Make a crust of the flour, etc., with which line 
a pudding pan, fill with fruit, strew over with 
sugar; cover with a thick crust, cutting a hole 
in the center, into which pour a cupful of cold 
water. Place the basin on the stove, or in the 
oven, and cover with one a size or two larger, 
letting it fit down closely on the stove, as the 
steam will cook the upper crust and make it 
light. Serve with sweetened cream, or sauce 
of butter, sugar and a little flavoring. This 
pudding is simple and wholesome, but most de- 
licious, and far superior to "boiled dough" pud- 
dings or dumplings. 

Fish Balls.— Salt fish to be used to advant- 
age must be soaked the afternoon previous to 
using, the water changed before bed-time, and 
again early in the morning. Once more change 
the water after breakfast, put it on the back of 
the range or stove and never allow it to boil, 
scarcely simmer until you find it soft enough to 
pick apart very fine with a fork. It must not 
be chopped, but carefully picked; it takes more 
time, but is the only right way. For codfish 
cakes have the potatoes nicely mashed with 
milk and a little butter, proportion of one cup 
of fish to three of potatoes, a little pepper, red 
or black. Dip in egg or not, as you prefer, bo- 
fore frying brown. To be made into cakes not 
too thick. 



Chocolate Pudding.— Melt two oz. of but- 
ter, mix in two oz. of flour, simmer to a soft 
paste in half a pint of good milk, sweeten with 
two oz. of sugar, and flavor with two oz. of 
chocolate. When cool, stir in the yolks of four 
eggs well beaten and the whites beaten to a 
snow; put into a buttered mould immediately; 
put the mould into a pan half full of hot water, 
set in the oven and bake one hour. Serve with 
sauce. 



Apple Shortcake.— One quart sifted flour, 
two teaspoonfuls of baking powder, half a tea- 
spoonful of salt, quarter of a lb. of butter, sweet 
milk enough to make a stiff batter. Mix and 
roll out in one sheet. As soon as baked split 
the cake open, spread with butter and cover 
with nice strained apple sauce. Place the other 
half of the cake on this, and if liked, add sauce 
on top. Pour over all some rich cream. Serve 
hot. 

Apple Fritters.— Apple fritters make a nice 
and cheap dessert. Prepare a batter as for grid- 
ale cakes, that is a thin batter made of flour, 
sweet milk and baking powder, or flour, sour 
milk and soda. Then stir in apples which have 
been chopped fine, the quantity depending on 
your taste. Fry them as you would griddle 
cakes, and serve hot with a syrup made of 
melted white sugar. 

Prune Pudding. — Three cups of flour, one 
cup each of milk, molasses and chopped suet. 
One teaspoonful each of soda, salt, ground 
cloves and cinnamon. One-half lb. of dried 
currants well washed, and one-half lb. of prunes 
previously soaked for a few hours. Tie loosely 
in a floured bag and boil for two hours. Eat 
with rich sauce. 



Fruit Roll. — Make a crust as above, which 
roll out in a long sheet. Cut a quantity of 
fruit — peaches, apples or plums, or small fruit 
mashed — which spread thickly over,and sprinkle 
with sugar; roll up and fold the ends over, then 
wrap in a strong cloth and tie closely, and 
place in a steamer. Serve with sauce or sweet- 
ened cream. 



Buttered Apples. — Peel a dozen apples 
first taking out the cores with a tin scoop; but- 
ter the bottom of a nappy or tin dish thickly, 
then put the apples into it; fill up the cores 
with powdered sugar; sift powdered cinnamon 
or grated lemon peels; pour a little melted but- 
ter over them, and bake 20 minutes; serve with 
cream sauce. 



Graham Bread. — One pint milk, one cup 
sugar, one teaspoonful soda, two teaspoonfuls 
creamtartar, enough flour to make it as stiff as 
cake. Have thelin hot and bake immediately. 



Cement for Uniting Leather and Metal. 
, Wash the metal with hot gelatine; steep the 
harm to themselves and making other people | leather in an infusion of nutgalls (hot) and bring 
uncomfortable. the two together. 



24 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS. 



[January 8, 1881. 




DEWEY Si CO., Publishers. 
A. T. DEWEY. w . B. EWE8. 

Office, SOt Santome St., N. E. Corner Pine. St. 

Annual Subscriptions, $4; tlx months, t2; three 
months, $1.26. When paid fully one year in advance, 
one dollar will be deducted. No kbw names will be 
taken without cash in advance. Remittances by regis- 
tered letters or P. O. orders at our risk. 
Advertising Rates. 1 week. 1 month. 5 mos. 1* mos. 

Per line 25 .80 $2.00 $ 5.00 

Half Inch (1 square).. »1.00 $3.00 7.50 24.00 

One Inch 2.00 5.00 H.00 40.00 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
in extraordinary type or in particular parts of the paper 
at special rates. Four insertions are rated in a month. 

The Scientific Press Patent Agency. 
DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 



A. T. DBWST. 



W. B. BWBR. 



S. H. STRONG 



SAN FRANOISCO: 

Saturday, January 8, 



i88r, 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

EDITORIALS — A Fine Plant of Farm Buildings, 17. 
The Week; Activity at the Isthmus; Gambling at Fairs, 
24. Siebold Walnut9— Jugians Sieboldiana; Meeting 
of the Slate Horticultural Society, 25. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— Front View of the Barns of M. 
W. Dunham, Breeder and Importer of Percheron Horses; 
Ground Plan of Mr. Dunham's Barns and Corrals Con- 
nected Therewith, 17. The Siebold Walnut— Juglani 
Sitboldiana, 25. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Humboldt County Notes; 
San Diego Notes; A Naturalist at Santa Barbara, 18 
Garfield Wheat, 19. 

PODLTRY YARD —Plymouth Rocks; The French 
Way of Dressing Poultry, 18. 

THE DAIRY.— Feeding Alfalfa Hay; Experience Fa- 
vorable to Alfalfa, 19. 

HORTICULTURE.— Orchard Enemies, 19. 

THE VINEYARD.— Catalogue of European Vines, 
with Synonyms and Brief Descriptions, 19. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— Grange Progress; 
Election of Officers, 20. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties of California and Nevada, 20. 

MISCELLANEOUS.— Our State Government; Sym- 
pathy with the Mussel Slough Settlers, 21. 

NEWS IN BRIEF, on page 21 and other pages. 

HOME CIRCLE.— California (Poetry); Hope (Po- 
etry); The Deacon's Experiment; Advice to Young 
Housekeepers; Mountain Top Letters.— No. 12; Women 
in the Laboratory, 22. Chaff; A Judicious Wife; The 
Game of Roly Boly, 23. 

YOUNO FOLKS' COLUMN.— The Discontented 
Chair, 23. 

GOOD HEALTH.— Pertinent Facts About Eating; 

The Air we Breathe'. Too much Cigarette, 23. 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Braising; Fruit Pud- 

dlng; Fish Balls; Chocolate Pudding; Apple Shortcake; 

Apple Fritters; Prune Pudding; Fruit Roll; Buttered 

Apples; Graham Bread, 23. 
QUERIES AND REPLIES.-Packing Vine Cut- 
tings for Long Distances, 24. 
ENTOMOLOGICAL.— The Phylloxera In California; 

Bisulphide in Wet Weather, 24. 
SHEEP AND WOOL.— The California Wool Trade 

of 1880, 28. 

Business Announcements. 

Land in Northern Texas— W. H. Abrams, Marshall, Texas. 

Book Marks— Burt & Prsntice, N. Y. 

Carp Fish for Sale— Levi Davis. Fo r estville, Cal. 

Grape Cuttings— E. B Smith, Rutherford Napa Co., CaL 

Forest and Stream Publishing Company, N. Y. 

Holstein Cattle— Smiths k. Powell, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Oakland Poultry Y»rda-Geo R Bailey, S. F. 

Napa Valley Poultry Farm— R G. Head, Napa, Cal. 



The Week. 



The time to work has come, and murmurs of 
distrust are drowned by the cheerier note of in 
dustry. Almost everywhere the plows are 
drawing their parallels across the landscape. 
Everything fit to turn soil is pressed into the 
service and the ground. We have seen during 
a single hour's ride, the little single plow pa- 
tiently marking its single furrow, while near at 
hand the great gang, with its drove of animals 
and its group of plows, speeds over the field, 
leaving its band of fresh furrows much as though 
some mighty giant had drawn a comb across 
the surface. And between the extremes of sin 
gle and manifold plows, there has passed the 
whole plow family, intent on polishing its ar 
mor from the rust of long disuse. There is 
also activity in other lines of cultivation, and 
soon the field and garden will be all aglow with 
green of grass and hue of flowers, all to increase 
its beauty, until the tardy trees awake and 
clothe the now naked limbs with robes of bloom 
and verdure. It is the opening of beauty's 
reign in California. It is not hoary "Winter lin 
gering in the lap of Spring," of whom poets of 
other climes have sung, but it is young Winter 
abdicating his throne and extending his scepter 
to the vernal queen, who in turn wreathes his 
youthful brow with garlands, in recognition of his 
graceful surrender of the realm. It must be so, 
for here we have spring at New Years and win 
ter but a month from his birth. May he never 
grow older! 

There is every incentive to work this year, 
for better prospects never shone before Cal 
ifornia industries. Men labor with a zeal which 
comes of full confidence; and both in production 
and trade there is corresponding faith in the 



The Activity at the Isthmus. 

The activity in measures looking toward the 
canalization of the narrow strip of land known 
on this coast as the isthmus, continues. It is 
promised to be one of the most interesting 
topics before Congress as soon as that body re- 
covers from its holiday vacation, and we may 
expect to read glowing debates within the next 
few days. Certainly the theme is one of the 
utmost importance to the Pacific coast, for the 
tendency toward the domination of the railway 
over ships by the Cape Horn route is increasing, 
and if we do not get a short cut by the isthmus 
for the ships, it looks as though we might be 
left wholly to the hard mercy of the rails. It is 
easy to forsee what such bondage would be. We 
have already had experience enough to know 
that transportation companies generally are quite 
willing to take all they can get without abso- 
lutely ruining the producer, and if there are to 
be any profits made by industry, there must be 
some healthy competition to check the longings 
of carriers for the lion's share. As this matter 
is of vital importance to our producing inter- 
ests, we deem it our duty to call the attention 
of our agriculturists to the canal projects, so 
that they may exert their influence to advance 
the enterprise which seems so essential to their 
uture success. 

We have already given the figures to show 
how the saving of time and cost of transit which 
would be effected by shooting the ships through 
the isthmus. It is obvious that it would be a 
crowning advantage to our grain growers in 
their competition with other far-away countries 
for the rewards of supplying the European mar- 
kets. There are also other considerations to be 
weighed when one comes to discuss the different 
projects which are now competing for the popu- 
lar favor and funds. It is, we think, beyond 
question that so important an enterprise upon 
this continent should be under American rather 
than European control, and doubtless this point 
will be fully emphasized in the Congressional 
debates upon the subject, which may be soon 
xpected. By way of drawing attention to this 
branch of the subject, we may introduce some 
points upon the relation of the so-called " Mon- 
roe doctrine" to the canal projects, which are 
furnished us by Capt. Merry, of this city, who 
has made the enterprise a thorough study : 

From an intimate acquaintance with the Panama transit 
since 1855, I know 12 or 15 instances when the United 
States had to land 300 or 350 marines and sailors at each 
end of the line of transit to maintain the peace, and it has 
been a necessity and the policy of our Government to keep 
a man-of-war at those points to protect the transit. The 
Central American governments have no police, or efficient 
force to protect life and property, and during any of the 
constant revolutions down there these would have been in 
tight place if the foreign residents and Americans had 
not called on our troops for protection. If the limited in- 
terests of a railroad, employing a steady force in limited 
numbers, need two men-of-war constantly for protection, 
would not the construction of a canal, employing 5,000 
men, subject at all times to sickness and malaria, necessi- 
tate a larger, more accurate and complete protection than 
has been the case so tar? When the Panama railroad has 
been sold out to the De Lesseps company we have no 
longer distinct and large American interests on the Isth- 
mus, and consequently would have no valid excuse for 
landing troops, whereas the French would have vastly 
more reason for doing so to protect proportionately larger 
inte>esta. Now, further, after the French government 
shall have taken advantage of this necessity of maintaining 
the interests of French citizens and stockholders, what 
more natural to land their soldiers and keep them there ■ 
The question comes in, are the American people willing to 
see a European power control the key of the Pacific, or all 
the commerce between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans ? 
The American people cannot afford to allow a foreign cor- 
poration to construct an interoceanic canal which will 
naturally and necessarily be protected by the power which 
creates that corporation. If we don't build it ourselves 
we will have to buy it sooner or later. That's what the 
Monroe doctrine means in connection with this subject. 
Another thing, admitting, for the sake of argument, that 
both routes have equal merits from an engineering point 
of view, the fact that the Nicaraguan is to be built by 
American capital, and will call upon the American Gov- 
ernment for protection when necessary, renders it advis- 
able that we should support the construction of that canal 
in preference to one by a foreign company, or purchase 
the rights of the foreign company after it is built. If the 
Monroe doctrine has any validity this brings it out In the 
strongest form. I don't say anything about the case of 
war with that country. Their occupation of the ground 
would be a standing menace at all times. 

This is certainly a forcible presentation of the 
subject, and one which will commend itself to 
most minds. This country is now rich enough 
and powerful enough to take the leading part 
in an enterprise of such great importance to its 
citizens, and we trust that this view of the sub- 
ject may prevail. 

Although the canal route has by far the 
greater confidence of the people, it is interesting 
to note that Capt. Eads is still pushing his pro- 
ject for a railway over which ships can be 
drawn from ocean to ocean. A dispatch from 
New York on Tuesday announces that Capt, 
Eads has completed negotiations with Mexico 
for the construction of a ship railway across the 
Isthmus of Tehauntepec, and has received the 
most liberal concession it has ever granted, be 
ing a strip half a mile wide, with a mile width 
for stations, leaving him untrammelled as to 
plans and the execution of the work, which is 
to be commenced within two years and com 
pleted in twelve years. The government also 
grants a subsidy equal to 1,000,000 acres of 
public lands. It also gives him the right to 
consolidate the Tehauntepec railway, now being 
constructed by Learned and others, with 
ship railway, on such terms as may be agreed 
upon between them, and in such an event the 
location of the Tehauntepec railway may be 
altered as desired by Eads. The Tehauntepec 



has also a large land grant. In case of the 

acquisition of this railway, its obligations to the 
Mexican Government are to cease, and subven- 
tion would then attach to the ship railway. The 
duration of the grant is 99 years, at the termina- 
tion of which the Government is to take pos- 
session of the works, and pay two-thirds of 
their value. Permission is given to Eads to hy- 
pothecate the revenues of the railway to any 
other government whioh he may select to aid 
him by money or guarantees in its construction, 
the intention being to secure the co-operation of 
the United States with Mexico in the control of 
the works, as this is regarded by leading men 
in Mexico as the American route across the 
isthmus, and the one in which these two repub- 
lics are most vitally and directly interested. 

Gambling at the Fairs. 

Governor Perkins, in his message, transmitted 
to the Legislature this week, makes some re- 
marks concerning the agricultural institutions 
of the State which we do not altogether approve 
and we may discuss them hereafter. There is, 
however, one recommendation which receives 
our most earnest approval, and will be greeted 
with satisfaction all over the State. It is in 
these words: 



While approving of State aid to the agricultural socle- 
ties, I think that some provision should be enacted in the 
law that will inhibit the several associations from allowing 
the practice of gambling and various games of chance to 
be carried on within the lnclosures set apart for the an- 
nual State and district fairs, and on ground over which 
the boards exercise control. If the State intends to dig- 
nify these societies by authorizing their management by 
officers appointed by the Governor, and lends encourage- 
meut by liberal appropriations, it Is manifestly a duty to 
guard against flagrant violation of the statutes against 
gambling. The State being associated with the 8tat« and 
district fairs, for the objects for which they were insti- 
tuted, cannot be disassociated from the vice they tolerate 
and permit. The subject has been a cause of muih severe 
public criticism, and especially from among the visitors to 
the annual fair. The citizen who, with his family, comes 
from the quiet of his home and farm to receive the Infor- 
mation these exhibitions impart, should not be compelled 
to witness these violations of the spirit of the law, If not 
the letter; much less should the young, who frequent the 
grounds for amusement and recreation, be subject to the 
temptation thus publicly flaunted at every turn. 

This is plain and to the point Now what do 
the managers of these societies say — what can 
they say if they permit their grounds to be 
tilled with these deadfalls. It is a disgrace to 
the State that this gambling at fairs has' been 
so long permitted, and societies have consented 
to increase their revenues by selling these har- 
pies permission to prey upon the unwary and 
insult the wise. 



E^fQr\<QLOQICr\L. 



QJef^ies ^nd Relies. 



outlook. The development of the State this 

year promises to be rapid, and the rewards to I railway company has a subvention amounting 
those who labor well never seemed more as- 1 to about $1,600,000, to be paid by the Mexican 
sured. [Government in custom house certificates, and 



Packing Vine Cuttings for Long Dis- 
tances. 

Editors Press: — The following extract from 
the diaries of the late Mr. James Busby on 
packing vines is important to vineyardists in- 
tending to procure cuttings from foreign coun- 
tries, or sending cuttings abroad: Having con- 
sulted Mr. Audibert respecting packing of the 
vine cuttings, for transportation to Sydney, 
Australia, he expressed his fear that without 
moss they would soon die; for, the north wind, 
he observed, caused dryness as much as the heat; 
his brother was kind enough to accompany me to 
the town, with a man who carried a bag of moss. 
The plants were unpacked, and the boxes lined 
with double-oiled paper, to prevent the access of 
air, and the escape of humidity. The moss af- 
ter having been slightly watered, was stuffed in 
at the ends of each bundle of plants. The lat- 
ter were then replaced and the cases closed. 
This is the mode adopted by Messrs. Audibert, 
in sending vine plants to Russia, and other 
countries of Europe, and they were of an opin- 
ion that this would be sufficient to protect the 
vines till their arrival within the tropics when 
the warm weather would cause them to shoot; 
and it would therefore become desirable to sus- 
tain the shoots a little by the admixture of earth 
or sand among the cutting. The cutting ar- 
rived perfectly safe at Sydney after a voyage of 
more than four months. A case of cuttings 
packed in sand arrived here a few months ago 
from Adelaide, South Australia, in a first rate 
condition; but the objection is to the weight. 
In addition to the damp moss I would suggest 
charcoal dust. — John L. Bleasdale, Sec'y 
State Viticultural Commission, 526 Montgomery 
St., S. F. 

How American Cotton Seed Makes Ital- 
ian Olive Oil. — A German newspaper has an 
article on the adulteration of olive oil in Italy. 
It says: Among the many industries which 
have sprung up and flourished since the civil 
war and abolition of slavery in America, is that 
of an extensive manufacture of cotton oil, whioh 
is so thoroughly refined that it can take the 
place of olive oil, and for that purpose is ex- 
ported in great quantities to Italy to be used 
in the adulteration of olive oil. The Italian 
government have put a heavy duty on cotton 
oil, which they hope will prevent so much being 
imported. The Southern States of America 
have as many as 42 oil mills and refineries. 

At Grass Valley the Board of Education has 
made the following order: "If any of the 
pupils attending the public schools are de- 
tected in smoking cigars or cigarettes about 
the buildings or on the grounds of the schools, 
or while going to or returning from school, 
they shall be dismissed from further atten 
danoe." 



The Phylloxera in California. 

A pamphlet has just been issued from the 
State printing office, which should be in the 
hands of every vine grower in the State. It is 
entitled "Supplement No. 1 to the Report of 
the Board of Regents," but is, in fact, a dis- 
course upon the phylloxera, its life history, 
spread, means of suppression, recognition of its 
attacks, etc., by Prof. Hilgard, of the State 
University. As it is a State publication, it is 
furnished free to all who apply for it. Its cir- 
culation will doubtless be so large that we need 
not give any prolonged abstract of its contents. 
We will, however, introduce two paragraphs 
which describe the area now known to be visited 
by the insect, and the way in which any in- 
dividual vine grower may proceed to determine 
whether his vines are attacked: 

It is now known that the infested region 
forms a broad belt across the State, from Sonoma 
to the Sierras, the northern limit being from the 
head of the Sonoma valley proper, below Ben- 
nett valley, across to Yountville, in the Napa 
valley, and thence to the neighborhood of Placer- 
ville; while the southern limit seems to be, thus 
far, the north shore of the bay, the Sacramento 
and American rivers, American river in the val- 
ley; in the foothills, south of the same. But 
one infested spot is known north of Yountville, 
and this there is reason to hope will be promptly 
stamped ont. It is for those living outside of 
the above limits to see that the enemy is not 
carried into their vineyards, either by careless- 
ness or intentionally, and with the aid of the 
measures suggested this can unquestionably be 
done. 

Eternal vigilance" will be found in this case, 
as in others, the cheapest price at which ex- 
emption from the pest can be purchased. Any 
vine showing symptoms of disease should be at 
once examined, especially on its outlying white 
rootlets, in order to detect the swellings that 
form the mark most readily recognized by the 
naked eye. Upon these, also, the minute yellow 
insects are most easily seen. An infested spot 
will soon appear as a basin-shaped depression in 
the generally leafy surface of the vineyard. Of 
course, such spots may result from other causes, 
such as poor or shallow soil, lack of drainage, 
etc. In their examination for the presence of 
phylloxera, not only the vines within the de- 
pression should be examined, but also those lo- 
cated two or three rows beyond, since the in- 
sect prefers strong and healthy vines for 
pasture, and will entirely abandon weak ones 
long before they die. 

Any good eye can detect the characteristic 
marks of the phylloxera, when once accustomed 
to the search; but by the aid of the lens, little 
doubt can be left in most cases. In case of 
doubt, specimens sent to the University (Berke- 
ley, Cal. ) will be examined and reported upon. 
But in their transmission great care should be 
taken to prevent an accidental scattering of the 
contents of the package. A few rootlets, or 
root fragments, should be inclosed in a small 
vial, filled with moist earth ; this, well stop- 
pered and then inclosed in a bored wooden 
block, forms a safe package, which can be sent 
by mail at a trifling expense. 

Bisulphide in Wet Weather. 
We read in an English paper, a translation 
from the French which would seem to indicate 
that the bisulphide is dangerous in excessively 
wet weather. It gives the case of a vineyardist 
who, in treating his vines with bisulphide of 
carbon waf> interrupted by heavy rains, and re- 
sumed operations when fine weather returned. 
But he found that while the stocks treated in 
dry weather were freed from the phylloxera, 
those to which the remedy was applied in a wet 
Boil lost nine-tenths of their stocks. On com- 
paring notes with others who had been placed 
in similar circumstances, he found that with 
these also a like calamity had happened. It is 
known that a moist condition of the soil is re- 
quisite for the full action of the bisulphide va- 
por upon the pests, and it would also appear 
that moisture conserves the vapor to such an 
extent that it may kill the vine. With the warn- 
ing above there is no information given of the 
amount of bisulphide applied. It may be that 
a dose effective to kill the insects in dry soil 
would be heavy enough to kill the vine in wet 
weather. If one proceeds upon the wet soil 
formula in gauging the amount applied, there 
would not seem to be danger. 



Storage Reservoirs for Irrigation Wa. 
ter. — It is believed that the forthcoming report 
of the State Engineer will recommend the con 
strnction of storage reservoirs for irrigation wa- 
ter upon several of the southern California riv- 
ers. At all events, the Assistant Engineer, 
Mr. Schuyler, has found by the season's explora- 
tions, that the topography of the country favors 
such arrangements. There will soon be pub- 
lished a report of the State Engineer which will 
give the assurance that, in general, the results 
have been satisfactory, and will show that the 
irrigation resources of southern California may 
be much extended at reasonable cost 



The United States Court in Baltimore refuses 
to grant an injunction restraining the Baltimore 
and Ohio railroad from using sleeping cars be- 
cause they infringed the Pullman Palace Car 
Company's patents. 



January 8, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC BUHL PRESS. 



25 



Siebold Walnut— Juglans Sleboldiana. 

Some months ago specimens of a peculiar 
walnut, grown by Charles Camden, at Tower 
House, Shasta county, Cal., were exhibited at a 
meeting of the State Horticultural Society. 
The nuts were referred to one of the members, 
who was requested to ascertain, if possible, the 
species and its origin, and- report at some future 
time. 

In March, 1877, the Call published the fol- 
lowing letter from Mr. Camden, which gives 
some particulars of interest regarding the tree: 

Tower House, Shasta Co. , Cal., March 9, 1877.— Six- 
teen or eighteen years ago, Mr. Tower, the then proprietor 
of this place, planted a variety of nuts in nursery, includ- 
ing the English and black walnuts, butternuts, hickory, 
chestnuts, pecan, and the nut that produced the kind you 
refer to, but where he procured them I cannot say. He 
or the gardener at the time denominated them the Spanish 
walnut, and we give them the same name still; whether 
properly or not, I cannot say. The tree is a very thrifty 
grower; one now measures it inches in circumference. 
It develops in very handsome form after first turning to 
shape, and needs no pruning, the limbs producing no sur- 
plus laterals. The foliage is lighter green than the Eng- 
lish walnut, with narrower and longer leaf; bears the fruit 
in straggling clusters, 10 or 12 to the bunch; matures and 
bears earlier than the English walnut, and is more pro- 
ductive and regular, and the nut has a thin hull or husk. 
The flavor, as you observe, is something like the butter- 
nut, but it is far less oily and much superior; in fact, a 
most excellent nut in taste, although hard. The shell is 
thin, full and sure kernel, and the skin covering free from 
bitterness and objection. On the whole, I regard it a fine 
acquisition of the nut family. The nuts you saw are 
hardly up to a fair average, the tree having overborne, 
and not receiving regular attention as to irrigation. — 
Charles Camdbn. 

The Call adds: The nut is in shape somewhat like the 
pecan, but thicker, average specimens being about one 
and one-half inches in length and one inch in diameter, 
tapering to a sharp point at the apex. The shell is of the 
same color, and has the wrinkled surface of the English 
walnut, though thicker. The kernel is shaped almost ex- 
actly like that of the butternut of the Eastern States, and 
has the same delicate flavor. The pelicle, or skin of the 
kernel, is very thin, and, as Mr. Camden observes, is free 
from the bitterness of that of the English walnut. The 
nut is not recognized, by any of the nurserymen who have 
seen it, as belonging to any of the varieties of the walnut 
family known here. 

A recent French botanical publication enti- 
tled Arboretum Segrezianum, devoted to new and 
rare plants, gives a full description and hand- 
some plates of this walnut, which is a native 
of Japan, and a distinct species of the Juglans 
family, known to botanists as 

Juglans Sleboldiana. 

Description. — A large tree with an ample 
spreading cyme; trunk thick with rough bark; 
branches nearly horizontal, cylindrical; twigs 
yellowish brown, covered with a thick fawn- 
colored, or sometimes gray down, overspread 
with roundish or oblong lenticells with broad, 
three-lobed cicatrices, springing as in the ailan- 
thus, from the insertions of the petioles and 
resembling the letter T, or rather an ornamen- 
tal trefoil; pith large, cellular, forming dia- 
phrams superimposed horizontally; twigs of one 
year covered with the same yellow, fawn-col- 
ored down, with the hairs trained or reflected 
toward the summit, glandulous, soft and vis- 
cous, intermingled with other sparkling and 
transparent hairs; leaves imparipinnate, from 
.55 to 1.05 meters long, composed of six or more, 
generally seven, pairs of folioles exhaling like 
all the young growth of the tree a strong aro- 
matic odor; petioles cylindrical or subtriangu- 
lar, generally marked above with a shallow fur- 
row, strongly thickened and subangular at the 
base, covered, as well as the rhachis, with the 
same tomentum that garnishes the young twigs; 
folioles sessile or with petiolules, oval oblong, 
or oblong lanceolate, or at times elliptical (the 
terminal one often oval), generally oblique at 
the base and more or less cordate, acuminate at 
the apex, obtusely crenate and ciliate, from 13 
to 16 centimeters long by five to six wide, grad- 
ually decreasing towards the base of the leaf, 
almost meinbraned, of a beautiful, clear, some- 
times, shining green, and almost globrous above, 
of a pale gray or yellowish green, softly hairy, 
glandulous or almost tomentose beneath. 

In May the male catkins are 27 to 30 centi- 
meters long, pendant, springing from the upper 
part of the twigs of the previous season's 
growth; bracts lanceolate, dentate, surpassing 
in length the two superior lobes of the peri- 
anth; perianth of six, often four lobes, dentate 
at the summit, externally globrous or lightly 
hairy; stamens 9 — 15; filaments very short; 
anthers of a brownish yellow, oblong, obtuse 
and always furnished with hairs at the summit. 

Female flowers 12 to 20 in number, disposed 
in looBe catkins, at first erect and afterwards re- 
curved, 10 and 18 centimeters long, growing 
from the summit of the twigs of the previous 
year's growth; rhachis, as well as the flowers, 
covered with dense hairs and viscous; exterior 
perianth, cupuliform; interior perianth four- 
toothed, and almost linear; ovary inferior, uni- 
locular, with an orthotropus ovule attached to 
the summit of the free central placenta, form- 
ing an angular column; stigmas elongated, di- 
versely recurved, dentate, of an intense vinous 
purple. 

Fruit disposed in pendent clusters, 23 to 25 
centimeters long, ovoid, or spherico-ellipsoidal, 
five to six centimeters long and about- four in 
diameter, glandulous-viscous, taking a fawn 
color with age, crowded like J. nigra by the 
persistent stigmas; exocarp fleshy, four to five 
millimeters thick, detaching itself irregularly; 
nut bivalvate, ellipsoidal or ovoid, rounded and 
sometimes slightly cordiform at the base, acu- 
minate and almost mucronate at the summit, 
surface more or less marked with reticulated 
and very obtuse wrinkles, as in J. regia, biloc 
ular at the base and unilocular at the summit; 
■hell thick, hard, with large and small lacunes 



resembling the cavities when cut transversely; 
kernels with a brownish yellow testa, enclos- 
ing a four-lobed embrio with thin, regular coty- 
lidons more or less reniform. 

Sleboldiana constitutes a species clearly 
distinct from all others, notwithstanding its 
affinityijwith J. Mandschurica, Maxim., the dif- 
ferential characters are too distinct to permit 
them to be confounded. But it is above all 
its fruit that presents distinctive characters; 
those of J. Mandschurica have in fact very thick 
shells, oblong, terminated in an obtuse point at 
both extremities, marked with eight projecting 
edges, and presenting deep angular wrinkles 
with sharp edges; in J. Sieboldiana, on the con- 
trary the shells are ovoid, globular accuminate, 
with very obtuse reticulated wrinkles, without 
distinct edges. The nuts of the first have al- 
most the appearance of those of J. cinerea, 
while it is with those of J. regia that one would 
compare those of the second. 

Two other species, as yet little known, also 
observed in Japan by Mr. Maximo vicz, appear 
to resemble in their fruits these two species; 
J. stenocarpa has nuts still longer than J. 
Mandschurica, accuminate at the summit and 
not marked with projecting edges. In J. cordi- 
formis, although somewhat resembling the form 
of those of J. Sieboldiana, they are terminated 
in acute points at both extremities, completely 
smooth and much less lacunose internally. 

The Siebold walnut has a knotty trunk cov- 
ered with a white bark, which is rough and 
crooked, even in young plants; its thick foliage, 
of the handsomest green, is really magnificent; 
and finally, the long, pendant male catkins, as 
well as the clusters of female flowers crowned 
with purple stigmas, adds further beauty to this 
remarkable species. Its wood appears to be 
similar to that of the common walnut, although 
a little less veined. The nuts, united into long 
clusters to the number of 15 or even 20, are ex- 
tremely abundant. The shell is a little hard and 
boney; without, however, being more so than 
in certain varieties of our common walnut, of 
which it has exactly the taste. They offer the 
important advantage of uniformly containing a 
kernel that is so little divided by partitions, 
that it is possible to extract it in a single piece. 

Fig. 1. 



Meeting of the State] Horticultural So- 
ciety. 

The December meeting of this' society was 
held in the hall of the Academy of Sciences, 
Dec. 31st. There was a good attendance, con- 
sidering the holiday season and its attractions. 
President Hilgard presided. 

The committee appointed at the November 
meeting to report upon the subject of legisla- 
tion to check the spread of injurious insects, 
submitted a majority report recommending the 
apppointment of an entomological commission, 
with power to enforce a law to cause the cleans- 
ing or destruction of infested orchards, to dis- 
infest fruit houses and other places likely to 
harbor injurious insects. It was also provided 
that infested orchards and fruit houses should 
be declared a public nuisance and proceeded 
against under the general law regulating nui- 
sances. There was also a recommendation for 
appointment of a State entomologist. 

There was also presented a minority report by 
H. Behr, dissenting from the legal measures 
proposed by the majority, but calling for the 
appointment of an entomologist, who should 
identify and describe insects and give informa- 
tion concerning them. .He believed that an 
enforcemant act against insects on private 
premises would prove unconstitutional in this 
country, and consequently a dead letter. 

Upon these two reports there was a long dis- 
cussion, in which nearly all present took part, 
which resulted in a revision of the majority re- 
port according to the prevailing views expressed 
by the members, and which, in its amended 
form, was adopted by the society as follows: 

To the California State Horticultural Society : — The 
Committee on Noxious Insects have to report as follows : 
A full meeting of the committee was .held at Sacramento 
on the 20th of December, at the office of Young & Young. 
After a general discussion of the subject in hand, the fol- 
lowing points were agreed upon by the majority of the 
committee : 

Section 1. The agricultural interests of this State are 
seriously mreatened by the increase and spread of noxious 
insects, indigenous and foreign. It is known that some of 

Fig. 2. Fig. 3. 




THE SIEBOLD WALNUT-Juglana Sleboldiana. 



The species is of easy culture; it accommodates 
itself to the same soils as its oo-geners, and 
grows with great vigor. It is easily grafted by 
approach upon our common walnut, and its 
trunk retains the same dimensions as the 
stock; but it is by seed that it should be multi- 
plied. It reproduces itself perfectly true, and 
if the young plants remain bushy during the 
first years, the tree shoots afterward, and, thanks 
to its rapid growth, promptly assumes large di- 
mensions. 

Sieboldiana, came originally from the north 
of Japan, where Thunberg appears to have con- 
founded it with J. nigra, of North America. 
It is probable that Siebold also observed it, but 
without describing it, and included it among the 
undetermined species of Juglans. This opinion 
appears to have a foundation, because it is to 
this great explorer of Japan that we owe the in- 
troduction of this new species; it was, in fact, 
cultivated in his garden at Leyden, from whence 
he sent it to me at Sagrez, in 1866, under the 
name of J. ailantifolia. 

Mr. Maximovicz discovered this walnut in 
the mountainous region of Kiusiu, at Miadzi, 
then, like Thunberg, in the environs of Yedo; 
in fact, near to Yokahama and Kamakura; 
but its spontaneous growth in these two last lo- 
calities appears doubtful. Dr. Savatier called 
attention ts the sametreeat Yokoska.then at Ha- 
kodadi, Island of Yesso, planted around the tem- 
ples. 

This handsome tree, common throughout 
Japan, comes from both the temperate and cold 
portions of that country. All were surprised 
that it was able, at Segrez, to withstand the 
rigors of the winter of 1879-80, which was so 
fatal to our common walnut. It may therefore 
be cultivated in the north of France. 

The engravings given herewith, are taken 
from a beautiful plate in Arboretum Segrizi- 
anum, and give a good general idea of the fruit. 
Fig. 1 is the nut as it appears upon the tree; 
Fig. 2, the same after the husk is removed, and 
Fig. 3 is a section showing the thickness of the 
husk and shell, and the form of the kernel. 



F. A. Walker, Superintendent of the 
Census, says that California's population is 
789,557; San Francisco, 211,165; Alameda, 58, 
573. 



these can be successfully resisted, and even exterminated, 
by energetic and persistent efforts of fruit-growers and 
others interested, and at a cost that is small, compared 
with the benefits gained. The main obstacle to success in 
these efforts is the difficulty in securing united action on 
the part of all landholders in an infested neighborhood. 
Those who, through ignorance or indifference, allow nox- 
ious insects to increase unmolested upon their grounds, 
breed a pest which overruns their more thrifty neighbors. 
In view of these facts, the following recommendations are 
made as to legislation needed: 

Sec 2. Resolved, That the Legislature be petitioned to 
pass a law which shall be best calculated to remedy the 
evils above set forth. 

Seo. 3. Orchards, vineyards, fruit-houses and other 
places infested by such noxious insects as the coddling 
moth, curculio or plum weevil, scale on deciduous trees, 
and phylloxera on the vine, should be declared a nuisance, 
and subject to the general law governing nuisances. 

Skc 4. The Board of Regents of the State University 
should appoint an entomologist whose duty it shall be, in 
addition to giving instruction in the College of Agriculture, 
to study the habits of the noxious and beneficial insects of 
the State, identify and preserve specimens, give advice to 
those asking it, deliver popular lectures on stated occa- 
sions, and publish bulletins from time to time on special 
insects and means of destroying them, as well as an annual 
illustrated report. 

Sec. 6. Therefore, be it resolved, that the Legislature 
be, and is hereby, petitioned to make the necessary appro- 
priation to carry out the objects above named. Matthew 
Cooke, A. T. Hatch, C. H. Dwinelle, Wm. H. Jessup. 

One of the most interesting features of the 
discussion leading to the adoption of the above 
report was an address of Mr. Elwood Grey, of 
Grand Rapids, Michigan; a member of the 
Michigan Pomological Society. Mr. Grey 
stated that some years ago a law was passed 
intending to prevent the spread of the peculiar 
disease of the peach tree, known as the "yel 
lows;" solely directed against this disease, and 
at that time only made applicable to certain 
districts (townships), chiefly around St. Joe; 
but later it was extended to the whole State 
of Michigan. Its main features were these: 
Each and every township appointed a commis 
sion of three, who were authorized to enter 
the orchards, examine the trees and mark out 
the infested ones and notify the owners to re- 
move such within five days. If not removed 
within this specified time the commission had 
authority to destroy the infested trees on the 
expense of the owners, the cost thereof becom- 
ing a tax upon the property. The commis- 
sioners received $3 a day each for time actually 
employed in the service. 

Mr. Grey, on being questioned in regard to 
the working of the law, stated that it had, on 



the whole, met with very little opposition, 
only from such people who did not make 
growing their chief business. " Due care had 
been taken to make the law conform with the 
State constitution, and it had never been con- 
tested in the courts. There has never been an 
appeal taken from the Commissioner's decision, 
and the law works so well that it has been ex- 
tended to apply to all counties of the State. 
The same objections that I have heard made 
here, were made there, and we discussed them 
until it seemed that all the fruit in the State 
would be destroyed, but experience has dis- 
proved the objections. The law in Michigan is 
a general one, but it rests with each township 
to say whether it will have a commission or 
not. It is not a law against noxious insects, 
but merely against the disease known as the 
•yellows.' We consider a tree with that dis- 
ease a nuisance, and treat it just as we would a 
mad dog. Your State is too large for a State 
Commission to act effectively; you must do it, in 
order to succeed, by local commissioners, and 
to give the public confidence, I would have 
some competent State authority, like an ento- 
mologist, to whom anyone dissatisfied with the 
decision of the local commission, may appeal. 
The only ones who oppose the law with us are 
those with whom fruit-growing is an incident, 
and not a business." 

The plan which Mr. Grey had outlined was 
so satisfactory to the society that it was sug- 
gested that the law to be drafted by Mr. Young, 
of Sacramento, should be based upon the provis- 
ions of the Michigan law, the success of which 
would serve as a valuable precedent for Califor- 
nia legislation. Although in Michigan the 
law was leveled against a contagious fungoid 
disease, it matters little, for the same treat- 
ment would be effective against noxious in- 
sects, except that there should be an opportu- 
nity given to clean the trees instead of destroy- 
ing them utterly, as it was thought necessary 
with peach trees attacked with the "yellows." 

In motion of Mr. Redding a committee was 
appointed to examine the works of Baron Yon 
Mueller, from a letter was read acknowledging 
his election to a corresponding membership, 
the purpose of the committee being to report 
from the work the names and characteristics 
of valuable Australian plants that might profit- 
ably be cultivated here. President Hilgard 
appointed Dr. Behr and W. G. Klee to examine 
the "Select Plants " of Von Mueller, as pro- 
posed. 

A communication was received from the Sec- 
retary of the State Board of Agriculture, invit- 
ing a conference at Sacramento the second Mon- 
day in January, to consider what legislation ia 
needed in regard to agricultural interests. In 
response Matthew Cooke was appointed to rep- 
resent the society at the conference. 

Upon the subject of holding a horticultural 
fair there were two communications read, one 
from Mrs. Volney Cushing, the other from Dr. 
Strentzel. The society did not seem prepared 
for discussion and action in the premises and 
the subject was laid aside until the next meet- 
ing. 

The regular subject chosen for the January 
meeting was "Fruit Nomenclature " and Dr. 
Strentzel is invited to open the discussion. 

Ship and Rail Again. — We have sev- 
eral times alluded to the danger to agricul- 
tural producers of this coast which lies in 
actions which discourage the coming of ships to 
this port. If the California importers of mer- 
chandise persist in refusing patronage to ships 
hither bound, the fleet will be constantly re- 
duced, and then our grain growers must set 
down high and higher freight rates as a cer- 
tainty. A dispatch from New York City, dated 
January 3d, shows the growth of the evil ten- 
dency : The shipment of freight via Cape Horn 
is gradually growing less each year, and in a 
few years hence this route will only be used for 
the shipment of certain classes of coarse freights, 
which cannot stand the rates charged by the 
overland route. The prospects for the ensuing 
year are not very bright. Shippers who do 
not contract with present roads will, no doubt, 
make contracts with the Atchison, Topeka and 
Santa Fe road, when it opens for business in 
early spring. Thus it is probable that ship- 
pers will have the hardest year since the com- 
mencement of this trade, 30 years ago. Of the 
total number of vessels dispatched during the 
past year, six were coal laden, leaving but 49 
with a general cargo, which is estimated to be 
10,000 tons less than last year. Of the depart- 
ures, 38 were from this port, nine from Phila- 
delphia, four from Boston and five from Balti- 
more. The amount of tonnage on berth, and 
committed to this trade, is smaller than for a 
long time, amounting to nine vessels. 

A Tramway Side track in Every Farm 
Yard. — It is an interesting fact that the English 
are discussing the practicability of running 
tram-rails along the leading highways, and 
turning sidings into all farmers' barn yards. 
This, of course, could only be thought of in a 
country of insignificant distances, like Eng- 
land. It is said that the Great Eastern rail- 
way company proposes to construct a network 
of tramways between Ely and Wisbech, as an 
experiment. The ground, it is said, is well 
chosen, and many will watch the working out 
of the plan with interest. The trams will be 
available for passengers and goods, and will be 
worked by steam; judging by the facilities that 
will be afforded, the farmers will find a great 
advantage in thus conveying their goods to 
market. 



26 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



[January 8, 1881. 



ALL KINDS OF 



Fruit, Shade & Ornamental 



TREES, 



EVERGREENS, FLOWERING PLANTS, SHRUBBERY 
VINES, Etc. ORANGE and LEMON TREES at 
the best tested Varieties Budded ON 
THE ORANGE ROOT. 

Also a large stock of well rooted Grapevines, free from 
Phylloxera, having been grown by irrigation. We have 
the leading varieties for raisins, shipping or wine, inclu- 
ding Muscat, Muscatelle, Gordo Blanco, Seedless Sultana, 
Emperor, Tokays, Hamburg and Zinflndel. 

Our specialties consist of many new fruits, tested by us 
and known to be valuable. Also, Japanese Persimmon 
Trees, one and two years old from graft, and extra line 
roots. We have Olive plants one year old, of both the 
Picholinne and Spanish varieties, in fact, everything us- 
ually kept in First-class Nurseries. 

Office and Tree Depot, I Street, between 
7th and 8th, Sacramento Cal. 

Send for Price Catalogue. Address CAPITAL NURS- 
ERIES, Box 407 Sacramento, Cal., or Penryu, Placer 
Couuty, Cal. 

WILLIAMSON 6l CO., Prop's. 



140 Percheron Horses 

Imported, from France 

SINCE LAST APRIL 




M. W. DUNHAM, 

Wayne, DuPage County, Illinois, 
Being MORE than the COMBINED 
Importations of ALL OTHER Import- 
ers of all kinds of Horses in the United 
States and Canada daring 1880. 

50"* ARRIVED DECEMBER 15TH. 

100 page cat aloguo, 41 illustrations, 
free on application. 

Dr. Smith's Caloric 
Vita^>ils. 

tar Improved Means and Methods of Healing. Why not ? 
Oiloric Vita Oils, these wonderful ancient curati?e remedies 
restored to the healing art l>y a retired Chilean physician, 
through whose advice they are now variously prepared and 
used In Dr. Smith's Phreno-Medical Institute, 633 Califor- 
nia street. San Francincck as sweating, absorbing, healing 
and pain-killing remedies, and which are by no means a new 
experiment, hut have proven their wonderful healing virtues 
In over 25,000 cases in a single Kuropean Medical Sanitarium, 
and are now offered for sale and use, purely on their active 
healing merits. Accordingly, gentlemen or ladies are offered 
a free trial of theBe vita or life-giving oils, who suffer from 
Asthma, Bronchial, Lung or Throat Troubles, deep-seated 
inflammation or painful disease of any kind. Congestion 
Heart, Liver and Kidneys, Lame Back, Stiff Joints, Con- 
tracted Muscles or Tendons, Dropsy or Cold Extremities, 
Tumors or Glandular Swellings, in short, all forms of dis- 
ease that result from congestion or impeded circulation. In 
cleansing the blood of scrofulous drugs or virus poisons, and 
In the cure of chronic disease, the Institute employs all the 
Hygienic and Medical appliances of Eastern and European 
water cures. Since the fall of '53 we have given special at- 
tention to diseases of the brain and nervo-vital system, and 
for the past ■ years have had gentlemen constantly under 
treatment who have suffered from some form of muscular, 
nervous or vital debility, and by using an electric medical 
magnet of great power in connection with the above reme- 
dies, we have quickly and |K.Tmanently restored those who 
had even failed to get relief by other means. Phrenology is 
the key to physical as well as mental diseases. Health con- 
sultations are free, either verbal or by letter. Barlow J. 
Smith. M, D., Proprietor, 633 California street, S. F. 



JNEW CIIAJII'IO.n 




Win* 

i 



Price- Plain Barrels, 12 Bore. $15 00. 

10 " 16 OO. 
Twist Barrels, 12 Bore. 17 00. 

lO " 18 OO. 
The frame and trimmings of all these guns are nickel plated. 
This gun poHsesses many advantages uver any single broech- 
louiling gun yet produced in this country. It has a patent 
side sna|i action with a safety attachment, by means of which 
It can be o|M-ned only when the gun is at half-cock, thus in- 
suring perfect safety in loading The workmanship and ma 
t.-rUls used are tirst class; no gun being allowed to leave the 
factory until it has beeu thoroughly inspected. We take 
great pleasure iu oiferiug this gun to the public, and feel safe 
to say it Is the best Am Single Breech Loader yet produced. 
E. T. ALLEN, Agt., 416 Market St.. S. F. 



AGENTS WANTED 

tins Machine ever Invented. Will knit a pair of 
Sbx-kiug*. with heel and toe complete, in 380 ml ti- 
ll tea. Will also knit a great variety of fancy articles, 
for which there U always a ready market. Send for cir- 
cular and terms to The Twomhlv Knitting Ma- 
chine Co., 409 Wasliingwu St., Buetuu. Mass. 



THE AMERICAN COLONY. 

Los Angeles County, Cal. 

This New Colony is now forming and will occupy 10,000 acres of tho very beat land, and in a most desirable 
location In Southern California. 

Good land, abundant water, delightful climate and an exceedingly advantageous and beautiful situation are some 
of the natural advantages of this Colony. 

The lands are being subdivided into ft, 10, 20 and 40 Acre Lots. 

The 40 Acre Farms will range in prices from ioOO to 31,000 There is also a Town Site. 

IS" For a beautiful lithograph plate and the Colony Prospectus, Maps, Plats, Circulars, Etc., send stamp, 

or apply to _ , 

W. E. WILLMORE, Manager, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Or to the California Immigrant Union, W. H. MAKTIN, General Agent, Chronicle Building, Room 3, San 

Francisco, Cal. 



SHERRILL 



Cr^ZLSTCr 



(PATENTED.) 




Four 10-Inch Plows in One Gang, and Fitted for Attachment of Five 8-inch Plows. 




Five 8-inch Plows for Crossing and Seeding. 

Combined Plow, Cultivator and Seeder. 

The Construction admits of its Working on Side Hill 
or Level, and Plowing to an Uniform Depth on 
Rolling or Uneven Ground. 

The Draft is 50 Per Cent Less than any other Gang Plow Made. 

Send for Circular and Information to 

Office and Factory, PERRY STREET, 

Between Fourth and Fifth Street, San Francisco, 





S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Ave., San Francisco. 
ta-Free coach to the House O. F. BECKER. Proprietor 



THE KENNEDY REPEATING RIFLE. 



50 



All Gold, Chromo and Lithograph Cards, (No 2 
alike,) Vaiue on, 10c. Clinton Broj., Clintouville, Con. 




24-inch Barrel. 15 Shots in Magazine. 
Weight, 8 1-2 to 9 Pounds. 

USES THE WINCHESTER MODEL 1873 CARTRIDGE, ii CALIBRE, 40 GRAINS, CENTER FIRE. 
Out of 600 Glass B ,ll» thrown from a trap, 470 were broken with this Rifle. Prices Low. Circulars on application to 

E. T. ALLEN, Pacific Coast Agent, 

416 Market St., San Francisco, 



Agricultural Articles. 



THE CALIFORNIA 

Spring Tooth Harrow 

OR CULTIVATOR. 




S WHAT EVERY FARMER WHO HAS HAD PLOWED 
LAND EXPOSED TO THE HEAVY RAINS 

Must Have if they would do Perfect Work. 

Such Soil is rendered Fine and Mellow, Seed is per- 
fectly covered and Vegetation destroyed. They alone will 
save the replowing of thousands of acres, and at the rate 
of from Twenty to Fifty Acres per day. Farmers, 
buy the best, buy an implement that has do equal, 
one that will do work that no other tool can. 

UA.VLFACTURKD AKD BOLD ONLY BY 

BATCHEL0R, VAN GELDER & CO., 

Nos. 900 & 902 K 8treet, Sacramento. 
AND THEIR AUTHORIZED AGENTS. 



The Famous "Enterprise," 

PERKINS' PATENT 
Self Regulating 

WINDMILLS, 

Pumps & Fixturei. 

These Mills and Pumps 
reliable and always give sat 
Isfaction. Simple, strong and 
durable in all parts. Solid 
wrought iron crank shaft with 
double bearings for the crank 
to work in, all turned 
run in babbitted boxes.. 

Positively eelf regulating 
with no coil Bpringor springs 
of any kind. No little rods, 
Joints, levers or balls to get 
out of order, as such things 
do. Mills in use six to nine years in good order now, tbat 
have never cost one cent for repairs. 

All sizes of Pumping and Power Mills. Thousands in 
use. All tcarranud. Address for circulars and infer 
mation, 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES, LIVERMORE, 
ALAMEDA CO., CAL. Also, Best Feed Mills for sale. 

San Francisco Agency, LINFORTH. RICE 
& CO., 323 & 335 Market Street. 




MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




z 



a 



Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match In 
Stockton, in 1870. 

Thin Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who hare 
been long fn the business and know what la required in the 
construction of Gang Plows. It Is quickly adjusted. Suf- 
ficient play is given so that the tongue will pass over cradle 
knolls without changing the working position of the sharea 
It is so constructed that the wheels themselves govern tha 
action of the Plow correctly. It has various points of supe- 
riority, and can be relied upon as the best and most desira- 
ble Gang Plow in the world. 

Iron Founders, Machinists and Manufacturers of Improved 
Agricultural Implements. General Jobbing and repairing 
done in the best manner at most reasonable rates. Bend for 
circular to MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 

Stockton. Cal. 



AMERICAN EXCHANGE HOTEL. 

Sansome Street, (Opposite W'jlls, Fargo 
& Co's Express), San Francisco. 

This Hotel, under the management of CH AS MONT 
GOMKKY, has been thoroughly renovated, and being in 
the very center of all the Banks, Insurance Offices and 
Commission Merchants, it offers special Inducements to 
Merchants from the Interior and Farmers. 

Board, with Room, #1, $1.26 and $1.60perday. Special 
rates by the week or mouth, 

FREE COACH from BOATS and CARS to HOTEL, 

HOPE DEAF 

Garmore's Artificial Ear Drums 

PFKFKCTLY RRSTOHK TIlK IIK.4RIN4J 

and perform the work of the Natural Drum. 
A I way* in position, but lnvl«iul<* to others, All 
ConvprnAtion and even whispers heard distinctly. We 
refer to those using then. H.-nd for drpcriplive circular. 

4>A li MOiEr*. A t O., 117 Nuomu St., Nt'W York. 
s or «. VV* un,,r u-Lh A. U*ve ftl*.. I'ukuumU, Up 



52 



Gold, Crystal, Lace, Perfumed 4 Chroroo Cards.nams 
in gold and Jet, lOo. Clinton Bros., Clinton Tlile, Ct 



January 8, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC ITOIL FBISS. 



27 



B^eedef^s 7 Direct© i\y. 

Purchasers of Stock will find in this Dirbctort thb 
Names of bomb of thb Most Rbliable Breeders. 

Our Rates.— Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
60 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 



CATTLE. 



HENRY PIERCE, 728 Montgomery Street, S. F. 
Jersey Cattle, bred from Importation direct from 
Jersey Island, and winners of most of the prizes at 
Oakland, Stockton and the State Fairs. " Victor of 
Yerba Buena," of noted butter strains on the Island, 
and known to be the best Bull ever imported to this 
coast, now stands at the head of this famous herd. 
" King of Scituate," son of the famous 705 pound butter 
Cow, Jersey Belle, of Scituate, which now stands at the 
head of Mr. Pierce's noted herd, at Scituate, Mass., 
will soon be brought here. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, S. F. Importers 
and breeders of all varieties of Thoroughbred Cattle, 
Sheep, Horses, and Berkshire Swine. All animals fully 
pe digreed. 

PAGE BROTHERS, 213 Clay street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.) Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and Spanish Merino Sheep. 



C. CLARK, Milpitas, Santa Clara Co. Importer and 
Breeder of Short-Horn Cattle. Has a herd of 14 Cows 
and Bulls, among which are one Gwynne-Princess Bull, 
by Imported Grand Prince of Lightburne, and cows 
of the Dutchess of York family: heifers being by the 
Imported Bull Sheriff, a Seraphina Bull and Kirkleving- 
ton Duke 2d, a pure Bates Bull. The whole herd for 
sale or single animals if desired. 



JESSE D. CARR, Salinas City, Monterey Co .Cal., Pro- 
prietor of Gabilan Herd. The foundation of the Gabilan 
Herd was secured by importations of the best attainable 
representatives of the most popular families. The herd 
includes groups of the time-honored Louan and Hope 
families; also representatives of the pure Bates, Oxfords, 
Duchesses, Young Marys and Roses of Sharon. Fine 
Trotting Horses, Thoroughbred and Graded Merino 
Bucks, also Thoroughbred and Cross Bred Shropshire- 
down Bucks always on hand and for sale at reasonable 
prices. 

M. WICK, Oroville, Butte County, Cal. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred Cattle, Short-Horns. Young Bulls and 
Heifers for sale at all times of the year. 



COL. C. YOUNGER, Forest Home Herd, San Jose, 
Cal. Breeder of Short-Horn Durhams, and pure bred 
Cotswold Sheep. Young Bulls and Bucks always for 
gale. 



HORSES. 



HENRY MILLER, San Francisco, Cal. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred Norman Horses of the Stock Imported 
by Mr. Perry, of Illinois, took First Premium at San 
Jose Fair, 1880. 

R. J. MEBKELEY, Sacramento, Cal., Breeder of 
Norman-Percheron Horses and Short-Horn Durhams. 
My stock is all registered. Took three first-class pre- 
miums on Horses at State Fair, 1880. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



JOHN S. HARRIS, Hollister, Cal. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred registered Goats. Took Eight Premi- 
ums at the State Fair of 1880. I had one Buck at the 
Slate Fair with staple 10 inches long. Correspondence 
solicited. 



L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 

J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Solano Co , Cal. Breeder 
and Importer of Shropshire Sheep. Rams and Ewes 
for sale. . Also, cross-bred Merino and Shropshire. 

E. W. WOOLSEY & SON, Fulton, Sonoma Co., 
Cal. Importers and Breeders of choice Thoroughbred 
Spanish Merino Sheep. City oltice, No. 418 California 
St., S. F. 



POULTRY. 



ALBERT BURBANK, 43 California Market, S. F. 
Importer and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry, 
Dogs, etc. Eggs for hatching. Send for price list. 



WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Importer 
and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Berkshire 
ml Magie Poland-China Swine. 



RS. L. J. W ATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Pekin Ducks, etc. 



A. O. RIX, Washington, Alameda County, California. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for Circular. 



MRS. L. E. McMAHAN, Dixon, Solano Co.. Cal. 
Importer and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Eggs 
for Hatching. Send for price list. 

T. D. MORRIS, Sonoma, Sonoma County, Cal. Breeder 
and Importer of all the varieties of Land and Water 
Fowls. Eggs for hatching sent any distance with 
safety. Satisfaction guaranteed. Send for price list. 



SWINE, 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co., Cal 
Importer, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 



T. C. STARR, San Bernardino, Cal. Poland-China 
Swine and Black Cochin Chickens for sale. 



JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 



L. N. SCOTT, Linooln, Placer County, Cal. Breeder 
of Pure Poland China Swine. My stock is shipped di- 
rect from Iowa and is the purest breed. Took first 
premium at State Fair, 1880. 



ELI AS GALLUP, Hanford, Cal. Breeder of Pure 
Poland China Swine, with recorded pedigree. My 
stock is from the celebrated "McCreary Bismarck" 
breed, by D. M. McGee, Oxford, Ohio. Took five pre- 
miums at State Fair, 1880 



BEES. 



J. D. ENAS, Sunnyside, Napa, Cal. Breeds Pure 
Italian yueen Bees. Comb Foundation. 



50 



Gold, Figured, and Actress Cbromos. 10c. Agent' 
Sample Book, 26e. Seavy Bros., Northford, Ct. 



IRRIGATED LANDS FOR LEASE AND SALE. 

THE GREAT COLORADO VALLEY LAND AND IRRIGATING CO. 

Offer for Lease and Sale a large tract of land in small farms, on extra liberal terms to settlers. 
Adapted to the growing of Semi-Tropical and Deciduous Fruits, Fibrous Plants, Vines, Cereals, Etc. 
Situated on the California side of the Colorado river, opposite the town of Enrenberg, and deriving its irrigating 
water by Canal from the Colorado river. 

Full particulars, terms, etc., will be forwarded on application to 

THOMAS H. BLYTHE, 724i Market Street, San Francisco. 

Or to GEORGE S. IRISH, Superintendent, (on the land). 




BEFORE BUYING OR RENTING AN 
ORGAN 

Send for our LATEST Illustrated Catalogue (32 pp. 
4to), with newest styles, at $51 and upward; or $6.38 
per quarter, and up. Sent free. MASON & HAMLIN 
ORGAN CO., 164 Tremont St., BOSTON; 46 E. 14th St: 
NEW YORK; 149 Wabash Av., CHICAGO. 



Mason and XZamlin Organs. 

Wholesale and Retail Agents 

KOHLER & CHASE. 



Post Street, near Dupont, 



SAN FRANCISCO 



100,000 BLUE AND RED GUMS. 

200,000 Cypress, Pine and Acacia. 

Very fine Stock and Cheap. Beautiful, Fresh and 
Finest Variety of Monterey Cypress Seed, $3.00 per 
pound, pre-paid by mail. Blue Gum and Aca- 
cia Seeds. Postoffice address, 

GEO. R. BAILEY", Oakland, Cal. 

Nursery located at Dwightway Station, East Berkeley 



ANNUAL MEETING. 

The Annual Meeting of the Stockholder of the 
Grangers' Bank of California will be held at the off ce >t 
the Bank, in the city of San Francisco, State of Califor. 
nia, on TUESDAY, the Eleventh (11) day of January, 
1881, at one o'clock r. M. , for the election of Directors 
for the ensuing year. FRANK McMULLEN, S ci 
ALBERT MONTPELLIER, Cashier and Managei 

San Francisco, Dec. 13, 1880. 



WOT FAIL » s*B« 

for oar Prle* Lilt f«t 
1880, r»i >• u; 
address apoa »»• 

Motion. OonUlM 



no 

JAjV ^^^^flP descriptions of .T.ry- 
IBSmBW ^^^W thing required fa* 
persons! or family ■•«. 
win ever l ,*oo Illustration*. We sail all 
food* at wholesale price* la quantities te toH 
ih* poreha**r, Th* only Institution la America 
who mak* this their special business. Address, 
MOJfTOOMKUT WARD * CO., 
1*1 * • •• Wabaafc A»a.. Okie 



GRANGERS' BANK 

Of California, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Authorized Capital, - $1,000,000, 

In 10,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $400,000. 

OFFICERS: 

G. W. COLBY President 

JOHN LEWELLING Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 

FRANK McMULLEN Secretary 

DIRECTORS: 

G. W. COLBY President Butte Co 

JOHN LEWELLING. Vice-President..... Napa Co 

J. V. WEBSTER AlamedaCo 

URIAH WOOD San Benito Co 

J. C. MERYFIELD Solano Co 

THOMAS McCONNELL Sacramento Co 

I. C. STEELE San Mateo Co 

SOLOMON JEWETT Kern Co 

C J. CRESSEY Stanislaus Co 

SENECA EWER Napa Co 

A. D. LOGAN Colusa Co 

The Bank was opened on the first of August 1874 for the 
transaction of general Banking busLness. 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and conducted in the 
usual way. 

GOLD and SILVER deposits received 

CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued for Gold and Silver 

TERM DEPOSITS are revived and interest allowed as 
follows: S/c per annum if left for 3 months, - ^ per annum if 
left for 6 months; 8Z t er annum if 'left fcjr.lt! months. 

EXCHANGE on the Atlantic States twi^it and sold. 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER, 
Cashier and Manager. 

San Francisco, Oet. 15, 1880. 



54 



All Gold, Cbromo and Lithograph Cards, no 2 alike, 
nam* on, 10 ctg. C. DePuy, Syracuse, N. Y. 



Price List— 1880-81. 

NOW READY. 

UNLIMITED RANGE. 
116 Acres. 

HEALTHY STOCK. 

Brahmas, Brown Leghorns, Ply- 
mouth .Hocks, Langenans. 
BRONZE TURKEYS. PEKIN DUCKS. 

Carbolic Powder— Four Pound Package $1 00. 
Pamphlet on the Care of Fowls, Ins-e >ses, Cures, etc. 
adapted especially tn the Pacific Coast, price 15 cents. 
Please send stamp for Price List to 

M. EYRE, Napa Cal. 




M. COOKE. R. J. COOKE 

PIONEER BOX FACTORY, 

Corner of Front and M Streets, Sacramento. 

ALL KINDS OF 

Fruit and Packing Boxes Made to Order, 

AND IN SHOOKS. 

tUf Communications Promptly Attended to. 
COOKE & SONS, Successors to Coobi & Grboory 



Jackson's Agricultural Machine Works 

AND FOUNDRY, 

6th and Bluxome Sts., near S. P. R. R., San Francisco. 

Manufacturer of Feeders and 
Elevators, with recently invented 
Spreader. Horse Forks for Head- 
ings or Hay. Folding Derricks. 
Hoadley Straw-Burner and Auto- 
matic Cut-off Governor for Por- 
table Engine. Separator Shoes 
and Repairs. WINDMILLS for 
Stockmen and Gardeners. Buy 
and sell second-hand Threshers 
and Engines. Machine Castings 
a specialty. Address 

BYRON JACKSON, Prop'r. 




MENZO SPRING. 

Manufacturer of the Best 




Improved Artificial Limbs. 

OFFICR AND ADDRESS: 

9 Geary Street, Junction of 
Market and Kearny, S. F 



SADDLES, = w. davis, 

UipiiroQ IA/UIDC 410 Market St..S.F. 

nHnPJtOO, ft mid. Manufacturer and Dealer 

■ riTMPD in All Goods In thin line 

LtM I tlLri. — — — a^TSend for Catalogue 



A. AlTKKN. 



F. N. Fish. 



AITKEN & FISH, 

Premium Pioneer Marble Works, 

617K St., Bet Sixth & Seventh," - SACRAMENTO, CAL. 



G9 



A KEY f 

'WILL WIND 



THAT 

ANY WATCH 



AND NOT 
IWEAR OUT. 



OS%l t% hv Watchmakers. By mail, 30 ctn. Circulars 
bULIJ FREE. J. 3. U1B0H & CO., 38 Dei St.,NX 



Lands for Sale and to 



AGRICULTURAL GRANT. 

150.000 ACRES. 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



By a recent order of the Hon. Commissioner of the 
General Land Office, the Regents of the University of Cal- 
ifornia are authorized to receive applications for land un- 
der the COLLEGE GRANT, not to exceed 11,400 acres. 

TERMS OF SALE. 

For Lands Outside of Railroad Grants, $5.00 
For Lands Within a Railroad Grant, $6.25 

If purchasers prefer, they can pay 20 per cent, (or $1.00 
per acre) as the first payment, and will be allowed a credit 
of five years for the remaining 80 per cent, (or S4 00 per 
acre). 

Printed blanks for making applications and full infor- 
mation will be furnished free of charge, by addressing 

J. HAM HARRIS, Land Agent, 

P. O. Box 2040, San Francisco, Cal. 

San Francisco, Dec. 20, 1S80. 

A GOOD HOME 

For sale, very cheap, in the very pleasant and healthy 
village of Soquel, Santa Cruz, Cal. , near the famous water- 
ing place 

CAMP CAPITOLA. 

Also a well patronized 

BLACKSMITH SHOP, 

Together or separate. For particulars inquire o 

C. H. HALL, 
"Soquel, Cal. 



FOR SALE. 

215 ACRES OF GOOD GRAIN, GRASS 
and Fruit Land. 

Two miles from the Soquel Wharf and Railroad Depot. 
Price, $3,500. Four Good Springs and 

20 Acres of Heavy Timber 

On it. Also, 100 acres ore mile from the Railroad, 
cheap. For particula s, inquire of 

J. PARRISH, 

Soquel. Cal 




For Sale in large or small tracts, on easy terms, in 
the best parts of the State. 

MCAFEE BROTHERS. 
202 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

FRUIT AND GRAIN FARM FOR SALE, 

Near Sacramento, Cal. 

Eighty acres of choice land, two miles from city limits; 
half mile east upper Stockton road; 800 Fruit trees, one aero 
Grapevines, two acres Blackberries. Sixty-rive acres in Grain 
will be sold with or without crop. Good House and Out 
Buildings. Farm well fenced; five Windmills and Horse 
Power; Fish Pond; three-quarters of a mile from good 
School. This property will be sold cheap. Terms cash. 
Apply at the ranch. J. K. HOUSTON. 



SANTA CRUZ COUNTY. 

Good Crops every Season without Irrigation. 

Farms, Stock Ranches, Dairy Farms, Fruit Farms, 
Vineyards, Chicken Ranches, and Homesteads of every 
class and description in this and adjoining counties for 
sule and rent on reasonable terms. State requirements 
and obtain suitable particulars from the Real Estale 
EXCHANGE & MART, 

Santa Cruz, Cal 



RTJHL'S 

PATENT LIFT and SUCTION PUMP. 

On hand the following sizes Suction PumpB, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 
and 10 inches in diameter for shallow wells for irrigating 
purposes. Lift Pumps for deep wells, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 inches 
in diameter, warranted to draw water up to 200 feet. Half- 
Lift Pumps, 3 and 4 inches in diameter. All the above 
Pumps can be converted into a force-pump by attaching 
cast-iron air chamber, which makes the best one for tilling 
tanks. Address 

FRED. A. RTJHL, Stockton, Cal. 

Valves for the above Pumps can he had of the priucipa 
houses in San Francisco. 



JOSEPH F. HILL, 

MANUFACTURER OF FIRST-CLASS 

Buggies, Farm & Freight Wagons. 

OP A DESCRIPTIONS 

Cor. Thirteenth and J Sts., Sacramento, Cal. 
tar Repairing promptly attended to "SI 



THE CINCINNATI WEEKLY TIMES 

THE BANNER WEEKLY OF THE WEST. 
An Eight -page paper, only One Dollar a year, and a 
magnificent engraving *' two feet wide and almost three 
feet long" free, and postage paid to every subscriber. 
Address 

WEEKLY TIMES. Cincinnati, O. 



50 



Varieties French Chromo Satin, Pearl Finished, Etc. 
cards, name in gold, 10c. Card Mills, Northford, Ct, 



28 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS. 



[January 8, 1881. 



A Fine Plant of Farm Buildings. 

(CONTINUBD FROM PAGE 17. ) 

60 ft. higher than the barns, and 100 rods away, 
built of stone layed in cement, and completely 
covered from the frost. The water is forced 
into this reservoir by wind power, and drawn 
by a 2J-inch main to the buildings, and is dis- 
tributed through them by lj-inchand 1-inch pipes 
laid 5 ft. under ground. 

The wagon house has a self-supporting roof, 
and the entire front is composed of sliding doors. 
Carriage houses and straw sheds are ordinary 
frames. All yards are graded and graveled in 
such a manner that they are perfectly free from 
mud all times of the year. 

The arrangement of the yards can be seen 
from the diagram. All the manure, except 
from barn No. I, goes to the elevated track in- 
dicated, and in winter time is dumped into 
wagons and hauled out. The total length of 
front shown in the diagram is 600 ft. 



Sr|EEf» *\nd Wool. 



The California Wool Trade of 1880. 

The annual circular of E. Grisar 4 Co., of 
the S. P. Wool Exchange, gives the following 
review of the California wool trade and produc- 
tion for the year 1880: The prominent feature 
of the wool season of 1880, has been the irreg- 
ularity of the market and the rapid fluctuations 
in prices and trade. In former years there has 
been either a gradual and healthy advance in 
prices, interrupted perhaps by short periods of 
depression, or a steady and gradual decline, but 
without those sudden changes which character- 
ized the year just passed, in which short spasms 
of activity were succeeded by long intervals of 
depression. 

The spring season opened here with very lit- 
tle wool on hand, " and in sympathy with the 
great activity of the Eastern markets, where 
prices, already very high, constantly advanced; 
the first receipts here were eagerly taken at 
rates higher than ever ruled before, excepting 
the year 1872. 

The quality marketed at extreme prices was, 
however, very limited, as late and prolonged 
rains interrupted shearing, and consequently 
arrivals were small. But enough was sold to 
excite the wool growers who expected to real- 
ize extreme prices. 

The rains continued so long as to cause wools 
from the north and south to arrive together. In 
the meantime the condition of the Eastern mar- 
kets had changed from excitement to dullness, 
and the shrinkage in values began and extended 
almost without a break until October. Growers 
were slow to realize the new position of affairs, 
and still looked for high rates. Receipts were 
unusually large and warehouses soon became 
tilled to overflowing. 

From time to time different buyers entered 
the market, but there was no general activity 
for any long time. In spite of the dragging 
condition of affairs, wools were gradually dis- 
posed of, and stocks on July 1st were smaller 
than was anticipated. 

Manufacturers have been the support of the 
market to an unusual extent throughout the 
year. When fall wools began to arrive, stocks 
of wool were very large, chiefly consisting of 
Eastern Oregon wools. The long-continued de- 
pression in the Eastern markets deterred buy- 
ers from operating until all available space was 
filled with fall wools. From the time when the 
market fairly opened it has been active, and 
stocks to-day, although larger than tbey were a 
year ago, are not excessive. An unusual pro- 
portion of the clip has been forwarded by ves- 
sel. Manufacturers have shipped almost en- 
tirely by this route, and dealers have also pre- 
ferred it, owing to the unsatisfactory condition 
of the consuming markets. 

Character — The spring clip was a good aver- 
age. There was but little dusty wool, and ow- 
ing to abundant feed and late shearings South- 
ern wools were in condition and staple superior 
to the production of several previous years. 
In the extreme north the condition was inferior 
to that of last year's product, but still fair av- 
erage. Owing to the very severe winter, in 
which many sheep died, the receipts from some 
northern sections were less than heretofore. 

Fall wools have been very poor. As the 
quality of the clip improves the condition de 
clines because fine greasy wool carries more 
dust than medium grades. The staple also is 
shorter, and especially this year on account of 
late spring rains, the interval between the two 
shearings was fully a month less than ordinary. 
The result of abundant pasturage was manifest 
in the increased amount of bur and seed contained 
iu the wools. The quantity of fine wool seems 
to increase annually. 

The following table shows the opening and 
closing rates of spring wools. The slight dif- 
ference between the prices of northern and 
southern wools is owing to the fact that wools 
did not begin to arrive from the extreme north 
until the decline in this market had been very 
heavy. Prices of northern culminated in July: 
Opening. Closing 

Southern coast wools, with lew burs, 

good to long staple, in ordinary 

condition 33@34c 

Average stapled wool, with few seeds, 

and in good to light condition (San 

Joaquin, etc.) 

Long Btapled wool, with few seeds, in 

ordinary condition 

Fair stapled wool, in good to light 

condition, having few burs 32@33c. 

Choice to good Northern 2S(tf3Qc. 



Receipts at San 

Francisco. Bags 

January 243 

February 211 

March 1,88!* 

April 16,400 

May 24,828 

June 18,081 

July 10,67t 

August 6,157 

September 11,83'. 

October 25,121 

November 19,04( 

December Me 

Total 134.03S 

Lbs. 

Of which there was 
spring wool, 72,- 
193 bags, weigh- 
ing 21,657,900 

Spring wool shipped 
direct from the 
interior 1,215,880 



20@21c. 



34@36c. 12@I3c 
3%386c. 27@24c. 



26 (927c 
32^j 33c 



Fluctuations in value of fall wools were 
small. Fair to good conditioned parcels im- 
proved somewhat, having opened at 17@18c, 
and advanced to 19® 20c. Heavy wools and 
detective lots ranged from 12@14c. Fair con- 
ditioned, 14® 16c. Northern lambs 24@26c. 

Oregon — Eastern wools were inferior in con- 
dition and appearance to last year's clip. 
Stocks have been large throughout the season, 
and shipments in the grease were smaller than 
usual. 

Lately a demand has sprung up and stocks 
are now only moderate. Light wools opened at 
28@29c, and fell to 24@25c, but have since 
regained most of the decline. Inferior lots 
ranged from 22@25c, the latter being asking 
rates now. Valley wools of ordinary grade and 
condition realize 29@31c, and some choice par- 
cels 32@33o. Most of the Valley wool went 
di;ectly East without being offered here. 

The clip of 1880 has not reached the point 
anticipated. Prolonged cold weather killed 
many lambs, and in some extreme northern 
counties the loss of sheep is estimated at 35% 
to 50%. In other sections wheat raising has 
been found more profitable than wool growing, 
and sheep are constantly going out of the State 
from these districts. It is, however, reasona- 
ble to expect an increased production in 1881. 
The season opens favorably, but the losses in- 
curred in the severe drouth of 1877-78 have 
not yet been made good. At prices which have 
ruled during the past 18 months wool growing 
is remunerative. 

As less wool has been shipped direct from the 
country than for several years, receipts at San 
Francisco are larger. 

Overland freights have ranged from 24@2Jc. 
per lb. By vessel 1 (S. 1 ic. 

WOOL PRODUCTION. 



Lbs. 

There was fall wool 

received, 61,845 

bags, weighing. .20,408,830 
Fall wool shipped 

direct from the 

interior 291,524 



Total fleece wool.43,674,154 
Pulled wool ship'd 
direct from San 
Francisco 2,500,000 



Total p r o i u c- 
tions of Cal.. . .46,074,154 

On hand Dec. 31, 
1879, about 300,000 

Received from Ore- 
gon, 26,500 bags. 7,022,500 

Foreign wool re- 
ceived, 925 bales 275,000 



Orand total 63,671,664 



Total spring 

production. .22,873,780 

EXPORTS. 

Domestic, foreign, pulled and scoured. Lbs. 

Per rail, inclusive of shipments from the in- 
terior 30,391,962 

Per steamer, inclusive of shipments from the 
coast Nil. 

Per sail 12,224,321 



Total shipments 42,616,283 

Value of exports f9,550,000 

On hand Dec. 31, 1880, about 2,000,000 

Difference between receipts and exports has 
been taken by local mills, scouring companies 
and wool on hand awaiting shipment. The 
weights of receipts and exports are gross. The 
usual tare of bags received is about 3 lbs. each; 
on pressed bales shipped, 14 to 16 lbs. each. 
Production of California Wool, 



Mulberry Growing and Silk Culture. 

Editors Press: — Please inform your readers 
that we have organized an association to en- 
courage the raising of the mulberry and for the 
promotion of silk culture in the State of Cali- 
fornia. 

We would like to be informed by those who 
have mulberry plants and trees growing on 
their farms of the number, age, growth, condi- 
tion and variety of such plants and trees. We 
are willing to give information to those who 
wish to engage in silk culture, and also to give 
advice about the procuring of healthy silk-worm 
e 88 8 - 

There are thousands of families, now able to 
exist only by severe effort, that might live in 
comfort by engaging in silk culture. There is but 
one month of regular work needed to raise silk 
worms, and that at a time when other farm 
duties have generally been attended to; and as 
the work is light, most of it can be performed 
by women and children. 

Nature has given California the best climate 
in the world to raise the silk worm. We can 
lead all other countries if we but engage in the 
business with that peculiar American spirit 
which has so far been able to overcome all ob- 
stacles in the way of its progress. 

We will receive letters of information or in- 
quiry addressed to either of the following per- 
sons: 

Mrs. E. a Barker, President, 14 Stanly Place, Rincon 
Hill, San Francisco. 

Mrs. A. A. Sargent, Vice-President, 208 San Jose 
avenue, San Francisco. 

Mrl. S. a Raymond, Treasurer, 601 Polk, St. , San Fran- 
cisco. 

Mrs. Q. W. Frink, Chairman Finance Committee, 224 
Seventh St., San Francisco. 

Mrs. T. II. Hindi, Corresponding Secretary, 808 Turk 
St., San Francisco. 



[com. j 

Vaccination forScab in Sheep- 

Editors Press :— I desire to announce to your readers 
that I have discovered a method of protecting sheep from 
the scab disease by vaccination. The principle is identi- 
cal with that involved In vaccination to prevent smallpox 
in the human species. I do not claim that my method of 
vaccinating sheep will prove an absolute prevention of 
skin disease, but it will either prevent it or reduce the dis- 
ease to a milder form, as vaccination in human kind reduces 
smallpox to varioloid. In the case of sheep there may, in 
some cases, be a slight surface irritation of the skin which 
can be easily removed, but there will be no attack of the 
scab in its well-known virulent and penetrating forms- 
Anyone desirous of inquiring into this new method of 
meeting the scab disease may address me at the Baldwin 
Hotel, San Francisco. S. H. Kennedy. 

San Francisco, Dec. 8th. 

P. S.— Address, after January 15, 1881, Omaha. Ne- 
braska. 



Taken from the books of E. Grisar & Co., 
1854 to 1880, inclusive: 



from 



Year. Lbs. lYear. Lbs. lYear. 

1864 176,000 1864 7,923,67011874 39, 

1866 300,000 1865 8,949,931 1875 43, 

1856 600,0001866 8,632,047 1876 M, 

1857 1,100,0001867 10,288,600 1877 M, 

1858 1,428,351 1868 14,232,657il878 40, 

1859 2,378,260 1869. . . . .15,413,970 1879 48, 

1860 3,055,325 1870 20,072,669 1880 46, 

1861 3,721,998 1871 22,187,188 

1862 6,990,300 1872 24,255,468 Total.. 515 

1863 6,268,480 1873 32,165,1691 



Lbs. 

366,781 
632,223 
550,270 
110,742 
862,061 
908,180 
074,154 



410,356 



Short Horn Sales. — Mr. K. Ashburner, 
Baden station, San Mateo Co., has recently sold 
seven young bulls, three of which, along with 
two grade Short Horn heifers, were sold to par- 
ties in the Sandwich Islands, who are establish- 
ing dairies there of improved breeds of cattle. 
Baden Duke 3d, full brother to Baden Duke, 
now in use in the Baden farm herd, was pur- 
chased by L. M. Warden, of San Luis Obispo; 
Baden Duke 5th is sold to M. Wick, Oroville, 
Butte Co., and Rosy Duke, got by Baden Duke 
and out of Rose of Summer 14th, by imported 
Sheriff, to Wm, Quinn, of San Jose. The Ba- 
den Dukes 3d and 5th are of the Bates-bred 
Frantic family; both are by imported Kirklev- 
ington Duke 2d, and out of cows by Mark An- 
tony, a bull used at Baden till he was nine 
years old. He, as well as the cows, being a di- 
rect descendant of imported Frantic by Mr. 
Bates, 4th Duke of York. As we had the 
pleasure of seeing the bulls named on the last 
visit to Baden, we feel fully justified in congrat- 
ulating the purchasers on the Bound judgment 
they have used in their choice of bulls to use in 
their respective herds; and from what we have 
seen of their ancestors, we have good reasons 
for thinking that they will at no future time 
regret the use of such animals in their herds. 

The internal revenue receipts at Washing- 
ton recently were (1,321,375; customs $687,- 
000. 



Nothing short of Unmistakable Benefits 

Conferred upon tens of thousands of sufferers could orig- 
inate and maintain the reputation which Ayhr's Sarsa- 
parilla enjoys. It is a compound of the beet vegetable 
alteratives, with the Iodides of Potassium and Iron, and 
is the most effectual of all remedies for scrofulous, mercu- 
rial or blood disorders. Uniformly successful and certain 
in its remedial effects, it produces rapid and complete 
cures of Scrofula, Sores, Boils Humors, Pimples, Erup- 
tions, skin Diseases and all disorders arising from im- 
purity of the blood. By its iuvigorating effects it always 
relieves and often cures Liver 'omplaints. Female Weak- 
nesses and Irregularities, and is a potent renewer of vi- 
tality. For purifying the blood it has no equal. It tones 
up the system, restores and preserves the health, and im- 
parts vigor and energy. For forty years it has been n 
extensive use. and is to-day the most available medicine 
for the suffering sick anywhere. 

Fob Sals bt All Dbalbrs. 



Attend to This. 

Our subscribers will And the date they have paid to 
printed on the label of their paper. If it is not correct 
(or if the paper should ever come beyond the time de 
sired), be sure to notify the publishers by letter or postal 
card. If we are not notified within a reasonable time we 
cannot be responsible for the errors or omission of agents. 

Important additions are being continually made in 
Woodward's Gardens. The grotto walled with aquaria is 
constantly receiving accessions of new flsh and other 
marine life. The number of sea lions is increased and 
there is a better chance to study their actions. The 
pavilion has new varieties of performances. The floral 
department is replete and the wild animals in good vigor. 
A day at Woodward's Gardens is a day well spent. 



The Free Labor Exchange, established by 
voluntary donations, for the special object of 
providing work for the needy and destitute, 
free of charge to all, continues its benevolent 
designs and operations. Employers of all classes 
of help, male or female, are earnestly requested 
to patronize this institution, and send their 
orders to the Free Labor Exchange, No. 33 
O'Farrell St., San Franoisco, CaL, G. W. 
Schroeder, Manager. 

Sample Copiks — Occasionally we send copies of our 
paper to nersons who we believe would be benefl ted by 
subscribing for it, or willing to assist us in extending its 
circulation. Wo call the attention of such to our pros- 
pectus and terms of subscription, and request that they 
circulate the copy sent. 

First-Clas8 is Evbrt Respect — When yon visit Stock- 
ton stop at the Mansion House. Free Coach to the 
house. J H. CROSS, Proprietor. 



Tus Yosbmitb is strictly first class and the leading hotel 
of Stockton. Prices moderate. Jas. Caven, Propr. 

Pav Cash in advance— $3 a year for the 
Rural Press. Credit rates, $4. 



S. p. [Market I\e[»Oi\t. 



Noti— Our quotations are for Wednesday, not Saturday 
the date which the paper bean. 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Francisco, Wednesday, Jan. 6, 1881. 
Trade still lingers in the shadow of the holidays, and 
there is not much doing in produce except for local needs. 
The return of fine weather is making active times for the 
implement sellers and repairers, and there is full inquiry 
for men and working animals. The condition of the roads 
|n some districts still restrains the shipment of produce, 
but there is enough arriving for immediate use, and price 
are not materially changed. 
The latest report from Liverpool is as follows : 
Liverpool, Jan. 4.— Good to choice California Wheat, 
i 8d(§10s. Spot lots are firm; floating cargoes are held 
firmly; cargoes on passage are inactive. 

The Forelcrn Review. 

London, Jan. 3.— The Mark Lane Bxprett, in its re- 
view of the British Oraln trade for the past week, says: 
There has been mild, wet and stormy weather, but the 
young Wheat stood it welL The deliveries of home- 
grown Grain have been small. The markets hare been 
dull and everything was cheaper. Most of the home- 
grown Grain is in bad condition. Foreign supplies, there- 
fore, are relied upon. No amount of engineering in 
American tempts the millers to abandon the consumptive 
demand. The Flour supply has considerably fallen off. 
There are practically no old Wheats on offer. The values 
of Breadstuffs continually favor the buyers. Foreign 
supply on the spot is small, and afloat large. Values gave 
way until Friday. In Wheat, American Red Winter off 
coast recovered 6d. The season is now too far gone for 
speculators to work out another "corner," but it matters 
little whether they send much or little for the present, as 
we can get well supplied elsewhere until next harvest. 
British and foreign Barleys are dull and cheap. Oats are 
slow and unchanged; foreign Oats are similar in tone. 
Maize iB dull; American on Friday was reduced 3d. Sales 
of English Wheat for the week were 27,141 quarters at 41s 
lid, against 27,674 quarters at 46s lid, the corresponding 
week last year. Imports into the United Kingdom, du- 
ring the 4 days ending Dec. 23d, were 610,244 cwts of 
Wheat, and 204,374 cwts of Flour. 

Freights and Charters. 
The latest charters reported are the ship Alameda, 
1,474 tons, Wheat to Cork, £3 6s; Continent, £3 10s; 
Liverpool direct, £3 2a 6d; British iron ship Chrytomene, 
1,778 tons, Wheat to Liverpool direct, private; British t 
bark Ingomar, 770 tons, Wheat U Cork, £2 16s; Havre, 
£2 17s 6d; Continent, between Bordeaux and Hamburg 
Jxclusive of Havre, £3, prior to arrival; ship Storm King, 
,261 tons, Wheat to Cork, £2 17s Od, prior to arrival; 
ship Great Admiral, 1,676 tons, Wheat to Cork, £3 6s, 
prior to arrival; British ship Corona, 1,210 tons, Wheat to 
Cork, £3 2s. 

The Hay Trade of San Francisco. 

Thomas J. Lee, Secretary of the San Francisco Hay Ex- 
change, has furnished the Call with the receipts of Hay at 
this port in December, as follows: By water, 1,492 tons; 
Southern Pacific railroad, 790; Central Pacific, 160; total, 
2,432 tons, the lightest monthly receipts for 6 years, 
owing to the continued bad weather. The receipts for 
1880 were as follows: By water, 44,119 tons; Southern 
Pacific railroad, 20,981; Central Pacific, 3,770; total, 68,- 
870 tons. 

Eastern Grain and Provision Markets). 

New Yorr, Dec. 31.— Wheat opened half a cent higher, 
and closed firm at an advance and fairly active. Barley 
is steady, but quiet. Pork is firm, with fair demand. 

Lard is quiet. 

Chicago, Dec. 31.— The year closes with a Arm feeling 
in grain, and especially in provisions, with a strongly-de- 
veloped tendency to advance. The weakness and demorali- 
sation which attended the falling market did not prevent 
buyers from taking hold at the lower range, and the re- 
sult has been a steady and marked advance Conse- 
quently, high prices are again talked of on 'Change, albeit 
less confidently than before. The range of prices during 
the week were as follows: For February Wheat, 95@99}c; 
Corn, 36|@37Jc ; Oats, 29| J.- ; Pork, fl2.42i@12.97t; 
Lard, $8. 42^8.70. Closing February prices : Wheat, . 
99|c; Corn, 37|c; Oats, 81fcg31|c; Pork, fl2.76@12.77i; 
Lard, Closing cash prices: Wheat, 98c; 

Corn, 37c; oats. 30jc; Rye, 86c; Barley, fl.09; Whisky, 
$1.11 ; Pork, fll for new and fl2.50 for old ; Lard, f8.46. 
The receipts for the week were: Wheat, 370,000 bushels; 
Corn, 656,000; Oats, 275,000. The shipments were: Wheat 
167,000 bushels; Corn, 361,000; Oats, 261,000. The receipts 
for the same time last year were: Wheat, 614,000 bushels; 
Corn, 1,313,000; Oats, 206,000. Shipments— Wheat, 86,000 
bushels; Corn, 318,000; Oats, 159,000. Receipts generally 
are much smaller than last year, owing to lower prices 
and the scarcity of cars. Shipments are considerably 
larger than then. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

Boston Dec 31.— In Wool there has been a very good 
business doing for the last week of the year, the sales hav- 
ing been upwards of 3,000,000 lbs of all kinds and grades. 
Fine fleeces have been in rather more request, and medium 
grades are sought after and quite firm. Sales of X and 
XX fleeces, including Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Vir- 
ginia, were made at 46i@48c, and XX and labors, 49c; 
Michigan fleeces, 44@45c for X, and 47c for medium grades; 
medium and No. 1 Ohio and Pennsylvania, 45@52c, and 
combing and delaine fleeces, 48@64c; mostly fine delaine. 
50c, and fine and medium combing, 60@55c. Unwashed 
fleeces remain the same, and have been In fair demand, 
with sales at from 20c to 36c, as to quality ; mostly medium 
grades at 82@36c. Sales of Pulled Wool have been fair, 
and prices range from 85c to 42c for common to choice 
supers. California has been in steady demand, with sales 
of 395,000 lbs at 25@38ic for Spring, and 19J<a31ic for 
Fall. Australia, Montevideo and other fine foreign Wools 
have been In better demand, and prices remain unchanged. 
Of Wool in this city, there Is some 4,000,000 lbs of domestic 
and 4,000,000 lbs of foreign more than at this time last 
year, but the stock in the hands of manufacturers is much 
smaller. There were also large supplies of foreign on the 
way last year, about 4,000,000 lbs, while this year the sup- 
plies on the way are comparatively small. 

Nsw York, Dec. 81.— Wool is very quiet, but prices are 
firm, and the outlook Is very promising. Sales of Call' 
fornia, 26.000 tbs of Spring, at 26(329o. 

Boston, Jan. 4 —The vVool demand is steady, and prices 
remain unchanged. A stock of 25,000,000 lbs was rather 
a surprise to tne trade. Wool held In the West has been 
arriving quite freely for some weeks past, and old stocks 
of Australian and Montevideo have tended to swell the 
amount. The new supply on the way Is quite limited, 
and as there is now a margin for import, it is likely to re- 
main. Ohio and Pennsylvania fleeces of high grades. In- 
cluding XXX and XX and above, have been selling at 47<j» 
49c. Medium and No. 1 fleeces at 47($61c. Wisconsin and 
Michigan X, 43J<g45c, and combing and delaine selections, 
4aia5ui'j for delaine, 60@56c, for combing. California 
Wool ranges from 26c to SSc for Spring; 19c to 32c for 
Fall, with a fair demand; unwashed and unmerchantable 
fleeces sell from 20c to 36c, Including medium grades, 
from 32c to 36c; but some choice lots go up to 33cQ40c. 



January 8, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FBESS. 



29 



Pulled Wools sell from 35c to 52c for supers and X, includ" 
in; choice extras. Maine and New York supers, 50c to 
52c. Foreirrn Wool is held at steady prices, with a fair de. 
mand for Montevideo and Australian. 

New York Dried Fruit Markets. 

Nsw York, Dec. 31.— Foreign Fruits are dull and prices 
unchanged. Raisins are scarce and Arm for low grades. 
Medium and pale grades are neglected. 

BAGS— There is no change, and the trade is quiet. 

BARLEY— Barley ia a shade higher than one week ago, 
but the trade is slow and transactions light. We note 
sales: 700 sks very light Brewing, *1.07J; and 1,275, 67 
and 300 sks dark Coast Feed, 90c ¥ ctl. 

BEANS— There is no change in the Bean list this we ek 

CORN — Corn prices are about the same, except Pop 
Corn, which is now from $2 to 12.50 V ctl. There has 
been a sale of 25 sks Egyptian Corn at $1.76 $ ctl. 

DAIRY PRODUCE— There is no change in Butter, ex- 
cept that only the fanciest brings <0c $ S>. The quality 
now rules very even, as there is nothing that goes as low 
as 35c, unless it is plainly "off grade." Most sales are at 
S7J@38c and 38Jc. Cheese is unchanged. 

EGGS — Eggs are unchanged. Supplies are increasing a 
little, but the demand covers all good lots. 

FEED— Receipts of Hay have been lighter, owing to 
the bad weather, and prices have been Arm, with a slight 
rising tendency. The best Wheat Hay has sold as high af 
f 16 # ton. 

FRESH MEAT— Nearly all Meats have advanced during 
the week, as shown in our list. The best Beef now brings 
7c, and Mutton 4c $ lb. Pork, both alive and dressed, has 
advanced a fraction. The cool weather is favorable to 
holders of Fresh Meats, and there is less disposition to 
close out the carcasses. 

FRUIT— Apples are lower fgain, the range being from 
30c to SI for all kinds. Oranges are also a point lower 
Limes are again reduced by freer supplies. 

HONEY"— There is rather more inquiry for Honey, and 
a firmer feeling for choice comb. Extracted Honey now 
takes a wide range, buyers being very exacting on the 
question of color. 

HOPS— There are a few Hops selling at 17@17Jc, and 
others held at 18c, for which 17Jc has been bid. The 
range for California Hops is now 16@20c $ It. There is 
nothing new from New York. 

OATS— The market is lifeless and sales few. Prices are 
unchanged, 

ONIONS— The range is lower this week. Red Onions 
are rated $1 per ctl, and White $1.50(82. 

POTATOES — Petaluma and Tomales are slightly lower, 
75c being the top price to-day. Other sorts are not ma- 
terially changed. 

PROVISIONS— Prices are unchanged except a decline 
of Ac per lb on Light Bacon. 

POULTRY AND GAME— Broilers are now large and 
approach nearer to the price for full grown birds. Tame 
Ducks are lower, but Game Ducks are higher because of 
bad weather for hunting. This has also raised the value 
for Snipe and Quail. Turkeys are past the holidays and 
are down 2c per lb all around. 

VEGETABLES— Carrots and Marrowfat Squash are con- 
siderably higher this week. 

WHEAT— Wheat prices have improved about 2Jc 3ft ctl. 
We note sales: 650 and 500 ctls Milling at $1.50; 2,000 
ctls No. 1 Shipping at $1.60; 1,000 ctls do at $1.48}; l.OOo 
ctls do at $1.47i; 12,000 ctls No. 2 do, private; 900 and 
600 Coast Shipping at J1.37J; 250 ctls Northern do at $1.3 5 
9 ctl. 

WOOL— There is nothing new in the trade this week. 
Hardly anything has been sold. The review for the year 
1880 may be found in another column. 



Fruits and Vegetables. 

IWBOLS8AL1.1 

Wednesday m.. Jan. 5. 1881. 



FRUIT MARKET. 

Apples, box 30 @ 1 

Bananas, bnoh.. 2 00 @ 4 
Ooeoanuts. 100. . 7 00 & 8 
Cranberries, bbl.13 00 @16 

Grapes @— 

Limes, Mex (glO 

do, Oal box. . . 4 00 @ 7 
Lemons, Oal bx. 4 00 (re 4 

Sicily, box.... 8 00 (ot 9 

Australian.... — — @ — 
Oranges, Cal M..15 00 @25 

do, Tahiti... @- 

do, Mexican 10 00 @20 
do, Loreto...20 00 (rf25 

Pears, box — 50 w 1 

Pineapples, dot. 8 00 (<* 9 

Plums, bx @— 

Prunes, German. <t$— 

Quinces, bx @— 

Raspberries, ch't @— 

Strawber's.ch'st. (ft — 

Sugar Oane, bdle 2 00 @ 2 

DRIED FRI IT. 
Apples, sliced, lb 6 (Q 

do, quartered. 5}( 

Apricots 20 

Black berries.... — 

Citron 

Dates 

Figs, pressed.... 7 






4 <S 


i 6 




1248 


i 15 


do pared . . . 


18 @- 19 


Pears, sliced .... 


9 (t 


10 


do, peeled... 


9 ft 


1 11 




5 (( 


) 6 




14 (c 


h- 16 




15 (c 


i 17* 


Raisins, Oal, bx 


2 00 (< 


b 2 25 


do, Halves... 


2 25 d 


• 2 50 


do, Quarters.. 


2 50 « 


t 2 75 


Eighths 


2 75 ti 


e 3 00 


Zaute Currants.. 


8 (< 


« 10 


VEGETABLES 






- 25 ft 


i— 30 




ft? 1 00 


Beans, String. .. 


- 7fi 


e- 8 



do, Lima 

Cabbage, 100 lbs (3j— 

Oarrots, sk — 50 

Cauliflower, doz 1 25 

Garlio, tt> — 3 

Green Peas, fb . . 

Lettuce, doz 10 

Mushrooms, To.. — 7 

Parsnips, fb 

Horseradish — 

Squash, Marrow 

fat, tn 10 00 @15 00 

Turnips, etl — 60 ®— 65 

Rutabaga 1 00 9 1 25 



Retail Groceries, Etc. 

Wednesday m., Jan. 5, 1881. 

Rioe 

Yeast Pwdr. doz. .1 
Oan'd Oysters dozJ 
Syrup, 8 F Gold'n 
Dried Apples, lb . . 
Ger. Prunes.... 

Figs, Cal 

Peaches 

Oils, Kerosene 

Wines, Old Port. ..3 

French Claret 1 

Oal, doz bot 3 

Whisky. O K, gal. .3 
Frenoh Brandy... .4 



Butter, California 










25 




45 




18 




25 




25 




30 




18 








20 




25 


Flour, ex. fam, bbl8 


00 




00 


Corn Mual, lb 






3 


Sugar, wh. crshd 
Light Brown,,.. 


1 

23 




L3j 
9, 






35 


Tea. Fin* Black... 
Finest Japan, ... 


50 




00 


55 




00 


Candles, Adint'e.. 


15 




25 




7 




10 




00 @8 00 



Bags and Bagging. 

[JOBBING PRIOES.l 

Wednesday m., 



Eng Standard Wheat. 9 9J 

California Manufacture. 
Hand Sewed, 22x36. . 9 @ 9} 

22x40 - @- 

23x40 12 @12J 

24x40 13 @13J 

Machine Swd. 22x36. 9 & 9$ 

Flour Sacks, halves.... 9 fflloi 

Quarters 5J«r 6jf 

Eighths 3{@ 4 

Hessian. 60 inch - (pel 2 1 



Jan. 5, 1881 



45 inch 9 ; 

40inoh , 

Wool Sacks, 
Hand Sewed. 34 fb..— fte47 

4 lb do 52i®65 

Machine Sewed — @49 

Standard Gunnies..,.— @?.0 

Bean Bags 6J<3 71 

Twine, Detrick's A. . ..— @35 
A A..- $37 



Domestic Produce. 



BEANS «t PEAS 

Bayo, ctl 1 20 

Butter 1 50 

Castor 3 25 

Pea - 

Red 1 20 

Pink 1 00 

SmT White 1 70 .... 

Lima — <»2 75 

Field Peas. b'l key ol 25 @1 374 
do, green.. 1 10 @1 15 
BROOM CORN. 

Southern 3 O 34 

Northern 4 & 6 

CHICCORT, 

California 4 @ 44 

German 64@ 7 

DAIRY PRODUCE, ETC 

Oal. Fresh Roll. &> ' 37i 
do Fancy Brands.. 37 

Pickle Roll. 32j<3 

Firkin, new. 

Western 

New York 

CHEESE. 

Cheese, Cal, lb 

EOOS. 

Cal. fresh, doz.... 
do. poor to good.. 

Ducks 

Oregon 

Eastern, by expr'ss. 

Pickled here 

Utah. 

FEED. 

Bran, ton — 

Corn Meal 23 50 ('#24 00 

Hay 10 00 @16 00 

Middlings @19 00 

Oil Cake Meal... 25 00 @ 

Straw, bale 40 wt 45 

FLOUR. 
Extra, City Mills.. 4 75 <a>5 00 
do, Co'ntry Mills. 4 50 #4 75 

do, Oregon 4 50 (Si 75 

do, Walla Walla.4 37J@4 75 

Superfine 2 75 @4 00 

FRESH MEAT. 
Beef, 1st qual"y, lb 54® 7 

Second 4jftt 5 

Third - § 34 

Mutton 34@ 4 

Spring Lamb — (3 — 

Pork, undressed... 4K3 4{ 

Dressed 64@ 6? 

v'eal . , (ft 8a 

MilkCalves'.'.'.'.'.'.'.' 641 6| 
do choice... 7 @ 74 
GRAIN, ETC. 
Barley, feed, otl... 00 <ai 00 
do. Brewing... 1 10 (§1 25 

Chevalier 1 15 'qtl 25 

do. Coast.. 1 00 @1 10 

Buckwheat 1 40 ftel 45 

Com, White 974<a>l 00 

Yellow 97}(«1 021 

Small Round.. ..1 05 (8l 10 

Pop Corn 2 00 @2 50 

Oats 1 no @1 35 

Milling 1 40 <tt>l 50 

Rye 1 50 @1 574 

Wheat, No. 1 1 47J@1 50 

do, No 2 1 42K*1 454 

do, No. 3 1 12 @1 15 

Choice Milling.. 1 50 @1 524 
H1UES. 

Hides, dry - <S 184 

Wet salted 94(3 10J 

HONEY, ETC. 

Beeswax, lb 22J@ 25 

Honey In comb.... 12J@ 15 

do, No 2 — (5 — 

Dark 54@ 6* 

Extracted 64® 73 

HOPS. 

Oregon, 16 (3 18 

California, new... 16 @ 20 

Wash. Ter 17 @ 19 

Old Hops — @ — 

NIITS-Jobblng. 

Walnuts, Oal 9 (3 10 

do Chile 74® 9 

Almonds, hd shl lb 8 (4 10 
Softsh"! 14 « 15 



(WH0LHSAM.1 

Wednesday m., Jan. 5, 1881. 



Brazil 14 & 15 

Pecans 16 @ 17 

Peanuts 9 9 10 

Filberts 17 @ 18 

ONIONS. 

Red — @1 00 

Silver Skin 1 50 @2 00 

POTATOES. 

Petaluma, otl 50 @ 75 

Tomales 50 @ 75 

Humboldt — (gl 00 

Kidney 75 ft* 874 

Peachblow. 75 @ 90 

Jersey Blue 1 00 @1 10 

Cuffey Cove 1 00 ftel 10 

Early Rose, new. . 40 ig 60 
HTf M'nBay, Chile 60 (3 75 

River, red. 40 ftt 50 

Sweet 1 00 @1 25 

POULTRY A GAME. 

Hens, doz 6 00 (a 7 00 

Roosters 5 00 @6 50 

Broilers 5 00 @5 50 

Ducks, tame, doz.. 6 00 @7 00 

Mallard 3 00 (34 00 

Sprig 2 00 (32 25 

Teal 1 50 @1 75 

Widgeon 1 50 @1 75 

Geese, pair 2 00 @2 50 

Wild Gray, doz. 2 00 (32 60 

White do 1 00 @1 25 

Turkeys 13 @ 14 

do, Dressed 15 @ 16 

Snipe. Eng 1 75 ®2 25 

do. Common.... 50 (a 75 

Quail doz 1 00 @1 12J 

Rabbits 1 00 @1 25 

Hare 2 00 (32 50 

Venison — 3 — 

PROVISIONS. 
Oal. Bacon, extra 

clear, lb 124(3 12J 

Medium 10 @ 11 

Light 11 (3 114 

Lard 10 @ 11 

Cal. Smoked Beef 10 «t 104 

ShoulderB 7 (g 71 

Hams, Cal 10 @ 104 

Dupee's — <S 15 

Whittaxer — @ 15 

Royal 15 @ 154 

SEEDS. 

Alfalfa 14 (3 15 

do, Chile — @ - 

Canary i it & 

Clover, Red 14 @ 15 

White 50 

Cotton — 

Flaxseed 24 

Hemp 

Italian Rye Grass 30 i 
Perennial 30 i 

Millet, German ... 10 (_ 
do, Common.. 7 (3. 10 

Mustard, White... 3 (3 4 
Brown 14(3 2 

Rape 3 @ 8 

Ky Blue Grass 20 (3 26 

2d quality 16 @ 18 

Sweet V Grass. ... — m 75 

Orchard 20 @ 25 

Red Top - @ 15 

Hungarian 8 (3 10 

Lawn 30@ 40 

Mesquit 10 (3 12 

Timothy 114® 12J 

TALLOW. 

Crude, lb 61 ® 64 

Refined 74 @ 7J 

WOOL. ETC. 

SPRING. 

Oregon. Eastern . . 26 (3 30 

do fine, heavy.. 21 @ 24 

do Valley 28 (3 30 

fall — Lamb's Wool. 

Southern 14 ® 15 

Northern, burry... 15 @ 17 

do free 18 @ 20 

Fall, ordin'y, south- 
ern 11 (3 14 

Fall.free.mount'n.. 16 @ 21 
Humboldt & Men- 
docino, free, fall. 23 @ 26 
E Oregon (lamb). 23 @ 25 
Valley, do do... 28 ® 32 



Commission Merchants. 



SIMON SWEET & CO., 
Wholesale Commission Merchants, 

GRAIN, POTATOES, FRUIT, BUTTER, EGGS, POUL- 
TRY, GAME, WOOL, WOOL BAGS, HIDES, 
PELTS, BEANS, TWINE, TALLOW, etc., 
and CALIFORNIA and OREGON 
PRODUCE of ALL KINDS. 
206 Washington Street, San Francisco. 
Consignments Solicited. 



J. M. HIXSON. CHAS. JUSTI. W. D. HIXSON. 

HIXSON, JUSTI & CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

For sale of Green and Dried Fruits, Oranges, Rais- 
ins, Honey, Beans, Potatoes, Onions, Poul- 
try and Eggs, Hides, Tallow, Wool, 
Grain, Hops, etc. All kinds of busi- 
ness promptly attended to. 

403 Davis St., and 204 Washington St., S. F. 

GEO. F. COFFIN Sc. CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

NO. 13 PINE STREET, 

UNION BLOCK, SAN FRANCISCO. 

Special attention given to Consignments of Grain nd Fruit. 




B Liberal advances on consignments. "-" • " new n 
Wool Sacks, Twine, Shears, and Ranch Suopl ies furnished 



DALTON & GRAY, 

Commission Merchants 

And Wholesale Dealers in all kinds of 

Country Produce, Fruits, Etc. 

404 and 406 Davis St., 

Bet. Washington and Jackson, SAN FRANCISCO. 

CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED. 



PAGE, MOORE & CO., 
WOOL and GRAIN 

Commission Merchants. 
NOS. 211 AND 213 CLAY STREET. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



DAVIS & SUTTON, 

No. 75 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce 

Rspsrskoi. —Tradesmen's National Bans, N. T.; Ell 
wanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y. ; C. W. Reed; Sacra 
m cn to, Cal. ; A Lusk & Co. San Francisco, Cal. 



(Established in 1S63.) 

BRYANT & COOK. 
Commission Merchants, 

— AND — 

DEALERS IN GRAIN, FLOUR, ETC. 

8 Davis St., near Market. 8. F. 



EUGENE AVY, 
SHEEP and WOOL Commission Merchant, 

320 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 

Advances made on Consignments. 



rhefEAflLESS. 




I Is tho only machine that received an award i 
I on both Horse-power and Thresher and I 
Cleaner, at the Centennial Exhibition; was 
awarded the two laet Cold IWedals given 
by the New York State Agricultural Society 
on Horse-powers and Threshers ; and is the 
only Thresher selected from the vast num- 
ber built in the United States, for Illustration 
and description in '* Appleton's Cyclopedia I 
of Applied Mechanics," recently published, I 
thus adopting It as the standard machine of 
this country. Calalog-ue Bent free. Address, I 
I 3ii is a up harder, CobleBkill,Scho.Co.,N.Y. I 



SWINE! SWINE!! 

Having engaged in Fruit Growing, am determined to 
close out my entire stock of Thoroughbred Poland China 
Swine (all of good Pedigree) by the First of February 
next. Prices, Crated and delivered at. the Railroad De- 
pot, with Food for journey. Brood Sows, in Pig, $20; 
Boars, 10 to 12 months old, $12; Shoats, 5 to 6 months 
old, $7 each, $12 a pair and $15 per trio. 

Also, Black Cochin Chickens and Eggs for sale. 

Jerusalem Artichokes for sale in large or small lots. 
Address 

T. C. STARR, 
San Bernardino, Cal. 



AMERICAN 

MACHINE AND MODEL WORKS. 

Experimental and Fine Special Machinery, Planing, 
Gear Cutting, Patterns, Models for Inventors, etc. 
Printing Press and General Machine Repairing. 
Punches, Dies, Taps, Reamers, etc., made and repaired 

I. A. HEALD, Proprietor. 

514 Commercial Street, above Sansome, San Francisco. 



TRADE 




MARK. 



LITTLE'S CHEMICAL FLUID. 

The New Non-Poisonous Sheep Dip and Disinfectant. 
Price reduced to $1.60 per gallon. For directions and tes- 
timonials apply to FALKNER, BELL Sc CO., 
Sole Agents, 430 California Street, S. F, 



Mission Rock Dock and Grain Warehouse. 

San Francisco, Cal. 
40,000 tons capacity. Storage at lowest rates. 
CHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Supt 
CALIFORNIA DRY DOCK CO. - - Proprietors. 
Office— 318 California Street, Room S. 

IMPROVED MACHINES 

FOR LAYING 

Asbestine Sub-Irrigation Pipe 

For sale at Davisville, Yolo County, Cal. 
Apply to L. A. GOULD. 



Ttais paper Is printed with Ink furnished by 
Cbas. Eneu Johnson & Co., 609 South 10th 
St., Philadelphia Si 69 Gold St., N. Y. Agent 
for Pacific Coast— Joseph H. Dorety, 527 
Commercial St.. S. F. 




A NEW TREATMENT 

For Consumption, Asthma, Bronchitis, Dys- 
pepsia, Catarrh, Headache, Debility, Rheum- 
atism, Neuralgia and all Chronic and Nervous Dis- 
orders. It is taken 

BY INHALATION, 

And acts directly upon the great nervous and organic cen 

ters, and cures by a natural process of revitali- 
zation. 

SENT FREE: 

A Treatise on Compound Oxygen, giving the history of 
this new discovery, and a large record of most remarkable 
cures. Write for it. Address the proprietors, DRS. STAR- 
KEYS PALEN, 1109 and 1111 Girard street, Philadelphia, 
Pa., or H. E. MATHEWS, 60S Montgomery street, San 
Francisco, Cal., from whom can be procured both informa- 
tion and supplies. 

People May Hear With 

AUDIPHONES 

OR WITH 

EARPHONES. 



DEAF 



Trial before purchase. Don't waste your money oth- 
erwise. Send for free pamphlets. (Address H. E. 
Mathews, as above.) 



Santa Cruz Homes. 

365 Acres of Timber, Grass, Grain 
and Fruit Land, 2 Miles from 
Santa Cruz, at $30 per acre. 

Well watered and pleasantly situated to make three 
good homes or one good 

DAIRY FARM. 

It is all fenced, and good buildings on it. I offer at a 
bargain, to go into other business. G. H. SMITH. 

M. P. OWEN. Soquel, Cal. 



GRAPE CUTTINGS 

Send orders for all varieties required for planting to the 
undersigned. Prices, with advice as to selection of va- 
rieties, will ne given on demand. Orders for Charbono, 
Mataro, Sauvigntm Verte. Folle Blanche, Golden * has- 
selas, and other" most valuable wine Grape*, should be 
sent promptly, so that engagements may be in time from 
healthy vineyards. A fine a-eortment of raisin and table 
varieties to be had; als", a few thousand seedlings of the 

VITIS CALIFORNICA, 

Suitab'e for grafting. Wild Grape Seeds, $1 per pound. 
Missouri and Texas phylloxera-proof stocks procured to 
order. CHAS A WETMORE. 

Ill Liedesdorff Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



Phylloxera- Proof Grapevines 

A SPECIALTY AT 

Magnolia Farm Nurseries, Napa Valley. 

Send for Catalogue of Fruit and Ornamental Trees. 
All free from disease and grown without irrigation. 
Address 

LEONARD COATES. 
Yountville, Napa County, Cal. 



JOS. HANSEL, 
Carriage and Wagon Manufacturer. 

All kinds of Spring Wagons. Buggies, etc., constantly on 
hand and for Sale at the Lowest Rates, and guaranteed to 
give satisfaction. Blacksmithing and General Jobbing done 
with neatness and dispatch. Also, on hand of my own make, 
the Latest improved Harrows and my Patent Buck Board 
and Breaking Carts. Carriage Painting and Trimming 
NeatlvDone HUNTER STREET, STOCKTON. CaL 
Adjoining the Baptist Church. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half year ending this date, the Board of Directors 
of The German Savings and Loan Society nas declared a 
dividend on Term Deposits at the rate of five and two-fifths 
(5 2-5) per cent, per annum, and on Ordinary Deposits at the 
rate of four and one half (4}) per cent, per annum, free from 
Federal Taxes, and payable on and after the fifteenth (15th) 
day of January, 1881. By order, GEORGE LETTE, Sec'y. 

San Francisco, December 31. 1880. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
San Francisco Savings Union, 

532 California Street, corner Webb. 
For the half year ending with thirty-first (31st) December, 
1860, a Dividend has been declared at the rate of rive and 
two-fifths of one (1) per cent. (5 2-5) per annum on term 
deposits, and four and one-half (4J) per cent, per annum on 
ordinary deposits, free of Federal tax. piyable on and after 
Monday, seventeenth (17th) January, 1881. 

LOVELL WHITE, Cashier. 

RUSBY & MERY'S 
IMPROVED FEED MILL, 

Using the Benoit Corrugated Rollers. 

More durable, crushes more grain. No danger of grain 
heating. It is used by the leading grain raisers in pref- 
erence to feed ground with burs. Sole Agents and Man- 
ufacturers for the Pacific Coast, Chico, Cal. 



Lowest prices ever known 
on Rreeeh - Loaders, 
Klflc-n, and Revolvers, 

OUR $15 SHOT-GUN 

at greatly reduced price. 
Bend stamp for our New 
Illustrated Catalogue (B) 
P. POWELL & SON, 83» Mam Street, CINCINNATI, O. 




30 



I 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 8, 1E81. 





INSURANCE T COMPANY. 
ASSETS OVER ONE MILLION DOLLARS. 



The FI REMANS FUND INSURANCE COMPANY bases its claims to the best patronage upon its sound finan 
cial condition, reinforced by its accession of capital, giving it over a million dollars in assets; its extensive system of 
Agencies, insuring it a large premium income, without the nc-ess-ity of heavy concentration of lines; its adherence to 
he best principles and practices of Underwriting; by open, fair, and clearly expressed contracts, and prompt and 
equitable adjustment and payment of legitimate losses. 

D. J. STAPLES, President GEO. D DORNIN, Secretary. 

ALPHEUS BULL, Vice-President. W. J. DTJTTON, Asst. Secretary. 

AGENTS IN ALL PRINCIPAL LOCALITIES. 



Nathaniel Curry & Bro., 

113 Sansome Street. San Francisco, 




FOR CALIFORNIA, OREGON, ARIZONA, NEVADA, WASHINGTON TERRITORY AND IDAHO. 

Also Agents for W. W. GREENER'S Celebrated Wedgefast, Chokebore, Breech-loading DOUBLE GUNS; and 
all kinds of GUNS, RIFLES and PISTOLS made by the Leading Manufacturers of England and America. 
AMMUNITION of all kinds in i|uantities to suit. 



LAUTZ BRO'S & CO.'S SOAPS. 

Stearine, Marseilles, Cotton Oil and Acme'. 



THESE GOODS ARE THE BEST IN THE MARKET. ASK YOUR GROCER 
FOR THEM AND TAKE NO OTHERS. 

D. L. BECK & SONS, Agents Pacific Coast, No. 309 Sacramento Street, S. F 



THE DINGEE & CONARD GO'S 

BE.llTIKI I, KVKIt-lll,ll()H|\(i 




Strong Pot Hoses, suitable -for winter bloom, 

sent safely by mail, postpaid. 5 splrmlkd varieties, 
your cAomCbU labeled, fur $ 1 ; DJ for &4; 19 for S3 j -ZG 
for $4i 3.» for $3. For In cents each additional, one 
HagidH('tiitPrcmiiiinK>i«r to even- dollar's worth 
ordered. Send for our NEW (.111)1-; TO ROSE 
CULT IKE, and choose from over 300 finest sorts. 
We make Roses a Great Specialty, tend art Hit larqtst 
Rosr-grmnen in A nurica. Rclerto KKi.lKiOcustoniers in the 
United States ami Canada. THE DINGEE & CONARD 
•0.. Rose-Growers. West Grove. Chester Co., Fa. 



COMBINED 

Pantry Dresser & Side-Board. 

The most unique and useful article for the housekeeper. 
The Flour Bins can be cleaned from the bottom. Call 
and examine or send for circular and price. 

L. O. HUDSON, Stockton, Cal. 



Notice! 



VETERINARY HOMEOPATHY ! 

Every Farmer and Stock Raiser should have a Veterin- 
ary Homosopatie Manual mid Medicine Chest, 
bend for Veterinary Index (mailed free on application). 

BOERICKE & TAFEL, 

Homoeopathic Pharmacy, 234 Sutter St., S. F 

AUZERAIS HOUSE, 

Santa Clara Street, San Jose, Cal 

CHAS. E. PEARSON, Proprietor. 

Strictly First-Class and Moderate Charges. 

OTAuzerais House Coach and Carriages in attendance 
on arrival of Trains. 



Zimmerman 
Fruit and Vegetable 
DRIER AND BAKER. 

, , . , . lars and read 

description and testimonials! LINFORTH, RICE 
& CO., General Agents for Pacifij Coast, 323 & RStfi 
Market St., S. F. 



Best and on- 
ly Galvaniz- 
ed Iron Por- 
table Fire 
Proof Ma- 
chineforthe 
purpose It 
has no supe- 
rior. Send 
for Circu- 



50 



New Style Carda Lithographed in bright colors 10c 
89 Ag'ts. Sanioles 10c Conn. Card Co, Northford, Ct 



Horse Medicine, 

D. D. T. 1868. 



THE GREAT POPULARITY OF OCR H. H. H. HORSE 
MEDICINE, D. D. T. 1&6S AS A 

FAMILY LINIMENT 

HAS INDUCED US TO PUT UP A SMALL SIZE. 
THREE SIZES CAN NOW BE HAD AT EVERY 
DRUG STORE AND NEARLY EVERY GRO- 
CERY STORE on tub PACIFIC COAST. 



Price of Large Size, $2.50. 

Medium Size, $1.00. 

Small Size, 50 Cents 

Ask your Druggist for it and if he has not the size you 
want, request him to send lor it, either to the wholesale 
Druggists of San Francisco; Portland, Oregon; or Sac- 
ramento. 

A"-? - We recommend the largest sizes for use on horses 
as it contains more Liniment for the money. 

We Guarantee the Liniment to Have Ex- 
actly the Same Strength In 
all Three Sizes. 



Stockton, February 4, 18*0, II. H. Moore tk Son, having 
this day pucahased the r gbt. title and interest of Wil- 
liam & Moore, in the II. U. H. Horso Medicine, will con- 
tinue its manufacture as sole proprietors. 

H.H. MOORE & SONS, Druggists, 



Sole Proprietors, - - 



Stockton, Cal. 



To Fis h R aisers. 

I am now ready to sell Carp which were imported from 
Germany in 1873, in loU to suit. Address 

J. A. POPPE, Sonoma, Cal. 



1850. THE H. C. SHAW 1880. 

Plow Works. 




GANG PLOWS AND EXTRAS. 

No. 201 and 203 El Dorado Street, Stockton. 

THE STOCKTOPT GANG PLOW, 

Over 2,000 of H. C. Shaw's Improved Patent Stockton Gang Plows Sold In Five Years. 

CahiHin and Gem Seed Sowers, Harrows, Etc. Buckeye Mower Extras, and Extras for all Plows and Machines 
I hare sold for the past TWENTY YEARS in this valley. 4»"Send for Circular and price list. Always on hand 
a full stock of Single Plows. , 



C D. Ladd, 

821 Kearny Street, San Francisco Cal., 
C. D. LADD & CO., Branch House, 49 First Street, Portland, Or. 




Sole Agents for the Pacific Coast 

FOR THE 

BALLARD RIFLE. 

Pull line of Winchester, Burgess and Kennedy Magazine Rifles. Sharps and Remington. 
Complete Assortment of Breech and Muzzle Loading Sbot Guns of all Makers. 
Pistols of all Descriptions. Ammunition of all Kinds, Wholesale and Retail. 

SEND FOR 1880 PRICE LIST 



E. DBTRICK. 



J. H. NICHOLSON 



E. DETRXCXZ <& CO., 

SOLE PROPRIETORS AND MANUFACTURERS OF TIIE CELEBRATED 

DETRIGK "E W" J2x36 GRAIN BAG. 

CALCUTTA, DUNDEE and PACIFIC JUTE HAND-SEWED BAGS always on hand. 
OUR No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 SECOND-HAND GRAIN BAGS selected and graded with care. 

f Il ^m TTTaTT!*0 3, 4 and 5-ply for Grain Batrs, 6 and 8-plv for Potato Gunnies, 3-ply rxtra run for Flour 
X W XSS JCa&a Bags, made expressly for our trade and QUALITY GUARANTEED. 

FLOUR BAGS printed to order without extra cihrgs. POTATO GUNNIES, Wool, Bean, Ore and 

Salt and Seamless Cotton Bafrs. 

Sole agents west of the Rocky Mountains for Russell Manufacturing Company's 

Patent Solid Cotton Belting, 

tS~ CUEAPER THAN LEATHER OR RUBBER, AND BETTER TIIAN EITHER "» 

119, 121 and 124 Clay St., and 118 and 120 Commercial St , San Francisco. 



THE NEW MODEL 

PARKER SHOT GUN. 




Shooting Qualities 

LTNSURP AlSSED! 

Send stump for 50-page Catalogue. 

Champion Single Barrel Breech Loading Shot Gun, $15 to $18. 

Single and Double Guns, Rifles, Revolvers, Equipments, Ammunition, etc. Circulars and price list on application 

E. T. ALLEN, Agent for the Pacific Coast, 

NO. 416 MARKET STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL 



POBYN'S Ml CUBE 

For CATARRH, COLD IN THE 
HEAD, NEURALGIA. TOOTH- 

Iache and all kindred com- 
' plaints. M 

H. LOOMIS, 
320 Sansome St., 6. F. 
ONE DOLLAR PER BOX 




Wilz Patent Pruning Shears. 

Simple, Cheap, Durable and Efficient. 

One man can do more work than two with any other 
kind. Ladders and steps dispensed with. The smallest 
twig up to branches two inches in diameter cut with ease. 
State, County or individual rights for sale. Agents 
wanted. Address 

JOHN WILZ, 
Santa Cruz, Cal. 



January 8, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC BUB A L PBESS. 



31 



Seeds, Plants, Etc. 




My Annual Catalogue of Vegetable and 
Flower Seed for 1881, rich in engravings from pho- 
tographs of the originals, will be sent FREE to all who 
apply. My old customers need not write for it. I offer 
one of the largest collections of vegetable seed ever sent 
out by any seed House in America, a large portion of 
which were grown on luy six seed farms. Full direc- 
tions for cultivation on each package. All seed warran- 
ted to be both fresh and true to name; so far, that should 
it prove otherwise, JT will refill the order gratis The 
original introducer of the Hubbard Squash, Phinney's 
Melon, Marblehead Cabbages, Mexican Corn, and scores 
of other vegetables, I invite the patronage of all who are 
anxious to have their seed directly from the grower, 
fresh, true, and of the very best strain. 
NEW VEGETABLES A SPECIALTY. 

JAMES J. H. GREGORY, Marblehead, Mass. 

R.J. TRUMBULL & CO., 

Growers, Importers, Wholesale and 
Retail Dealers In 




FLOWERING PLANTS, BULBS, FRUIT AND OR- 
NAMENTAL TREES, ETC. FANCY WIRE DE- 
SIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYRIN- 
GES, GARDEN HARDWARE, ETC. 

FREE TO APPLICANTS — Our Descriptive Illus 
tratbd Catalogue of Sbkdb, Trees, Plants, Etc. 

R. J. TRUMBULL & CO., 

419 and 421 Sansome Street, S. P. 

STRAWBERRY PLANTS. 

Choicest Varieties for Home Use & Market 

SHARPLESS, CAPTAIN JACK, FOREST ROSE, CUM- 
BERLAND TRIUMPH, GLENDALE, SETH BOY- 
DEN, " MINER'S GREAT PROLIFIC," PRESI- 
DENT LINCOLN, PRESIDENT WILDER, 
HUDDLESTON'S FAVORITE, MARVIN, 
LONGFELLOW, WARREN, AND 
Many Others NEW and OLD. 

"CUTHBERT RASPBERRY " 

And 16 other Varieties, New and Old. 

Plants Large, Stocky, Healthy and carefully selected. 
A few thousand vines of Table Grapes, well rooted, one 
and two year old, $'20 to 830 per 1,000. 

Send for circular giving honest descriptions and accu- 
rate illustrations. Address 

C. XVI. SXXiVA & SOTS, 

Newcastle, Placer County, Cal. 



1,000,000 

Strawberry, Raspberry and Cranberry 

PLANTS FOR SALE. 



100 



Per Dozen 

Strawberry Plants— Vies. Wilder 

N J. Scarlet, Sterling, Great American. 

Pres. Lincoln. Triomphe de gaud 

Wilson Albany, Charles Downing 

Essex Beauty Earlv, Centennial 

Monarch of the West, Cinderella 

Raspberry Plants— Cutnbtrt Early 

Pride of the Hudson, Brandy wine 

Heratiue, Clark, Philadelphia Red 

Henrietta, Hornet. Early Proline .... 

Blackberry Plants— Deering Sei dling — 

Mammoth Cluster, Vina Seedling 

Kittatiuny, Dorchester, Early Cluster.., 
Grape Vines— Bl'k Hamburg, Bl'k Prince 

Cranberry Vines I do not sell less than 10,000 vines in one 
order, at §10 per 1,000. If sent by mail add 20 cts. per dozen, 
and 50 cts. per hundred. Postolhce address, 
H. NYLAND, Bouldin Island, San Joaquin Co 



1 0.50 


( 1.50 


0.B0 


1.75 


0.50 


1.50 


0.50 


1.50 


0.60 


1.75 


1.00 


2.00 


1.60 


5.00 


1.50 


4.00 


1.25 


4.00 


1.25 


4.00 


1.25 


4.00 


1.00 


3. CO 


1.00 


3.00 


2.00 


8.00 



1,000 
* 5.00 
6.00 
5.00 
5.00 
6.00 
10.00 
35.00 
30.00 
25. 00 
2:i.O0 
25.00 
20.00 
20.00 
50.00 



JAMES HANNAY'S NURSERY. 

Bast San Jose, Cal. 



I offer for sale, at low prices, a well assorted, healthy, 
and well grown stock of one and two year old Nursery 
Stock. Prompt attention given to all orders. 

Add res 9 

JAMES HANNAY, San Jose. 



[ RJIT IRElS FOR SALE. 

Apple, Peach, Pear, Apricot, Plum, Prune, English 
Walrut, Orange, and many other kinds of Fruit Trees, 
Vines, Etc., for sale at the lowest cash prices. Send 
for price list. 

MILTON THOMAS. 
Box 304 Los Angeles, Cal. 



Grape Cuttings for Sale. 

Charboneau, B. Malvoise, Muscat of Alexandria, Rose 
of Peru. $5.00 per thousand, delivered at the Santa Clara 
Railroad depot. 
N. B.— Vines 8 years old and healthy. Address 
J. C. MERITHEW, 

Santa Clara, Sal 



GEO. F. SILVESTER, 

IMPORTER, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN 



Q 

to 
to 



2 Fruit and Evergreen Trees, Plants, Etc. 

to 
Q 

< 

Hedge Shears, Pruning and Budding Knives. Green House Syringes, Etc. 
Seed Warehouse, 317 Washington St., San Francisco. 



ALFALFA, GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS 

In Large Quantities and Offered in Lots to Suit Purchasers. 



r 
o 

m 

w 
m 
o 

w 



SEEDS. 



ALBERT DICKINSON, 
Dealer in Timothy, Clover, Flax, Hungarian, Millet, Red Top, 
Blue Grass, Lawn Grass, Orchard Grass, Bird Seeds, Etc. 
POP CORN. 



115. 117 and 119 Klnzle Street. 



CHICAGO, ILLINO S. 



SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 

Importers, growers of, wholesale and retail dealers in 




Field, Grass, Flower and Tree Seeds. 

CLOVER, ALFALFA, 

BULBS, FRUIT, ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC. 

We call the attention of farmers and country merchants 
to our unusually low prices. iKjTTrade price 
list on application. 

We issue the most complete guide to the Vegetable and 
Flower Garden ever issued upon this coast. It is hand- 
somely illustrated, and contains full descriptions of Vege- 
tables, Flowers, Grasses, Trees, etc., with full instruc- 
tions as to their culture; mailed free on application. 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 

607 Sansome Street, S. F. 



J. P. SWEENEY & CO., 
SEEDSMEN, 

Nos. 409 and 411 Davis Street, between 
Washington and Jackson, S. F. 



Having on hand the largest stock of Seeds of any house 
on the Pacific Coast, consisting in part, the following va- 
rieties, which we will offer in quantities to suit purchasers 
at reduced rates: 
20,000 Pounds Alfalfa Clover Seed. 
4,000 Pounds Red Clover Seed. 
5,000 Pounds Australian Rye Grass Seed. 
4,000 Pounds Extra Clean Kentucky Blue Grass Seed. 
4,000 Pounds Red Top Seed. 
10,000 Pounds Timothy Grass Seed. 
£.,000 Pounds Mesquit Grass Seed. 
10,000 Pounds Canary Seed. 
10,000 Pounds Rape and Hemp Seed. 
4,000 Pounds Mangel Wurtzel Beet Seed. 
1,000 Pounds Assorted Table Beet Seeds. 
1,000 Pounds Assorted Onion Seeds. 
1,000 Pounds Assorted Turnip Seeds. 

AND A FULL SUPPLY OF " • 

GARDEN, VEGETABLE & FLOWER SEEDS. 

Also, a large assortment of California Conifer and 
Forest Tree Seeds. Fruit Trees in any quantity at Nurs- 
ery prices. 

J. P. SWEENEY & CO. 



GARDEN SEEDS. 



Thos. Meherin, 

Importer, Wholesale and Retail 
Dealer in 

Seeds, Trees & PLauts. 

Alfalfa, Red and White Clover, Australian 
Rye Grass, Timothy and Orchard Grass, Ken- 
tucky Blue Grass, Hungarian Millet Grass, 
Red Top, Etc. 

Also, a Large and Choice Collection of FRUIT 
and ORNAMENTAL TREES, Bulbs, Roses, 
Magnolias, Palms, Etc., at reduced prices. 

Budding and Pruning Knives, Green House 
Syringes, Hedge and Pole Shears. 

THOS. MEHERIN, 516 Battery St. 

San Francisco, Cal. 
SS" Send for Price List. 



Agt. for B. S. Fox's Nursery. 




ft BARCLAY. ST. NEW YORK:) 



New! - The Very Best! True to Name! 
FELIX GILLET'S NURSERY. 

Nevada City, California. 
SPECIALTIES: 

Nuts of all Kinds and Strawberries. 
PRCPARTURIENS WALNUT, 

(Introduced in California in 1871, by Felix Gillet). 




The most precocious of all soft.-shell varieties of Walnut, 
bearing even when three years old; hardy, a late bloomer, 
very productive. First bearing trees in California, at Felix 
Gjllet's nursery, sixth crop 1880. Trees of that new and valu- 
able variety, raised iu Felix Gillet's nurseries, Nevada City, 
sent to any part of California and the United States by mail, 
free of charge, in packages of two feet; well packed in damp 
moss and oiled paper, and guaranteed to arrive in as "fresh" 
a condition as when leaving the nursery, at the following 
prices: $1 per tree for less than half a dozen; $10 per dozen. 
Larger trees stnt by express or freight. See the catalogue 
and price list. 

Improved Kinds of Chestnuts. 

"MaiTon de Lyon" and "Marron (Ibmbale" (introduced in 
California in 1871 by Felix Gillet). Grafted trees, from 6 to 
ID feet, £12 per dozen. 

Medlar fXonstrueuaeJ ; Black Mulberry {Noir of Spain J', 
Italian and Spanish Filberts; French Everbearing Raspberry; 
Wilson's Early Blackberry; 27 varieties of English Gooseber- 
ries; 42 varieties of grapes; 100 varieties of Pears, Plums, 
Peaches, Cherries, Apples, Walnuts and Chestnuts; the finest 
varieties of French, English and Dutch Strawberries. 

jtSTSEND FOll DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE AND PRICE LIST. 

FELIX GILLET, 

Nevada City, Cal. 



ROCK'S NURSERIES. 

TREES! TREES! 

The attention is called to my large and superior stock of 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees, 

SHRUBS, ROSES, 

Grapevines and Small Fruits, 

Of the most desirable varieties for goneral cultivation. 
Also many new and rare varieties of 

Japanese Plants, 

Semi-Tropical Plants, 

Greenhouse Plants, 

Bedding Plants. 

NEW VARIBT1K8 OF 

ORANGES AND LEMONS- 

Italian Olives, Etc. 
Descriptive Catalogue will be mailed to all applicants 

JOHN ROCK, San Jose, Cal. 



Adams' Patent Pillow Sham Holder 

Prices reduced Can be adjusted to any ordinary Bized bed. 
The bent in the market. Try one. Sunt post paid by mail. 
Send for Illustrated Oircu'.r. ii. W. n lullM.lt. MM 
•IV mil St, Oakland, t'ul., Geu. Ag't for Pacific Coast. 



SANTA CLARA VAL Y 

NURSERIES, 

San Jose, Cal. 

I offer for sale the coming season a large and well se- 
lected general assortment of NURSERY STOCK, con- 
sisting of 

Fruit Trees, Small Fruits, Ornamental 
Trees and Shrubs. 

EVERGREENS, GREENHOUSE PLANTS, 

ROSES, DAHLIAS, PELARGONIUMS, Etc. 

■ — ALSO — 

Pear, Apple and Mahaleb Cherry Seedlings. 

I desire to call particular attention to 
my LARGE STOCK of 

CHERRY and PEAR TREES, 

At reduced rates in Large Quantities. 

I have also on hand a Fine lot of Grafted ORANGES, 
which, being transplanted constantly, aresure to grow. 
Catalogues free on application. 

B. S. FOX, Proprietor, 

SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA. 

THOS. MEHERIN, Agent, 516 Battery St. 
San Francisco. 



HANNAY'S NURSERY. 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 

I OFFER FOR SALE THIS SEASON, A LARGE AND 
WELL ASSORTED STOCK OF 

FRUIT, SHADE & ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

MY TREES ARE WELL GROWN, AND 
HEALTHY, AND OF THE 

Best Known Varieties. 

JOHN HANNAY, 

(Successor to Hannay Bros.), San Jose, Cal' 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES, 

Established in 1858. 
For sale, all kinds of Fruit Trees, Vines and Fruiting 
Shrubs raised wi 1 hout irrigation. Also, a general assort- 
ment of Evergreen Trees and Shrubs, deciduous Flower- 
ing Shrubs; Roses, in assortment. Conservatory and 
Bedding Plants in great variety. Send for Catalogue and 
List of Prices. Address 

W. H. PEPPER, 
Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 



LOS GATOS NURSERIES. 

I offer the trade this season a LARGE and GENERAL 
ASSORTMENT Of 

FRUIT TREES AND SMALL FRUITS. 

My trees are healthy, stalky and well grown. Prices 
low down. Address S. NEWHALL, 

San Jose, Cal. 

GRAPE CUTTINGS. 



B. Burgundy, Zinfindel, Charboneau, Mataro, B.Ham 
burg 1 , B. Malvasia, Johannisberg, Riessling; Berber, 
Golden Chasselas, Seedless Sultana, Frankiu Riessling'. 
Price, $5 per M. Inquire of 

H. W- CRABB, 
Oakville, Napa Co., Cal 



MUSICAL CHRISTMAS 

GIFTS! 

Most acceptable gifts to players or singers will be th« 
following elegantly bound books. 

it®" Any one mailed, post free, for the price here men- 
tioned. 

ROBERT FRAKZ'j SONG ALBUM. 

GEMS OF ENGLISH SONG. 
HOME CIRCLE. Three Volumes. 

WORLD OP SONG. 
PIANO AT HOME. 4-hand collection. 

OPERATIC PEARLS. 
SHOWER OF PEARLS. Vocal Duets. 

GEMS OF STRAUSS. 
CREME DE LA CREME. 2 Volumes. 

GEMS OF THE DANCE. 
CLUSTER OF GEMS. 

SUNSHINE OF SONG. 
Each of the above in Cloth, 82.50; Fine Gilt, $8.00. 

STUDENT'S LIFE IN SONG, $1.50. 
CURIOSITIES OF MUSIC, $1.50. 
BEETHOVEN. A Romance by Kau, $1.50. 
RHYMES AND TUNES. Christmas Offering. $1.59. 
SULLIVAN'S VOCAL ALBUM, $1.60. 
FAIRY FINGERS. For Piano. $1.50. 

OLIVER DITS0N & CO., BOSTON. 

C. H. Ditson & Co.. 843 Broadway, N. Y. 



CUTTINGS ! 



White Muscat of Alexandria, 

$2. 50 PER THOUSAND. 
Cuttings rooted for next year if desired and ordered 
now. Refers to Onesti & Connor as to quality, etc., of 
vineyard. Address CHAS. E. SHILLABER, 
Cordelia, Solano Co., Ca 



32 



THE PACIFIC BURiL PRESS. 



[January 8, i£8i. 



Baling 
Fencing 
Telegraph 
Telephone 
Galvanized : 

Barbed Fence Wire. 



WIRE 



All kinds of Wire — iron, steel, 
Bessemer, spring, copper, brass 
and galvanized — on hand 
or Made to Order. 

A. S. HALLIDIE 

Wire Mills. 
Office, No. 6 California St. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

WIRE ROPE and CORDAGE 

every kind on hand or Made to Order. 




Of 



THE 

GIANT fi SAW 
mw MACHINE. 




■XMxies Wonderful Improved 

SAW MACHINE 

Is warranted to 8awa2 fool log I u tin « <■ min- 
utes, and more cord wood or logs of any size in a 
day tnan two men can chop or saw the old way. 
Every Fanner mid I u m In- mi an npptU one. 
ACENTS WANTED < licit1iir»nd l< mi* Free 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR TO 
LINFORTH, RICE St CO. 

General Agents for the Pacific Coast, 
323 and 335 Market Street, San Francisco- 



H. S. SARGENT, 

Importer, Breeder and Shipper of 

Th.orough.bred Stock. 

Poland China or Magic Pigs 
from Imported Stock. 

Thoroughbred Jersey Bull. 
Also two Jersey Bull Calves, 

Strictly thoroughbred, for sale cheap. 

Bronze TnrkeyS for sale, bred from 
Imported stock. 

Address H. S. SARGENT, Stockton, Cal 
(Care Grangers' Union. 




EAGLE HAY PRESS, Old Style, - $200. 
EAGLE HAY PRESS, Improved, - $250. 
PRICES' PETALUMA HAY PRESS, $450 

All kinds of PRESSES MADE TO ORDER, to put 
TEN TONS in Box Car. Address 

PRICE PRESS CO., San Leandro. 
Or I. J. TRUMAN, San Francisco. 
Office with Baker & Hamilton, 17 Front Street, S. F. 



HOTEL De REDWOOD. 
100 ACRES OF LAND, 

At the summit of the Santa Cruz Mountains, near the 
Southern Pacific Railroad, comprising the famous HO. 
TEL De REDWOOD, one of the most popular resorts in 
the country, everything in order for boarders and 

FOR SALE CHEAP. 

One half the land Is first quality GRAPE AND OR. 
CHARD LAND, and the rest TIMBER AND PASTURE. 
Inquire of 

M. P. OWEN, 

Soquel, Cal. 



JOHN JENNINGS. 
Hooper's South End Grain Warehouses, 

Cor. Japan and Townsend Sts., 8. F. 
First-lass Fire-proof Brick Building. Capacity. 10,000 
tons. Goods taken from the Dock and the Cars of the C. P. 
R. R. and S. P. R. R. free of charge. Storage at Current 
Bates. Advances and Insurance effected. 



50 



All Lithographed Chromo Cards, no 2 alike, 10 cts 
Agts. big outfit, 10c Globe Card Co., Northford, Cf 



! ! 



NICOLL 

ES TAILO 

Branch of New York. 

INSPECT OUR IMMENSE STOCK. 
Do Not Tail to See 

THE ELECTRIC LIGHT ! ! 

Call and see the ELECTRIC LIGHT at NICOLL'S, by which Colors and 
Quality may be Seen as Clearly at NIGHT as at NOONDAY. 

TO ORDER: 
Black Doeskin Pants 

From $7.00 

White Vests 

From S3. 00. 

Fancy Vests 

From $6.00. 



TO ORDER; 
Pants 

From $5 00. 

Suits 

From $20.00, 

Overcoats 

From SI 8. 00. 

Ulsters 

From SIS. 00. 

Dress Coats 

From $20.00. 

GENUINE 6x BEAVER SUITS from $65. English Cords for Hunting Suits. 

Samples, with instructions for self-measurement, sent free. 

Only White Labor Employed, and none but Experienced and First-Class Cutters. 

A SMALL STOCK OF UNCALLED FOR PANTS, VESTS, COATS, OVEECOATS, ULSTERS, 

AT AN IMMENSE REDUCTION. 

Nicoll the Tailor's Grand Tailoring Emporium 

727 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 




MONEY IN CHICKENS AND ECCS. 

A pood fiock ol Poultry, prop rly managed, and scientifically fed, (riven the same advantages as other stock, 
will prove the heet payinjj investment on the farm; but they must be reared and cared for by the most improved 
methods to insure the largest returns. Artificial means for hatching, raising and feeding poultry, are as arrest im- 
provements over nature'b usual course as are The various means in use for sowing grain, improvements over the 
self-sowing process of nature. If then, you gi\e your grain crop the advantage of improvements, do the same by 
\ <<ur poultry, and the returns will be proportionately larger. 




The Eclipse Self-Regrulatingr Incubators 

Are now in actual use in most parts of this Utate, and giving 
general satisfaction. Tbey are a success, and being such are 
invaluable to all who attempt to raise chickens; are easy to 
manage, and cost merely a trifle to keep in operation, and 
will do much better work than can be done with hens, with 
a small portion of the Ubor and risk. 

The "Ecltphe" is the only entirely self-regulating incuba- 
tor known; is the only one that will bear investigating, so it 
is the only safe one to purchase. Bend stamp for Circular 
giving California Testimonials (not Eastern). 




THE IMPERIAL EGG FOOD 

Will make your Hens Lay, keep them in the 
best possible condition and ward off disease. When fed 
according to directions, sick and drooping fowls are never 
seen. It furnishes the needed material for forming bone, 
muscle and featherB, and is Invaluable for Young 
Chicks and Moulting: Fowls. It comes packed in 
various sized packages, and being a powder is easily 
mixed with the customary feed. Give it a trial. 
Agents wanted. 

Price, single pound, 60 cents; 2) pounds, $1.00; 6 
pounds, 82.00; 25 pound keg, $6 25. Address: 



G. G. WICKSON, General Agent for Pacific Coast, 319 Market Street, S. F. 



Mining and Scientific Press 
Patent Agencv. 

Tni MiMs-.i am Scientific Prrss Patent Aoinct was 

established in 1860— the first west of the Rocky Moun 
tains. It has kept step with the rapid march of meehan- 
cal improvements. The records i» its archives, its con- 
stantly increasing library, the accumulation of informa- 
tion of special importance to our home inventors, and the 
experience of its proprietors in an extensive and long 
continued personal practice in patent business, affords 
them combined advantages greater than any other agents 
can possibly offer to Pacific Coast inventors. Circulars of 
advice free. Address, DEWEY & CO., 

Office Mikino and Scientific Press and Pacific Ru- 
ral Press, 202 Sansomr 8tre«t. S. F.— 1880. 




Wholesale and Retail. 

Handsomely Illustrated Catalogue with description and 
culture of the best Flowers and Vegetables. Mailed 
free to all. 

THOMAS A. COX & CO., 
SEED MERCHANTS, 

409 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 



NAPA VALLEY 
POULTRY FARM. 



Largest establishment on 
the Pacific Coast. AH the 
LEADING VARIETIES 
MADE A SPECIALTY. Oreat 
care taken in mating stock for 
shipment. Send three cent 
stamp for circular and price 
list. Postal card not noticed. 

R. O. HEAD, 

P. 0. Box 208, Napa, Cal. 




OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 

Corner 16th and Castro Streets, Oakland. 



1SS0 SEASON 1881. 



Just received from Europe and the East, 
a fins selection of all the 
improved varieties of 

Land and Water Fowls. 

BRAHMAS, COCHINS, LEGHORNS, HOUDANS, PO- 
LISH, PLYMOUTH ROCKS, DUCKS, 
BRONZE TURKEYS, EUREKA8. 

Stock guaranteed true to name, and to arrive safely. 
For further information send stamp for illustrated cir- 
cular to 

GEO. B BAILEY, 
P. O. Box 1771, San Francisco- 




800,000 
GRAPE CTJTTIXTCS 

Of the Following: Varieties: 

ZINFINDELS, 

MALVOISEAS. 

CHABANOS, 

CHASSELAS, 

REISSLINGS, 

BURGERS. 

These Cuttings are all from 8trong, Vigorous Vines, 
and warranted true to name. Address 

E. B. SMITH, 
Rutherford. Napa Co , Cal 



Gilis H. Grat. 



J auks M. Haven. 



GRAY & HAVEN, 
Attorneys and Counsellers-at-Law, 

530 California St, SAN FRANCISCO. 



150 REGISTERED 

HOLSTEIN 

CATTLE 

Mostly Imported. The largest herd and largest 
milk Records in America. 

40 CLYDESDALE STALLIONS 

AND MARES, Largely Imported. 

60 HAMBELTONIAN STALLIONS 

AND MARES of the Finest Breeding. 

Separate catalogues of each class cf stock sent to par- 
ties specifying which is desired. Correspondence so- 
licited. 

SMITHS dL POWELL. 

Lakeside Stock Farm, Syracuse. N. Y. 



BERKSHIRES A SPECIALTY. 




My Berkshire* are Thoroughbred, and selected with 
great care from the best herds of imported stock In the 
United States and Canada, and for individual merit can- 
not be excelled. My breeding stock are recorded in the 
"American Berkshire Record," where none but pure bred 
Hogs are admitted. Pigs told at reasonable rates. Cor- 
respondence solicited. 

JOHN RIDER, 
18th and A Streets, Sacramento City, Cal. 



JAPANESE 



LILIES. 



Just received. NEW and RARE Varieties. Wholesale 
and Retail. Prices on application. For description see 
Catalogue, free to all. 

Japanese Persimmon Trees, 

Large fruited— best sorts. One, Two and Three year 
old Trees. Address 

THOS. A. COX &CO., Seed Merchants. 

4O0 SANSOME STREET, 8. F. 



NORTHERN TEXAS 

Offers greater attractions in way of good, cheap lands, 
healthy country, mild climate, abundance of timber and 
water than any other section now open to settlement In 
it the TEXAS AND PACIFIC RAILWAY is now being 
extended westward over one mile per day, and is no«j of- 
fering for sale at low prices and on easy terms over 
4,000,000 acres of land 

For descriptive circulars and maps giving truthful in- 
formation, address W. H ABRAMS, 

Land Commissioner T. t P. Ry., Marshall, Texas. 



SITUATION WANTED. 

Teacher wants a situation, 12 years experience in both 
graded and mixed schools. Reference — schools where he 
has taught last seven years. Address TEACHER, care of 
Rural Press. 



CARP FISH FOR SALE. 

Carp fish for Sale IN LOTS TO SUIT. Address or 
apply to 

LEVI DAVIS, 
Forestvllle, Sonoma Co., CaL 



FOREST AND STREAM. 

The American Sportsmen's Journal. 

DEVOTED TO 8HOOTING, FISHING, YACHTING, 
THE DOG AND THE RIFLE. 

Send for 8pecim«n Copy to 

Forest and Stream Publishing Co, 

39 Park Row, New York City, N. Y. 



MONEY TO LOAN. 

In sums of $2, COO and upwards on Good, Productive 
Farms at fair rate of interest Farms bought and sold 
Apply to A. SCHULLER, 

310 California Sired, 8. V 



"NEW" 
Hydraulic Rami 

The only Horizontal Ram made Will do 
good work on light fall. 8eDd for Circular 

H. F. MORROW, Chester, Pa. 



GRAPE CUTTINGS. 

Orders for Malvolsie, Zinfandel, Muscat, Black Ham- 
burg, Rose of Peru, Riessliug and 100 other different va- 
rieties ef Grape Cuttings will be received at 

EISEN VINEYARD, Fresno, Cal. 



Free. Elegant Illuminated Book Mark. 
Sent to all for two three cent stamps. BURT & PREN- 
TICE, 46 Beekman'Street, New York. 




Volume XXI.l 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 15, 1881. 



Number 3 



Duroc or Red Swine. 

We are pleased to note that our live stock 
resources are continually being extended by 
the importation of fine breeds from all parts of 
the world. The latest information that comes 
to us is the satisfactory experience of N. W. 
Spaulding, proprietor of the Laurelles ranch, 
Monterey, Cal., who has been breeding the 
Duroo or red swine for two years. In a circu- 
lar just issued Mr. Spaulding says: "These 
hogs have more than come up to our most san- 
guine expectations, and show evidence of being 
strong, hardy, well built and compact, with 
large feet and legs, easily kept, good feeders, 
quiet and gentle disposition, and not inclined 
to get wild. They are well covered with hair, 
and appear to be well suited to this climate. 
We have made no effort to get a large growth, 
as our object has been to keep them in the best 
condition to breed from. They have been so 
fed as to prevent their getting fat. At the age 
of 13 months the largest sow weighed 317 lbs. ; 
when her first litter of ten pigs was four weeks 
old the average would not fall far below. The 
largest boar at the age of two years, measured 
six ft. eight inches from ham to end of nose, 
and weighed 897 tbs. Another boar, at 
the same age, weighed 730 lbs. Neither 
were too fat for stock, and had never been 
fed but little grain, and only when other 
feed was short. The above, with four pigs 
four months old, comprised our exhibit at 
the Salinas agricultural fair, October, 1880; 
the largest pig (four months old) weighed 
141 lbs., the smallest 137 lbs., and the 
exhibit made a clean sweep of the premi- 
ums. " 

As this breed has obtained a good foot- 
ing upon this coast, we reproduce from the 
American Agriculturist an engraving of a 
typical Duroc boar, which shows the gen- 
eral traits of the breed. It is interesting 
also to set forth the leading points in the 
history of the Durocs. In the year 1823, 
soon after the great race between Eclipse 
and Sir Henry, a Mr. Harry Kelsey, owner 
of the horse called Duroc, which was the 
sire of Eclipse, moved from Long Island 
to Florida, Montgomery county, New 
York. Isaac Frink, of Saratoga county, N. 
Y., went to Florida to see the famous 
horse, and saw also at Mr. Kelsey's a pair 
of red hogs, apparently one year old, 
which Mr. K. said he had imported from 
England. The sow had about ten pigs. 
Mr. Frink purchased a boar pig, and took 
him to Saratoga county, and called him 
Duroc, in honor of the celebrated horse 
he had been to see. This is evidently the 
origin of the name Duroc, as Mr. Frink 
does not remember that Mr. Kelsey called them 
anything but "red hogs." He remembered 
them as remarkable for length. Crossed on the 
Byfields, the half-bloods dressed 50 to 70 tt>3. 
more than the old stock. 

From the information obtained it is inferred 
that the Duroc is a breed descending from the 
original Berkshire, which, by all authorities, 
was represented as beiug a long, deep-bodied, 
strong constitution hog, with heavy, lopped 
ears, and generally of a buff, sandy, or reddish- 
brown color, spotted with black. The modern 
improved Berkshires get their dark color, erect 
ear, and nervous, up-headed style, from a cross 
of the Siamese, which cross Mr. A. B. Allen, 
in his premium essay upon Berkshires, says 
was probably made more than 100 years ago. 

But the old Berkshires do not compare favor- 
ably with the Durocs of to-day, being longer 
legged and coarser every way. It is thought 
that the Red Berkshires, the Jersey Reds and 
the Durocs may all be traced to the original 
Berkshire, varying now according to the ideal 
model of the breeders of the different localities. 
All of them retain the characteristics of the 
original — long and deep in the body, thick and 
heavy in both shoulder and ham, a strong con- 
stitution, a capacity for growth, and a remark- 
ably mild disposition, and very prolific. 

At the National Swine Breeders' Convention, 
held at Indianapolis in 1871, it was decided to 
call this breed the Duroc, and it is now so called 
by those who give attention to it. The Durocs 
-are now bred with as much care as is observed 



in handling other well established breeds, and 
the stock is properly numbered and pedigreed 
Mr. Spaulding's importation consisted of 10 thor- 
ough-bred pigs of different families,and on Lau- 
relle's ranch they are bred with great care in cross- 
ing and in keeping the families distinct. Mr. 
Spaulding gives us a note concerning one of the 
Durocs which he had killed last week. The live 
weight was 520 lbs. ; dressed weight, 390 lbs. ; 
leaf lard, 36 lbs. ; age, one year and eight days. 
This hog was fed nothing from the time he was 
weaned up to Nov. 8th last but the, swill from 
the house in Oakland where he was kept. From 
Nov. 8th to the time of killing (60 days) he 
was fed on corn. The superiority of this ani- 
mal over the ordinary hog is seen in the fact 
that he lost but a little over one-fifth in dress- 
ing, while the common hog is supposed to lose 
about one-third. The flesh was noticeable for 
its fine grain and flavor. 

The hog shown in the engraving is "Captain 
Jack," one of the most famous of the breed. 
He was bred by Wm. Holmes & Son, of Wash- 
ington county, N. Y., and was eminent at the 
New York State fair of 1877. At the time the 
photograph was taken from which the engrav- 
ing was made, the animal was 19 months old, 
had no grain from April last until Sept. 24th, 
when he was sent to the fair, weighing then 476 
lbs. On Oct. 24th, or 30 days afterwards, he 



Frost in California. 

In many parts of California tho orange trees have been 
entirely killed down this season by early frost. The same 
calamity occurred last year, so that orange growers have a 
gloomy prospect in that part of the Union, Many of those 
who had entered on that industry there are about aband- 
oning it. A gentleman from California, with whom we 
conversed with this week, informed us that the frost had 
been very destructive indeed, and some groves entirely de- 
stroyed. We regret to hear it, for the people of that State 
are an enterprising race, and deserve success for the en- 
ergy they have exhibited in introducing so many valuable 
products from other climes. — Florida Agriculturist, Dee. 
snth. 

Such well-intended sympathy is appreciated, 
but the occasion for it is greatly exaggerated. 
We have had no such cold weather as last year, 
and there has been no such destruction of trees. 
The "gentleman from California" has heard of 
more dire disasters than we have. We wait to 
hear from Florida particulars of the great freeze 
reported by telegraph during the week follow- 
ing the date at which our contemporary wrote. 
We may have occasion to return the fullest 
sympathy. 

Carpenteria Californica. — Mr. John Saul, 
of Washington, has sent to the London Garden 
specimens of this plant, which says of it : It is 
an extremely rare plant, even in its native hab- 
itat; so rare, indeed, that Dr. Asa Gray had not 




Starvation Method with Insects. 

Editors Press;— The coddling moth has destroyed one- 
half to two-thirds of the apple and pear crop this year. 
It may be a foolish proposition, but what do you say to 
destroying the whole crop for one year to get rid of them. 
Would we not gain in the long run ?— J. F. Gregg, Ply- 
mouth, Amador Co. 

Editors Press :— I find it impossible to raise winter ap- 
ples here, as the coddling moth destroys them. My neigh- 
bors will not act in concert with me to destroy them, and, 
as our orchards join, my apples are a failure. I favor de- 
stroying the fruit crop for one year from the first of Au- 
gust, as the weather would be warm enough from that 
time on to hatch the worm, and if he had no fruit to feed 
upon the young worm would die. — J. M. Belcher, Cos- 
umnes, Sacramento Co. 

This idea has often been advanced by ento- 
mologists. The late Andrew Murray, one of the 
leading English authorities on economic ento- 
mology, proposed in 1877 that English farmers 
change their crop for one year from wheat to 
barley so as to cut off the food supply of the 
larva of a fly which was making havoc with the 
wheat. He showed how one year's cessation of 
wheat growing would destroy the insect. Such 
a movement would doubtless succeed, but how 
are you going to arrange that every individual 
shall refrain from growing the forbidden crop ! 
In the case proposed by our correspondents, it 
may be urged, if you cannot arouse concert of 
action enough in the community to destroy the 
insects, how can you arrange to have 
concert in the destruction of fruit ? In an 
orchard, isolated by a great distance from 
other trees, the pest might be stamped 
out for a time by completely destroying 
its food, but in a neighborhood of or- 
chards the old trouble of negligent or self- 
willed growers would still prevail. Again 
it must be remembered that to cut off the 
food of the grub there must be 3 clean 
sweep of other fruits as well as apples. 
The larva of the coddling moth has been 
found in pears, peaches, quinces, plums and 
crab-apples. Insects show quite a range 
of appetites when their especial food is 
not at hand. 



THOROUGHBRED DUROC HOG—" CAPTAIN JACK. 



weighed 570 lbs., gaining 94 lbs., being fed solely 
on raw corn meal and water. He was 32 inches 
high, five ft. eight and one-half inches long, 
and six ft. in girth. His belly reached to 
within three inches of the ground when stand- 
ing- 

Beet Sugar Product of California. — The 
Grocer of this city makes an interesting state- 
ment concerning the production of beet sugar in 
California in 1880. This source of supply has 
been an important one the last year, as will be 
seen by the following: 
Standard refinery (at Alvarado) tbs. 

Stock on hand Jan. 1st. 18S0 213,120 

Standard refinery product, 1880 1,574,233 

Isleton factory product, 1880 208,427 

Soquel factory (estimate) 1880 300,000 

2,172,000 

Beetsugar for distribution 2,391,780 

These figures are official, with the exception of 
those relating to the production of the Soquel 
factory, which is estimated by the agent of the 
company. The only sugarie now in operation on 
this coast is the Standard, at Alvarado, but this 
one has already made a good record, and has a 
bright prospect for the future. 



Santa Barbara Horticulture. —If anyone 
should doubt the wide-awake interest which 
now characterizes Santa Barbara horticulture 
they need but look for assurance to the reports 
of the last meeting of the local Horticultural 
Society, aspublished in the Santa Barbara Press 
of Jan. 8th. We shall reproduce the leading 
points in the proceedings hereafter. 



seen flowers of it when he prepared the "Botany 
of California," nor do flowers of it exist in the 
Kew herbai ium. As may be seen by the an- 
nexed engraving, drawn natural size, it is a hand- 
some shrub, the flowers being pure white with 
yellow tipped stamens. The leaves are broadly 
lance shaped of thick texture with recurved 
margins; they are pale green on the upper sur- 
faces, very glaucous or almost white underneath. 
Mr. Saul remarks that it grows from 6 to 15 ft. 
in hight and is very bushy. It grows in dry 
canyons near springs in the Sierra Nevada, prob- 
ably on the headwaters of the San Joaquin. 
Botanists consider its affinity to be with the 
mock orange (Philadelphus), but, with the 
exception of a slight similarity in the form and 
color of the flowers, it is very different from any 
cultivated mock orange from a garden stand- 
point." 



The State Engineer's Map. — We learn from 
the report of the State Engineer, that parts of 
the new map of California, which is being 
drawn in his office, are approaching completion, 
and he recommends that it be published by the 
State as fast as completed, and sold at cost 
price for the public benefit. The suggestion 
seems to us an excellent one, for the maps now 
attainable are but partially correct. The new 
map will be on the scale of six miles to the inch, 
and will occupy a sheet about 10 ft. square. 
This would require a good-sized wall to hold it, 
but if it can be had in parts it would serve 
many valuable purposes. 



Oleomargarine. — A law against selling 
oleomargarine or other imitation butter as 
the pure article has been introduced in 
the Legislature by Senator Sears. We 
have not seen a copy of the bill, but trust 
that it is well drawn, and will speedily pass. 
It appears, after all, that those who have 
been crowding oleomargarine into this city, 
do not work it off as rapidily as they hoped 
to. The Grocer says : "There is said to 
be a considerable quantity of the oleo- 
margarine recently imported into this 
market yet unsold, consumers being 
averse to the use, and the more respeotable 
portion of the trade declining to handle 
it except on its merits. Doubtless those who 
hold this counterfeit butter will be eventually 
obliged to export it, thus adding another obsta- 
cle to the growth of our foreign trade. " This 
may occur, because the U. S. authorities have 
decided that it is none of their business to in- 
quire whether the article called butter on the 
shipper's statement is butter or not. This is 
wrong. It should not be exported as American 
butter. 

State Board of Agriculture. — The State 
Board of Agriculture met in Sacramento on Tues- 
day. Present, H. M. Larue, L. U. Shippee, 
W. P. Coleman, John Boggs, G. W. Hancock, 
Daniel Flint, Cyrus Jones, C. M. Chase and 
Secretary I. N. Hoag. The following orders 
were made: That the next fair begin Sept. 19th, 
and continue for six days. Negotiations were 
reported in progress for the rental of the park. 
Various minor orders relative to employees and 
payments were made. The President, Mr. 
Boggs, and Mr. Hancock were appointed a com- 
mittee on legislation. The Board resolved that 
its next meeting be held on February 7th, at 
2 A. m. 

A form of the epizooty prevails among the 
horses in the vicinity of Halfmoon Bay, and 
more so among the animals at Purissima. 
Henry Dobbel has lost three valuable horses by 
the plague and more are under the evil. 



The Lake county (Or.) Examiner says that 
"with the building of the Nevada and Oregon 
railroad will begin an era of prosperity for that 
county." 



34 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 15, 18 81. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



W» admit, unendorsed, opinions of correspondents.— Eds 



Water Privileges. 

Editors Pkebs: — A majority of farmers have 
an interest in the question of irrigation, either 
present or prospective, and while the Legisla- 
ture has the matter under consideration,! think 
it advisible to discuss it in the Press, that 
all may form a correct opinion of a sound pub- 
lic policy in regard thereto. 

What Is the Law Now? 

The law now is, that owners of land on the 
stream have the first right (or better say privi- 
lege) to the use of the water for any beneficial 
purpose. The first appropriator (by ditch) the 
second privilege, to the capacity of his ditch 
The second appropriator (ditch) has the third 
claim, and so on. 

State Engineer Hall proposes to take away 
the first right from the owners of lands along 
the streams, and give it to ditch companies, or 
attach the right to lands in certain "districts," 
to be mortgaged for the cost of water works fcr 
"50 years." I ask, who but idiots will mort- 
gage themselves and , their children "for 50 
years," to pay interest and principal on what a 
soulless corporation would say they had ex- 
pended on the water works? Public debts are 
public curses, say all honest tax payers; but 
they are sugar plums for Shylocks. Mr. Hall 
is a lawyer, the son of a lawyer, still, to under- 
mine riparian rights (river rights), he calls the 
English common law, on which that right is 
founded, the "dog-in-the-manger principle." I 
suppose he has read in Angel, the language 
no doubt used by some blundering English 
judge, in regard to some stream used exclu- 
sively for drinking and milling, "that every ri- 
parian proprietor has the right to demand that 
the stream flow through his land unpolluted 
and undiminished," and no doubt concluded 
that was a general principle of English common 
law of riparian rights; and that if any owner so 
demanded, the water must flow unused by any- 
one. The common law is flexible — adapts it- 
self to circumstances. Irrigation is consistent 
with it, and has been successfully practiced un- 
der its ruling. "Each owner on the stream must 
use the water in a manner consistent with the 
same use by every owner on the stream." A ri- 
parian owner has no right to require water to 
run to waste. The law says his only right is to 
use it for a "beneficial purpose." The whole 
spirit of the common law requires him to use it 
for 

The Most Beneficial Purpose 

To secure the greatest good to the greatest num- 
ber. On that point was decided the celebrated 
case, the miller vs. the nobleman. The wasting 
of water by ponds to raise a few iish as a lux- 
ury was quite another business from grinding 
meal for a whole neighborhood. The great Fred- 
erick was never greater than when he kicked 
judges down stairs, whose aristocratic hearts so 
blinded the eyes of their judgment that they 
could not see the true essence of the common 
law of riparian rights; that it was the whole 
people's water that came down from heaven 
upon the "just and unjust." Why owners on the 
stream should have priority is on account of 
hardships incident to the stream, and because 
they can make as good use of the water as any 
one else. Why give one class all the floods and 
damage, and others all the benefits of a natural 
element? There must be outside rows to acorn 
field, so there must be priority to the use of 
water. The time is near at hand when there 
will be more demand than water during certain 
months. Some one must be limited. Every 
five years in this valley every farmer would ir- 
rigate if he could lind the water. The trouble 
is not so much to turn the streams as to find 
the water to irrigate the 40th acre of wheat 
that is drying up. What legislation we want 
is an officer over every stream. 1. To see the 
water is not needlessly wasted. 2. To limit the 
amount of water any one may use when scarce, 
paying no regard to the acres of land a man 
may own. 3. Collecta graduated charge (rent) for 
the use of water to pay for supervision and for 
the treasury as well. If it iB the people's water 
let all the people have some benefit. The ditch 
owners, the land grabbers and speculating capi- 
talist came near repealing riparian rights last 
winter. Again they are mustering forces to 
grab every thing in sight that has the glitter of 
wealth regardless of the interests or rights of 
their fellow men. D. A. Learned. 

Stockton, CaL 



Influence of Electricity on Vegetation. — 
In bamboos the flow of sap takes place at the 
beginning of the rainy season, but vigorous 
shoots rarely grow before the thunder storms, 
which generally precede the harvest The rapid- 
ity of their growtli increases with the violence 
of the storms, amounting sometimes to as much 
as 70 ft. in 30 days, the vegetation being most 
active during the night Capt. Slieman sug- 
gests that the cause of this sudden growth may 
be the increase in the quantity of nitrogenous 
compounds, which are greedily absorbed by the 
humus that surround the roots of the bamboo. 
The facts offer a curious confirmation of the ex- 
periments of Dr. Siemans upon the influence of 
electricity on vegetation — Le* Monde*. 



The Ar«w- 



Suggestions and Experience with Bees. 

Editors Press: — I have experimented (for 
my own benefit) with several styles of hives for 
the last few years, and the style that I prefer is 
one of 10 frames of the perpendicular depth of 
the Langstroth, but two and one-half inches 
shorter in the length for the brood apartment, 
and giving a little over 2,000 cubic inches, in- 
side measure, and a supply of stores, available 
for winter use and close to the bees. In case of 
the colony not being strong, there is not so 
much danger of the combs getting moldy, and 
the bees will go into the sections sooner, in the 
proper season, and give better results in beauti- 
ful comb honey. Where the combs are liable 
to freeze, a frame a little deeper might be pre- 
ferable, but in this neighborhood it is not 
needed. Deep frames are more liable to break 
down, from the weight of honey, on very warm 
days. My hives are not shaded, but I had no 
combs to melt, last season, in this size of hive. 
I shall keep a few of the Langstroth hives, but 
all new hives will be of (as I call it) the im- 
proved pattern. 

There is no portico, but a projection in front, 
at the top, so as to take the same upper story as 
the Langstroth, for obvious reasons. In work- 
ing for extracted honey, either frame can be 
used in the second story, or the same honey 
rack and sections, or the wide frames with 
eight of the 4^x4^x2 inch sections, or the prize 
boxes, as they are called at the East. 

At present I make my own sections. I had 
a thousand made by one that advertises such 
things, and on putting them together they 
would not stick. They were the dove-tailed 
sections, and will have to be dove-tailed over 
before using. The size that I have been using 
is cut 6x5 Jxl J wide in inches of one-fonrth inch 
plank planed at the edges; the sides as the saw 
leaves them. The plank is sawed at the mill in 
lengths, and I cut them myself. They will 
average from one and one-fourth to one and one- 
half ll.s. gross, and retail very handily. 

Last spring, bees were backward in storing 
surplus and swarming. The strongest swarms, 
in bees, had the least honey. First swarms 
came out, with me, May 11th. Although prep- 
arations for swarming had been going on, the 
queen cells had been cut down. One swarm, 
with queen of the previous year, came out on 
the 13th of May; the hive was moved to a new 
stand and the swarm, with old queen, hived in 
a new hive on the old stand, with one frame of 
brood and stores, and two frames of stores in 
drone comb and seven empty frames. On the 
15th the empty frames were removed and ex- 
changed for seven combs of foundation. On the 
22d five of them were removed, full of honey, 
and capped over and replaced with empty comb 
and top sections (27) put on. In three weeks 
more, the honey supply getting short, there 
were taken from that hive, 21 full sections, five 
more full frames, sealed; the other six sections 
from one-half to three-fourths full; about 75 lbs. 
of a good quality of honey in four weeks, and 
the swarm in good condition. 

There appeared to be no honey in the flowers 
from the middle of June until the last of July. 
Since then fall flowers and golden rod have se- 
creted enough to winter on, and the same 
swarms have tilled the lower part of their hive 
so full that the queen was crowded in Septem- 
ber. By replacing full combs with empty ones 
they will get through the winter and come out 
strong in the spring. 

For protecting swarms through the winter, I 
place slats across the frames and lay over them 
a piece, of burlap, and fill the second story with 
the same, or empty grain sack. In case some of 
them should get wet, they can be dried the first 
fair day and put back. They absorb the moist- 
ure and help to ventilate the hive. 

I have had occasion to examine hives (so 
called) for different parties, at different times, 
and do not wonder that so many having bees 
can get no honey from them, nor save their 
bees. They say "the moths get them;" the 
wonder is that they have any bees at all. Hives 
should be made so that they can be easily ex- 
amined, every part of them, as often as neces- 
sary without inconvenience. The bees should 
have access to all parts of the hive where the 
moth can go, then the bees will give them a 
hint to go on the outside, which they will ac- 
cept. The hives that I have been called on to 
examine, have bad so many hiding places that 
the bees could not rout them, and the moths 
were allowed to grow and mature. 

I can put a frame of comb in most any of my 
hives literally full of moth worms. Although 
the combs may be considerably cut up, they 
will be cleared of moths or worms in an incred- 
ibly short time. I do not mean that moths 
never get in my hives, but they do not get the 
best of the bees, if the swarm is a fair size one. 
Even my weakest swarms can take care of their 
combs. My bees are pure Ita'ians, and I renew 
the queens annually, to keep up the vitality. 

Of course the one having the control of the 
hives can assist the bees in getting rid of the 
worms. Some of the (so called) hives had the 
frames tit so close that it took muscle to start 
them; the killing of many bees, and perhaps 
the queens, was the result, and then comes the 
building of queen cells, and the swarming to 



death, probably, of the bees, and the next thing 
"the i nfit hs get them." 

In handling bees, one should seek the queen, 
but in a swarm of common bees, it is sometimes 
a difficult job, especially if the weather is too 
cold to displace them from the combs. With 
Italians the queens are easily found, they being 
of a lighter color and do not scare easily. 

One that fancies the keeping of bees should 
visit some person, if convenient, that is success- 
ful with them, or get some good bee journal and 
post himself. The cost would be trifling, but 
the advantage gained considerable. I would 
place little reliance on a beekeeper's knowledge 
that did not take some work on bees, or that 
clung to box hives, or that professed great 
secrets about bees. There are no secrets that 
anyone cannot get by reading. 

There is considerable to be studied to know 
how to make a profit from bees, but the diffi- 
culties are soon mastered by one that takes an 
interest in the business. Oiie needs a good, 
movable frame hive, a good bee journal, a bee 
smoker and veil; then success will be more cer- 
tain with perseverance. J. D. Enas. 

Sunnyside Apiary, Napa, CaL 



Ensilage and Dairy Cows. 

Letters from our dairy readers assure ns that 
the subject of ensilaging fodder is of interest to 
them. As this is so, we pursue the subject 
with an account of actual experience with 
silos, written by Hon. Josiah Shull, Sec- 
retary of tne New York Dairymen's Asso- 
ciation, who is well known to us as a trust- 
worthy man. He writes: For the purpose of 
familiarizing myself with the practical work- 
ings of a silo, the preservation of the ensilage 
and its value for cattle food, I, on the 8th of 
December, 1880, visited the farm of Mr. David 
H. Burrell, of Little Falls, N. Y., who last 
summer built a silo adjoining his barn on his 
farm, about one mils west of Little Falls. 

There are two silos, separated by a partition 
wall, each 27 ft. long, 15 ft. 10 inches wide, and 
20 ft. deep, in the clear. The sides and bottom 
are built of heavy stone masonry, plastered in- 
side, so that the sides and bottom are perfectly 
air tight. 

Each of these silos will hold, at the ratio ob- 
tained, 195 tons of pressed and cured ensilage. 
The fodder in curing, as found in this case, 
shrinks a fraction more than one-fourth of its 
original bulk. 

About the 10th of September, seven and one- 
half acres of a southern variety of sweet corn, 
which had been raised in drills, was cut with a 
machine into lengths of about one-third of an 
inch, and packed into the silos, filling them to 
about three-fourths of their measured capacity, 
carefully leveled and trod down, and the whole 
was covered with two-inch plank grooved, 
tongued and matched, in sections three and 
one-half ft. wide; and one plank laid across 
the center and sides to equalize the pressure to 
be placed on the covering. Sacks of about two 
inches in diameter, filled with dry sand, were 
laid all around the outside against the wall to 
perfectly seal the joint between the covering and 
the wall. On the top of this were placed field 
stones, two ft. in thickness, making a pressure 
of about fifty tons on each silo. 

At the time of my visit 30 cows had con- 
sumed of the ensilage in 43 days, 1,371 cubic 
ft. equal to 86,373 lbs., or 43.2 tons. In this 
ratio the 30 cows will consume 191.9 tons in 
191 days, the usual time of feeding from pas- 
turage in the fall to pasturage in the spring. 
In the same ratio it will require 6.39 tons to 
winter one cow. 

It is found that by carefully weighing the 
ensilage fed, each cow consumes on an average, 
67 lbs. a day; and by a measurement of the sec- 
tion already fed out that each cubic ft. weighs 
63 lbs. 

The product of 7i acres green corn cut and 
put into these pits or silos, made 8,655 cnbic 
ft, or 272.63 tons of cured fodder, equal to 
36. 35 tons to an acre. 

Mr. Burrell fixes the cost of the ensilage at 
80 cents per ton. At this rate 36.35 tons — the 
product of one acre will cost $29; and the total 
cost of the 7$ acres, $218.10. At 80 cents per 
ton, it will cost !*5.11 to winter a cow. 

In addition to the ensilage, the cows each are 
fed five lbs. of ships, and one-third of a lb. of 
oil meal per day, and are in good milking con- 
dition. 

, The cows hold their flow of milk remarkably 
well, giving about double the quantity of that 
of another dairy kept on hay. Six hundred and 
seventy-two lbs. of milk have been obtained 
from 24 cows in three days, from which 26 lbs. 
of butter were made, and the skim milk made 
into cheese. 

The showing of the expense of wintering a 
cow, presents the following summary: 



G 39 tons ensilage $5.11 

061 lbs. shiiis 9.68 

63; Iks- O' 1 meal 1M 

Making the total cost of fodder Sl'3.57 



As to the feeding quality of this ensilage, I 
will say that at ray request six of the dairy 
were sent from the yard into the stable, for the 
purpose of testing the animals on the feeding 
qualities of this fodder with common hay. 



Before three of the animals was placed ensilage 
and the other three hay. In either ease the 
animals took to the fodder; when alter- 
nately, hay and ensilage was placed before them. 
Some of these animals would drop the hay and 
take to the ensilage, and others drop the ensil- 
age for the hay. From the test I came to the 
conclusion that the animals took to the 
ensilage full as readily as to good well enred 
hay. 

Considering that the dairy had been fed ex- 
clusively on this fodder and the ships and oil 
meal, the showing was remarkable. The sup- 
position was that after a continnous feed for 43 
days, the animals would at onoe take to the bay 
instead of the ensilage. 

It will be seen that from the results obtained 
that it will cost $5. 1 1 to winter a cow exclu- 
sively on ensilage. To winter on hay at §20 
per ton it will cost §32.47, and hay at $10 per 
ton will cost $16.24. Then again, when we 
take into consideration that the milk product 
in the one case is double that of the other, pre- 
sents most astonishing figures in favor of the 
ensilage. 

I will say that the quantity of land, the cost 
per ton of procuring the ensilage, and the yield 
per cow, the time of feeding and the weighing 
of the food, are, as given by Mr. Burrell and 
the men having charge under his supervision. 
Any person knowing the reputation Mr. Bur- 
rell bears as a business man, will not doubt the 
statements. The showing from his system of 
feeding will be as astonishing to many as it is 
surprising to rae. It indicates, if by further 
experiment It shall bear the test, as made, that 
we are in the beginning of a revolution in dairy 
practice. 



TtjE plELD. 



The Sun-Dried Beets from Los Angeles. 

The Beet-Sugar Industry and the Cause of 
Its Slow Progress In America. 

Editors Press: — The rapid progress which 
the beet-sugar industry has made during the 
last 25 years in every country in Europe, in 
fact from its very infancy, has been due to the 
cordial co-operation of scientific men, practical 
sugar manufacturers, business managers aud 
capitalists. There is more good will and sym- 
pathy amongst all these different men engaged 
and interested in the manufacture of sugar from 
beets in Europe than in any other industry; 
hence the importance it has attained in so short 
a time. The reverse has been the case in Amer- 
ica, especially in California, and this has beon 
the case from the begiuning of the first beet- 
sugar establishment 10 years ago to the present 
day. If we follow up every one of the six beet- 
sugar factories undertaken duriug the last 10 
years, we find the same peculiar picture with 
hardly a single exception. The difficulty, there- 
fore, mnst lie in the organization or in the air, 
for it is not very probable that every one de- 
serves all the opprobrium heaped upon him in 
so lavish a manner. Every new and great en- 
terprise naturally meets in the beginning with 
difficulties and draw backs. The beet-sugar in- 
dustry in Europe has not been free from these, 
but wherever they made their appearance, they 
met with the united effort to overcome them, 
and the result is the best proof that they have 
been overcome. Here in California whenever 
obstacles or difficulties of even a trivial nature 
made their appearance, they were met by the 
different parties in throwing the blame on each 
other, by recriminations and calling each other 
opprobrious names. Instead of proving by fig- 
ures and facts where the difficulty really was 
and searching for means to overcome it, they 
tried to prove the ignorance, imbecility or dis- 
honesty of each other; hence the pitiable result 
we witness. No country in the world has 
greater advantages and facilities for the grow- 
ing of sugar beets, and the manufacture of sugar 
therefrom than California has, and for a short 
time last year it had the appearance as if the 
southern part of California would produce a ma- 
terial from which the manufacturer in that part 
of the State not only could make sugar during 
the whole year, but which that part of the State 
could furnish to every other establishment in 
the northern part after they had worked np 
their own fresh beets. My object in this com- 
munication is to show the cause of the differ- 
ent sugar values in the samples analyzed by 
Prof. Hilgard, whose report on the subject yon 
published in the Pp. ess of Dec. 25th. At the 
end of September, 1880, I!. Nadeau shipped to 
Alvarado some 50 tons of sun-dried beets to be 
converted into sugar there. Some five or seven 
tons of them were so worked, but with a rather 
poor result A sample of the beets analyzed 
in Alvarado showed 23% of sugar; beets which 
I had shipped direct from here to Prof. Eug. 
W. Hilgard showed 51% or 52%, which corre- 
sponded with a number of analyses made by 
me. R. Nadeau, surprised at these results, 
took another sample from Alvarado to Prof. Hil- 
gard which showed 46%, while again a sample 
sent the manager of the Alvarado sugary direct 
showed again 23%. The discrepancies between 
these different samples was the cause of all the 
insinuations and abuse in the correspondence 
and the publications in San Francisco papers. 

Though I have never seen the 50 tons of beets 
in question, in fact did not know that any had 
been shipped till they were on the railroad, yet 
the explanation is very simple, and will be 
found in the following: 



January 15, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FBESS 



35 



The theory which Mr. Dyer states in his com 
muni cat ion to the Country Merchant and Grocer, 
"that the quantity of sugar a beet contains is 
not alone sufficient to make it desirable for the 
manufacture of sugar, but that the co-efficient 
of purity is of even greater importance is an ac- 
cepted truth;" but the deductions he draws 
therefrom, and their application to the Los 
Angeles beets, are erroneous. 

The co-efficient of purity depends upon a 
number of conditions; the soil, the climate and 
cultivation are of equal importance. The seed 
is not to be neglected; but where even all four 
of these factors have been very favorable, the 
beet may reach the factory and yet have a mis- 
erably low co-efficient of purity. And, in fact, 
this has been the great drawback with which 
most, if not all, factories in California had to 
contend. I have been informed this was the 
trouble in Soquel, and Mr. Kulberg, of Alva- 
rado, informed me the profit they made in the 
first three months (1879-80) they lost in the 
second three months of that season on account 
of rotoen, frozen and sprouted beets. This will 
explain the great importance I, with many 
others, have attached to the drying of beets by 
solar heat, which, when once properly dried, 
will preserve tbem unimpared for a number of 
years. 

Mr. Dyer gives me but very tardy credit that 
I have been the first one who directed attention 
to the great importance of drying sugar beets 
by solar heat in California. If he had added 
that I was the first one also who invested his 
own money in the execution of this important 
improvement, he would have only stated 
another truth. 

No beets were raised in Los Angeles on new 
soil. Every field had produced a number of 
crops before; but the beets were miserably cul- 
tivated, in many parts the weeds covered the 
fields perfectly. Yet for all this the co-efficient 
of purity, as shown by a great many polariza- 
tions I made, did not average lower than the 
average is in France, from 72 to 81, though 
lower than the average is in Germany. But 
where beets are cheap and no internal revenue 
tax is paid, such beets can be worked with 
profit; especially with granulated sugar at 12 
cents per lt>. 

Over the drying of those beets I had do con- 
trol; even the advice I often volunteered was 
disregarded. The great object was to dry 
many, not to dry them well. As a natural con- 
sequence of working with "brute force and 
stupidity" (the work being done by Chinese 
labor), beets reached the store-house nearly 
every day which were moldy, sour and even 
perfectly rotten. I caused every bag of beets, 
as it arrived, to be carefully examined and the 
moldy, sour and rotten ones placed by them- 
selves. 

The beets which were shipped to Alvarado 
were dried in an extra hurry, and delivered di- 
rectly from the field to the railroad car, no 
doubt "moldy, sour and rotten" ones with them, 
while during the week of transit they had still 
a more favorable occasion to spoil. 

This is the simple solution of the great differ- 
ence of the co-efficient of purity and quality of 
sugar which the different samples showed. The 
offer or "bet" of $1,000 amounts to nothing. 
How much or how little sugar can be made out 
of the Los Angeles sun-dried beets depends 
upon the quantity of moldy, sour and rotten 
beets which are mixed in with the good ones. 

E. Th. Gennert. 

Los Angeles, Jan. 2, 1881. 



The Threshing Problem. 

Editors Press: — Your issue of Dec. 11th has 
an article on threshing calculated to mislead, as 
regards small vs. large threshing machines. The 
writer speaks of the former threshing 500 
sacks, and the latter 1,500 sacks. In fact, the 
large machines of this State average little if any 
over 500 sacks. Of course, a spurt can some- 
times be made in five grain, but all calculations 
should be based on averages. As to the al- 
leged case, when grain was threshed for ',$54, 
that a large steamer would charge $250 for, 
I think the gentleman has figured on the princi- 
ple, that a farmer's time is worth nothing, or 
else the job was so remote the steamer would 
have lost a great deal of time in getting to it. 
In practice nothing can beat a first-class steamer 
for economy, certainty and dispatch. I know 
of several cases where small horse powers were 
used, and the board alone of the men and horses 
amounted to more than a good steamer would 
have charged. It is absurd to say that on a 
large machine the men are in each other's way. 

I am tempted to believe the writer never saw 
a large steam thresher in operation. As well 
advise the farmer to make his own plows, 
wagons, boots, cloth, lumber, etc. The ten- 
dency of the times is to specialties. No man 
can master a dozen trades. W. S. Prosser. 

Auburn, Cal. 

[We can assure our correspondent that the 
writer of the article to which he refers has cer. 
tainly had every opportunity to be well informed 
on the threshing problem. — Eds. Press.] 



Shoe-hekls of Cocoanut Fiber.— The out- 
side fiber of the cocoanut is now used in Eng- 
land in forming shoe-heels. The product is 
said to be one of the best substitutes for leather 
thus far devised for the purpose. The disinte- 
grated fiber is stamped into form under a 
heavy pressure, apparently after .being mixed 
with some cementing liquor. 



Seedling vs. Grafted Chestnuts— Or Cha- 
taignes against Marrons. 

Editors Press: — In its issue of the 15th inst., 
the Weekly Bulletin, under the head of "Seed- 
ling vs. Grafted Chestnuts," expresses itself in 
this way: 

It is claimed, that grafted chestnuts |are much better 
than seedlings, in size, flavor and bearing qualities. This 
is stated in the catalogue of a nurseryman who wishes to 
sell grafted trees at $1.25 apiece, and considers it best to 
denounce seedlings of the best imported French, Italian 
and Japanese chestnuts. The truth is, that ninety-nine 
hundredths of the chestnuts sold in the markets of the 
world are grown on seedling trees, which are unequaled 
for beauty and health. Soil and climate produce the great 
difference observable in chestnuts from different localities. 
The largest, smoothest, sweetest chestnuts ever seen in 
the San Francisco markets were produced on some young 
seedling trees, the nuts on a dozen trees presenting no 
perceptible differences, thus showing the availability of 
seedling stock for general orchard purposes. 

The first chestnuts borne on a young tree are likely to 
have a thicker skin over the kernel than is shown in later 
crops, but a careful examination of nuts from both 
grafted and seedling trees will convince an unbiased ob- 
server that the advantages claimed in this respect for tiie 
grafted trees, exist more in fancy than in fact. If a per- 
son is planting out a few trees near the house, the grafted 
trees are suitable enough, but with chestnuts, as with 
walnuts, seedlings from well chosen nuts will prove the 
best and most profitable for large groves. 

As I happen to be the nurseryman alluded to 
in the Bulletin's article, "who wishes to sell 
grafted trees at $1.25 apiece," and for which I 
am denounced by this champion of the seedling 
nut, I will here rise to a question of privilege 
not only to defend myself against the imputa- 
tion of overrating the qualities of the grafted 
kinds of chestnuts for the sake of selling trees 
at a high price, but more so to set right before 
the public the question just raised by the Bul- 
letin, "whether grafted chestnuts are an im- 
provement on seedlings." California is a young 
and wonderful State, and it is in order to com- 
pare the results of our respective experiments, 
and in this way decide what is the best in the 
interest of the people and for the prosperity of 
the State. 

First, the Bulletin has a pecuniary interest in 
advocating the Japanese chestnut, and makes 
the bold assertion, in behalf of its pet: First, 
that the American chestnut is not adapted to 
our dry climate; second, that the Japanese 
chestnut is, for size and "flavor," superior to 
European kjnds; third, that ninety-nine hun- 
dredths of the chestnuts sold in the markets of 
the world — that is to be consumed by people as 
a "fruit" — are grown on seedling trees; fourth, 
that the first chestnuts borne on a young tree 
are likely to have/i thicker skin over the ker- 
nel than is shown in later crops; fifth, that 
with chestnuts and walnuts, seedlings from well 
chosen nuts will prove the best and most profit- 
able for large growers. 

In this way is the Bulletin interested in ad- 
vocating "seedlings," and thus pitching its Cha- 
taignes against the world -renowned Marrons. 
On the other hand, the advocate of Marrons 
said this in his catalogue in regard to the merits 
of grafted nuts: 

'The Marron de Lyon bears a nut that in most cases 
fills up the whole burr; it is large, roundish, very sweet 
and highly flavored, the pelicle of the kernel coming off 
easy from the rather Bmooth surface. The Combalc is not 
quite as large, but more productive, and in flavor and 
beauty of the nut do not differ any from the Lyon. In 
quality, the California Marron tie, Lyon and Marron Coin- 
bale are not in the least inferior to the French nuts, but 
certainly superior to any seedlings 'sot far raised in this 
part of the country.' At any rate, those are the two hest 
recommended varieties for market, and the ones most 
generally cultivated in Southern Europe, where nut rais- 
ing constitutes an important branch of commerce." 

Your readers will notice that in speaking of 
seedling trees, I said "seedlings so far raised in 
this part of the country," meaning Nevada 
county. What I said about them, alas! is too 
true, as every one here having such trees is 
ready to testify. Here is the history of the 

Seedling Chestnuts 

That are seen almost in every garden around 
Nevada City and Grass Valley. In 1868 Messrs. 
Joseph Leme. proprietor of the French garden, 
now dead, and A. Isoard, both of this place, im- 
ported from France the finest Marrons de Lyon 
that could be obtained by paying well for it. 
Mr. Leme planted the nuts upon his own place, 
and in the years 1870 aud "71, sold in Nevada 
City and Grass Valley hundreds of trees in lots 
of one to ten. Those trees are now 11 years old, 
and most of them are, and have been bearing 
for some years. On my place is one of them, 
which this year was almost breaking down un- 
der the burden of the nuts. All those trees are 
very thrifty, and appear to be right at home in 
our mountains. 

I would then propose to the Bulletin, who 
has agents and correspondents in the above- 
named places, to send through them for infor- 
mation concerning those seedling trees, and they 
will surely find out that I have not in the least 
exaggerated the defects of the seedling chest- 
nuts as grown in this part of the country. This 
is a fair proposition and the best one, I should 
think, to settle the question at issue and con- 
firm the assertion I madcpublically in regard to 
the seedling chestnut. 

Now to dispose of that other assertion of the 
Bulletin, that the American chestnut does not 
appear to be adapted to our dry climate, I would 
invite the man of the quill to come over here, 
for I will take pleasure in showing him about 



this place American chestnuts one ft. in diam- 
eter, and that seem to be as well at home here 
as any "Japanese" chestnut with the mammoth 
fruit would be. Before going any further, how- 
ever, I will give, for the benefit of your readers, 
some facts and figures on 

Chestnut Culture 

In general. Whether the trees to be raised are 
to be grafted or not it is always better to select 
for seed the largest, finest and healthiest nuts; 
in the fall or beginning of winter the nuts have 
to be planted in a box of damp sand, by layers, 
the box being kept in a cellar. The nuts may 
be planted, too, in a hole in the open ground, a 
layer of chestnut leaves being first thrown in 
the bottom of the hole, on top of that a layer of 
nuts, then another layer of leaves, and so on to 
the top, which has to be properly covered with 
two or three inches of earth so as to prevent the 
frost injuring the nuts. In February or March, 
according to places, the nuts are taken out and 
planted in drills to a depth of three to four 
inches; less for smaller seed like American chest- 
nuts. If the nuts have sprouted when taken 
out of the sand or hole where they have been 
kept during the winter, as it is most generally 
the case, they must be planted with the sprout 
up, if not, sideways, but never the small end 
down. So it is with walnuts, almonds and fil- 
berts, and also the pits of peaches, apricots and 
plums. This point is quite important with 
chestnuts and walnuts, so as to obtain stalks 
very straight; then when the nuts are planted 
wrong, upside down, the sprout is liable to re 
main buried in the ground where it will finally 
rot. 

In the southeast of France chestnuts are ex- 
tensively cultivated, and the valleys of the Ce- 
vennes and the Department of Ardeche and Var, 
can be seen numerous and regular orchards of 
"grafted" chestnuts, the Bulletin's assertion to 
the contrary, notwithstanding which orchards 
are well taken care of and produce those fine 
marrons known as Marrons de Lyon, because 
Lyon is the shipping place for that class of nuts. 
In those chestnut orchards they use two kinds 
of 

Grafting. 

Whistle budding and cleft grafting in the 
spring, and ring or annular budding in the fall; 
shield budding, however, is sometimes resorted 
to. On my place, on account of having more 
leisure to do it at that time of the year, I bud 
my trees in the fall of the year, in August and 
September, and generally employ ring-budding. 
In former numbers of the Press I have given 
your readers a full description of whistle and 
ring-budding; and for the benefit of your new 
subscribers, for I understand that the Rural 
Press is increasing its circulation wonderfully, 
I will, without fears of repeating myself, tell 
again your readers, old and new, how to per- 
form that delicate operation. If done in the 
fall of the year, a ring of bark from one to two 
inches wide is taken from a limb or stock, and 
one of corresponding size, containing one or two 
buds, is put in its place. Tho way to take up a 
ring of bark is to run two horizontal cuts clear 
around the limb or stock with a sharp knife, 
and a longitudinal one between the two; 
then by working the bark with the spatula of 
the budding knife and the fingers, being very 
careful not to hurt the buds internally, the ring 
of the bark will come off very easy. If the ring 
of the bark should be too long, a piece must be 
taken from it to make it fit; if, on the contrary, 
the cion would be too small, the ring taken 
from the cion might extend only three-fourths 
the way around the stock. Tie a bandage pretty 
firmly over the whole, and if the trees have al- 
ready a rather heavy stalk, tie it to a little 
stake to prevent the wind breaking it down, as 
it is o'ten the case, not with chestnuts, but 
with walnuts, which are quite pithy. After 
two or three weeks the bandage has to be taken 
off, and, in the ensuing spring, the top of the 
stock or limb is cut down three inches above 
the budding. Whistle budding is done in the 
spring, the stock and cion have to be both of 
the same size and well in sap. The top of the 
stock is cut down to several inches from the 
ground; a circular ring of bark is then taken 
of, and a corresponding ring from the cion, but 
without a longitudinal cut, is put in its place. 
In inserting it, people should see that the top 
of the stock, which is to receive the ring from 
the cion, be very smooth and the latter is then 
easily driven around it. 

In the southeast of France, the owners of those 
fine chestnut orchards have always on their 
places several trees of the best "grafted" kinds 
whose branches are cut back every other year, 
about April, so as to have them throw out snoots 
of new wood to supply them with cions to do 
their budding and grafting. Chestnuts are di- 
vided into two classes, the 

Chataignes and Marrons. 

The chataignes are the fruit of the seedling 
chestnuts; the burs contain three to seven nuts, 
and they are so much pressed against each 
other that it gives them a different shape, some 
being flat on both sides, others only on one 
side, while others still are triangular. Here, 
so vigorous is the growth under our hot 
sun that the shell of the chestnut 
proper is liable so split open. I found 40% of 
my seedlings to split open, and the grafted 
kinds, or marrons, are not free from it either, 
though I had only 5% splitting open. Some 
chataiijnes have as good a flavor and are as 
sweet as marrons. In France chataignes are 
not sold like marrons to be eaten either roasted 
or boiled; they are dried to be preserved; in 
some places they make fiour out of dried cha- 
taignes, and bread, cakes, etc., on which poor 



people live. Cattle, hogs and hens are also 
on dried chataignes, by mixing it to their feed. 
The main difference between the marron and 
chataigne lies in the marron being a great deal 
larger, one nut, two at the most, filling up the 
whole burr. As the marron degenerates by 
the seed, this is the reason why the French or- 
chardists who raise chestnuts to be exported as 
fruit and not to be dried to make mush for 
poor people, or feed for cattle, hogs and hens, 
do "graft" their trees with the very best kinds 
they have on hand. You may say that there is 
not a pound of chestnuts shipped from Lyon to 
supply the markets of the world that does not 
come from the orchards of the Cevennes, Ar- 
deche and Var, where all trees are grafted with 
the best kinds of marrons. In view of this fact 
what can we say of the Bulletin's assertion that 
those fine and large chestnuts sold as Marrons 
de Lyon, are grown on seedling trees? The 

Chestnut Crop 

In France is not regular every year, for if it 
rains when the pistillate blossoms or catkins are 
out, or if it blows hard at the time the little 
burrs are taking shape, or if the summer is too 
hot, the crop is bad. An orchard of grafted 
trees gives between 100 and 150 lbs. of nuts per 
tree. Every chestnut orchardist has on his 
farm a little nursery of hia own, where every 
year he plants nuts and graft trees, which trees 
are set out when four to rive years old, and at a 
distance all round of 50 to 60 ft. The seedling 
or chataigne is more productive than the grafted 
tree or marron; it bears sooner, too. Whenever 
chestnuts are raised for food or feed for ani- 
mals, seedling trees ought to be preferred on ac- 
count of yielding larger crops. 

It is well to experiment on seedlings in Cal- 
ifornia, for it is through seedlings that new and 
valuable varieties of fruit are obtained. The 
best way to proceed for obtaining new varieties 
of chestnuts and propagate them is to plant, 
say 100 seedlings of the best kinds, select among 
them those that bear the largest and best flav- 
ored nuts, then graft with them all the other 
trees whose fruit might prove either worthless 
or inferior. Of course, a great many people do 
not care about experimenting; they are eager 
to have nice fruit at once, either for their own 
use or for market purposes, and they will rather 
apply to the nurseryman who keeps for them 
the best known grafted kinds; they "know" 
then what sort of a nut their tree will yield. 
To obtain those varieties of chestnuts that have 
put so high the name of Lyon, has not been the 
work of a year, neither of ten; it is long, long 
ago that the people of those countries went to 
work to improve the wild kinds of their for- 
ests. It required time and patience. Shall we 
do like them, groping along in the dark, wait- 
ing patiently years and years for a variety to 
bear, and more years to improve it; or availing 
ourselves of the experience and discoveries of 
those past generations, accept gratefully from 
their hands their improved varieties and raise 
them? Such is the question. From the seed 
all kinds of fruit can be raised, it is true, but 
what kinds? Let the Bulletin man try his hand 
at planting Languedoc, or paper shell almonds, 
to see what sort of a nut he will obtain. Even 
with walnuts there is only two kinds that repro- 
duce themselves "exactly," true to seed, viz: 
the Prceparturiens and Gand walnuts. 

Conclusion. 

As to that other assertion of the Bulletin that 
the first chestnuts borne on a young tree are 
likely to have a thicker skin over the kernel 
than is shown in later crops, it is totally incor- 
rect. We have here seedling trees 12 years old, 
which have always borne the same kind of nuts 
for the last six or eight years. And on my own 
place, I had nuts from rive and six year old 
grafted trees that were exactly, except in size, 
like the nuts from the older trees, some 15 years 
old. I am positive on that point, which I have 
eagerly watched. The varieties of marrons that 
I have so far grown and propagated in Califor- 
nia, I introduced into this State from their home 
in the southeast of France, in the winter of 
1870-71. I have waited patiently ever since to 
find out what kind of nuts they would bear in 
California, not precisely on the imported trees, 
but on the trees grown and grafted right here. 
It was last year that for the first time I had 
nuts on these California grafted trees, and I sent 
to the Press samples of both grafted and seed- 
ling kinds. Yourreaders maynotrememberwhat 
the Press said about it,but I know that it was all 
in favor of the grafted nuts. So it is not on 
mere theory or fancy, as the Bulletin openly in- 
timates, that I base my opinion about the wide 
difference between the two kinds as grown in 
this county, but on facts, experience and the 
very products of the kinds themselves. Whether 
by having had enterprise, foresight and knowl- 
edge enough in introducing those new varieties 
of fruit into California I make some money by 
it, it is immaterial /o the public at large. The 
question is simply this: Are the facts advanced 
by me true, and are those new varieties of fruit 
"genuine" and "true to name?" Never mind; 
if I charge $1 a tree for 75 or 100 trees that I 
have on hand, as long as there is no cheating, 
no deceiving on my part, that's all the public 
has a right to ask. 

I hope that I have not trespassed on your val- 
uable time and the patience of my friends of 
the Press, but since you have been kind enough 
to give a wide circulation to my experiments in 
introducing into this State the best varieties of 
fruit known in Europe, I believe that it was due 
to me to be allowed to explain myself as I have 
in the columns of the Press. 

Felh Gillet. 

Nevada City, Dec. 20, 1880. 



36 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 15, 1881. 




Petitions Authorized by the National 
Grange. 



At its last session the National Grange author- 
ized several forms of petitions to be signed by 
the members of subordinate Granges, and others 
who approve them, and to be forwarded with 
the names attached to the Representatives and 
Senators at Washington from the districts and 
States where the petitioners reside. The fol- 
lowing are the forms : 

The Railroad Petition 

To the lion. 

We, the undersigned, citizens of the Congressional dis- 
trict which you have the honor to represent, respectfully 
submit. That the carrying trade of our country, as at 
present controlled, is an oppression to the people. Near- 
ness to market, though a natural advantage, cannot be 
profitably utilized by either producer or consumer. And 
through rates of transportation always discriminate in 
favor of those who can and do combine to oppress the pub- 
lic. 

We therefore respectfully but urgently request you to 
favor such Congressional legislation upon the subject of 
inter-State commerce as will secure equality of priviliges 
for all our citizens in the matter of transportation, and 
require freight rates to be in proportion to services rend- 
ered. 

NAMES. NAUES. 

Secretary of Agriculture. 

To the Bon. 

Sir:— The farmers of the United States, with their 
families, constitute a majority of our entire population ; 
their products aggregate 85% of our annual cxportations, 
and their labor causes an annual increment of the wealth 
of our common country. And yet, seldom is a voice heard 
in their behalf upon the floor of our National Legislature, 
and never have they or their vocation had a representa- 
tive at the council board of our National Executive. 

Therefore, we, the undersigned, respectfully request you 
to favor the bill now pending before Congress, which pro- 
poses to make the Commissioner of Agriculture a member 
nf the President's Cabinet. 

NAMES. NAMES. 

Revision of Patent Laws. 

To the lion. 

We, the undersigned, a portion of your immediate con- 
stituency, respectfully and earnestly call your attention to 
the inadequacy of our existing patent laws to protect in- 
nocent purchasers against the imposition of fraudulent 
vendors of patents and patent rights. Radical changes 
are necessary to secure this protection, and we urgently 
request, and expect you to attempt to effect such changes 
before the expiration of the present Congress. 

NAMES NAME*. 

Income Tax. 

To the Bon. 

Sir:— Govemmont was instituted, among other things, 
to protect property. Reciprocally, therefore, it is the 
duty of property to assist in maintaining Government. 
All capital is property, whether it be monetary invest- 
ments, or real or personal estate. And the wealth arising 
from the interest accruing upon invested capital is as 
tangible, and should be as taxable as the home of the 
farmer or the machine shop of the mechanic 

We, therefore, respectfully request you, as our Repre- 
sentative in Congress, to advocate the passageof an. In- 
come Tax Bill, that the burden of taxation may be equally 
and justly imposed upon tho wealth of the country. 

KAMES. NAMES 



Roseville Grange Ball.— The event of the 
season came off last Friday evening. Despite 
the howling wind and pattering rain youth and 
beauty turned out in large numbers to the Gran- 
gers' ball given at the Roseville house. Both 
rooms were tastefully [decorated, showing that ar- 
tistic hands had been at work. The First Infan- 
try band of Sacramento discoursed sweet music, 
and the lovers of Terpsichore "tripped the light 
fantastic" till the "weesma' hours." The great 
success of the entire affair is due to the untir- 
ing efforts of the committee of arrangements, 
consisting of Messrs. Mertes, Frank Cavitt and 
M. Anderson. The supper was quite a feature. 
The table groaned under the weight of good 
things, all furnished by the Sisters of Roseville 
Grange. This part of the programme was ar- 
tistically arranged by Mrs. Mertes, Mrs. Leo- 
nard, Mrs. Cross, Mrs. Cavitt and Mrs. Daly. 
The spread was made at Good Templars' Hall, 
and was all that heart could wish. Eighty-four 
persons could be seated at once, and the tables 
were filled three times, and plenty of provisions 
left for as many more. The Grangers at this 
place will commence tho erection of a hall next 
spring. — Placer Herald. 



Yuba City Grange.— The great feature of 
New Year's day in Yuba City was the enter- 
tainment given by tho Yuba City Grange. That 
society in accordance with arrangements made, 
publicly installed its officers elect, and after 
the exercises, spread a feast to which every- 
body was invited. The ceremony of installation 
began at 11 o'clock a. m., and was highly in- 
teresting throughout. The 1 attendance was 
large. About noon the banquet began, and for 
three hours a table laden with the good things 
of earth, prepared as only Sutter county wives 
know how to prepare such things, was sur- 
rounded by happy Grangers and their guests, 
whose appetites, sharpened by anticipation, 
enabled them to wage a war of destruction upon 
the palatable viands set before them, whieh re- 
sulted in such a rapid disappearance of edibles 
as left no doubt in the minds of the ladies who 
prepared it as to the manner in which the feast 
was appreciated. Good cheer and sociability 
seemed to be the order of the day, every atten- 
tion was shown the guests, and nothing left 
undone that could conduce to the comfort and 
entertainment of all present. —Sutter Banner. 



Address from the National Lecturer. 

To the subordinate Granges in the United 
States, P. of H. : The National Grange, at the 
annual session held in November, 1880, in- 
structed the Lecturer to issue quarterly circu- 
lars containing subjects for consideration and 
discussion in subordinate Granges. In compli- 
ance therewith I have issued the following for 
the first quarter for 1881: 

Lecturers of subordinate Granges are re- 
quested to bring before their Grange meetings 
the subjects named for each month, accom- 
panied by such remarks and suggestions as in 
their opinion will accomplish the greatest good. 
The object is to educate alike, and at the 
same time, the entire membership in the whole 
country, and form a more fraternal relationship 
between members and Granges. 

H. Eshbough. 

Hanover, Jefferson Co., Mo. 
Subjects for subordinate Granges for this 
month are Nos. 1 and 2. 

Question 1.— Howcan we advance the social advantages 
of the Order to greater usefulness to members of our 
Grange? 

Suggestions. — Consult the interest, feeling 
and wishes of others; do as you wish to be done 
by; a daily practice of that fraternal feeling, due 
from one member to another. 

Question 2. — How can we best educate ourselves as Pa- 
trons of Husbandry, as farmers and as citizens, for gen- 
eral usefulness? 

Suggestions.— By reading Grange literature; 
by thinking more for ourselves; by considering 
and discussing questions pertaining to our inter- 
est and organization; by making our Grange 
meetings farmers', schools. We must so educate 
ourselves as to fully understand agriculture and 
its importance, and a just distribution of its ad- 
vantages. We must become familiar with the 
laws of trade, political economy and the affairs 
of government. Co-operation is a necessity. 



Meeting of the Grangers' Bank. 

At a meeting of the stockholders of the Gran- 
gers' Bank of California, held Tuesday after- 
noon, the following directors were elected to 
serve during the ensuing year: G. W. Colby, 
Butte county, President; John Lewelling, Napa 
county, Vice-President ; H. M. Larue, Yolo 
county; Seneca Ewer, Napa county; I. C. Steele, 
S»n Mateo county; J. C. Merrifield, Solano 
county; T. B. Tynan, Stanislaus county; Daniel 
Rhoads, Mussel Slough, Tulare county; C. J. 
Cressey, Merced county; Uriah Wood, San 
Benito county; A. D. Logan, Colusa county. 

The financial statement made by the Gran- 
gers' Bank of California, at the close of the 
year just ended, is eminently significant, evidenc- 
ing, as it does, the rapidly augmenting popular 
favor with which the bank is regarded in the 
wheat-growing and agricultural districts of the 
State. As compared with 1879, the loans show 
an increase of over §1,027,000, made strictly on 
wheat suitable for shipping and allowing a good 
margin for security. The assets aggregate §1,- 
700, S00, against $673,800. The profits of the 
year were §43,500 on a paid up capital of §400,- 
000. This has permitted the declaring of a div. 
idend of nearly 11%, 9% of which will be dis- 
tributed among the stockholders and nearly 
2% will be carried over to the reserve fund. 
This year will undoubtedly be an excellent one 
for our agricultural interests. As these inter- 
ests are essentially the basis of the bank's pros- 
perity, a largely increased and very valuable 
year's business is assured. 

Those interested in the work of the bank or 
in the sight of fine cereals should not fail to ask 
a view of Manager Montpellier'a sanctum in 
which he has samples of California's best wheat 
arranged, named and classified. Mr. Montpel- 
lier's distribution of choice varieties for test- 
sewing is attracting much attention and appli- 
cations are coming in from all parts of the 
coast. The work is an excellent one and will 
prove of much service to our grain-growing 
interests. 



Resolutions of Respect 

Edkn Granuk, No. 106, has adopted resolutions of re- 
spect to the memory of William Meek, and expressing the 
deep senBe of loss which pervades the members at his sud- 
den removal from among them.— |L. Ii. Anway, Maud F. 
Russell, Leonard Stone, Committee. 



Legislative. 

The Legislature convened at Sacramento on 
Monday, January 3d, and the Governor's 
annual message was presented. We are unable 
to give the whole of this very full document, 
ut give elsewhere the portions pertaining to 
the agricultural interests. 

Mr. W. H. Parks, of Yuba Co., was elected 
Speaker of the House. Following officers were 
elected: McStay was elected Chief Clerk; Ser- 
geant-at-Arms, Ezekiel Walker; Thos. Frazer, 
Speaker pro tern.; F. M. Pauley, Minute Clerk; 
J. H. Riley, Journal Clerk; Jacob Shane, En- 
grossing Clerk; R. M. Apgar, Assistant Ser- 
geant-at-Arms; D. H. Rand, Postmaster; Rev. 
Dr. Deal, Chaplain. 

Wm. Johnson, President pro tern; Secretary, 
Marcus D. Boruck; Assistant Secretaries, Jas. 
A. Orr, C. J. Johnson; Bert McNulty, Minute 
Clerk; J. R. Brierly, Journal Clerk; Edward C. 
Humphrey, Engrossing Clerk; Mrs. Whitting- 
ham, Postmistress; Sergeant-at-Arms, Andrew 
Wasson ; Assistant Sergeant-at-Arms, D. B. 
Kingery. 



CALIFORNIA. 

BUTTE. 

A Breeding Farm.— Chico Record: TheEs- 
quon, or Gridley grant lying on the east side of 
Butte creek, near Nelson station, has been sold 
by the Trustees of the Gridley estate to Gov. 
Leland Stanford, for the sum of §850,000. This 
grant contains over 15,000 acres of the finest 
farming land in that section of the country. 
We believe that it is the intention of Gov. 
Stanford to convert the grant into » stock farm. 

CONTRA COSTA. 

Cannery. — Martinez OazeUe, Jan. 8: It is the 
current report that parties who have for some 
time past been convinced that Martinez afforded 
great advantages for the establishment of a 
salmon and fruit canning factory, have arranged 
the terms of a lease for the old mill property, 
with the owner, Dr. Strentzel, and intend to 
prepare it at once for commencing the business 
of canning salmon, the season for which will be 
over before that for canning fruit opens. The 
fish will be taken as delivered from the fishing 
boats, and dressed upon a barge moored at the 
water front, whence they will be taken to the 
factory ready for the canning process. We do 
not positively know that this new industrial un- 
dertaking here has been absolutely determined 
upon by the gentlemen who have had it in con- 
templation, but the report that it has been, 
from what we do know of the matter, we think 
entitled to credit, and believe the enterprise, if 
properly managed, will turn out successfully. 

FRESNO. 

Njw Ditching Machine — Republican, Jan. 
10: Mr. J. M. Church, President of the Fresno 
Irrigation Co., has perfected and had con- 
structed under his supervision, after plans of his 
own conception, a new device for excavating 
ditches. His great practical experience in the 
construction of canals, in which business he has 
used all kinds of machinery heretofore con- 
structed, and none of them coming up to his 
ideas in performing their work, he came to the 
determination to have a machine built to meet 
his views in every particular. The result is a 
sulky plow of large proportions, with a mov- 
able mold board, that can be expanded or con- 
tracted at pleasure by a simple arrangement, so 
that any size, width or depth of furrow can be 
thrown out, from 2 to 10 ft. The land side is 
long and has a swivel wheel attached, with le- 
ver attached for raising and lowering, which is 
used to support the rear weight of the plow 
when moving from point to point, and in turn- 
ing around. Mr. Church has made with this 
machine 6 miles of canal, 20 ft. wide and 4 ft. 
deep, in less than a week, and the work is well 
done. This machine undoubtedly solves the 
problem of leveling cheaply our "hog-wallow" 
lands, and as to constructing roads, it must 
prove invaluable. 

Kingsburo News. — K H., in Republican; 
Fresno county papers justly feel proud of the 
success of its colony schemes, and the grand 
strides the whole surrounding country is making 
in its increased productiveness and wealth; and 
we can smother any envy that may arise in our 
hearts when we see more space given to colony 
enterprise than to that portion of our county 
farther away from the county seat, and appar- 
ently of less interest, when we know that we 
are not behind in the march of improvement, 
but only apparently so because the improve- 
ments are scattered over more territory. Three 
years ago we raised our first crop of wheat that 
amounted to enough to make a note of, and ir- 
rigation had only commenced. We raised, that 
year, abont 800 tons of wheat and 200 tons of 
barley, in the Mendocino and Kingsburg section, 
while the Emigrant ditch conntry produced 
about 2,000 tons of wheat and barley. The 
next year, 1879, was a dry season, and, not- 
withstanding, we raised between 400 and 500 
tons of wheat; all on irrigated lands. This sea- 
son we have produced about 6,500 tons, of 
which amount 4,000 tons have been shipped 
from Kingsburg, and 1,400 tons are now in the 
warehouse. The remainder is stored at Wile- 
flower and Selma. This does not take into ac- 
count the barley raised nor the amount in the 
hands of the farmers for seed. At §20 per ton, 
the above would amount to the snug sum of 
§130,000. Wheat is only a portion of the 
crops raised by our fanners, and must not lead 
to the belief that while we are busily sowing 
and harvesting we are neglecting other things 
of equal importance. Orchards have been 
planted, and are coming into bearing. Vine- 
yards are also to be found on almost every farm 
where there is water, and though five or six 
acres is now about the largest in size, nearly 
every one will be doubled the coming spring. 
Several thousand fruit trees will also be set this 
spring, and several contemplate planting a num- 
ber of acres as soon as the trees can be grown 
from the seed and budded. Apricots, necta- 
rines, plums and prunes are the varieties most 
desired. The favorable opening of the present 
winter has given great encouragement to far- 
mers, and nearly, if not quite, double the land 
seeded last year will be put in wheat this sea- 
son, and in much better condition. 

Nevada Colony Notes. — More improve- 
ments of a substantial nature will be made on 
the Nevada colony this winter and spring than 
all previous years combined, each succeeding 
year furnishing additional testimony as to the 
desirability and value of colony homes. The 



finishing touches are now being put on J. T 
Goodman's beautiful cottage, and in a few days 
it will be ready for occupancy. His 30 acres of 
vineyard together with 30 acres more to be 
planted next month, will soon be surrounded 
by a substantial rabbit-proof fence. The force 
of teams now engaged in leveling will be kept 
steadily at work until the entire 130 acres com- 
prising his tract will be as level as possible. J. 
W. Reese is preparing to put his 20 acres in de- 
ciduous fruits and grapes this spring. N. M. 
Trezevant has his house completed, and is busily 
engaged preparing his 40 acres for trees and 
vines. J. M. Donahue, our enterprising lum- 
ber merchant, will add 10 acres of wine and 
raisin vines to his vineyard next month. 8. L. 
Nutting writes us from Westford, Mass., that 
he will be here by the 1st of February to com- 
mence active operations on his 40-acre farm. He 
has seen no country in his travels that can com- 
pare with Fresno. Messrs. Schroder, Green, 
Stutzman,Deswert and Blight are also preparing 
to make good improvements. The large dryer is 
complete, and only awaits fruit in sufficient quan- 
tities to make a start, thus furnishing the colon- 
ists with a ready market for all fruits suitable 
for canning or drying at their very doors. 

HUMBOLDT. 

Editors Press: — As I see so few communi- 
cations from Humboldt county, I expect a few 
items might interest some of your readers. The 
winter has opened very mild so far. We have 
had just rain enough for farming; grass is the 
finest I have ever seen at this time of year, and 
the prospects look bright for 1881. Items in 
general are scarce, at present. In this valley 
the farmers are all busy plowing, sowing grass 
and planting fruit trees. The salmon fishing in 
Eel river has been better this winter than ever 
before. We have a Grange Business Association 
in this place which is doing a flourishing busi- 
ness. The warehouses at this place are full of 
produce, waiting for the steamer Ferndale to 
transfer them to San , Francisco. — Old Sub- 
scriber, Ferndale. 

LOS ANGELES 

A Sant' Anna. — Editors Prens: Imagine 
the most diabolically mischievous and treacher- 
ous force running amuck among things most 
dear and sacred, and then imagine the necessity 
of giving the thing so respectable a name. 
Sunday morning, Jan. 2d, as we sat enjoying 
our late breakfast, a cloud came out of the east, 
terrible as an army with banners. Shingles and 
shakes, the duds left on the clothes line, sud- 
denly went whirling on the wings of the wind, 
and in a twinkling all the coffee plants and 
other tender things were stripped bare of their 
straw covers, while branches of grevillea, and 
large limbs of our still green elms were yanked 
from the trunks, and carried hither and yon, as 
if in wantoness of evil purpose. It was so dry 
that it licked up every particle of soil it could 
carry — for water there was none, and our 
roads and drives after its passage looked as 
thongh swept with a broom. Oranges heavy 
with fruit it tossed and tore limb from limb, 
sparing the unfruitful; other trees it uprooted. 
"A visitor from Riverside," "a balmy breath 
from beyond the Cajon," the neighbors said. 
Once only, six years ago, there was such a high 
wind, say the elders of the colony. I had heard 
much of "Sant' Annas," and supposed they 
never mounted the mesa land, but were confined 
to lower and more level reaches. This was of 
the same type as the northers up above, only 
more "suddent like," and personally spiteful. 
Thanks to the tap roots of the orange, no per- 
manent damage was done to the orchards, but 
such ducking and courtesying attitude as some 
of the pines and cypresses wear, is enough to 
make one wonder if the true name of the demon 
is not "Satana." I shall so pronounce it. It is 
amusing to note the modification which an hour's 
experience of this kind gives to the bragging 
about our local climates. I am ready to own 
that we have winds, yea frosts, nevertheless our 
tomatoes and strawberries are abundant and de- 
licious. I am willing to state this as a fact, in 
the presence of Sister Kimball, of National City, 
or Sister Evans, of Riverside, and I hasten to do 
it, lest I may soon catch myself saying, "We 
never have those Sant. " But for that ill wind, 
I should never have been able to manufacture 
new tops to my trees. There is a silver lining, 
I guess, to even the dust storms of the desert, 
but unless we speak the truth we can hardly 
expect to find it. — J. C. C, Pasadena, January 
8, 1881. 

Bare of Wine. — Herald, Jan. 10: Our 
viniculturists in one respect find themselves 
very much embarrassed. Though the vintages 
have never been so abundant as during the 
last year, they have steadily allowed their eel- 
ars to be depleted. It is dispiriting to know 
that, of all the Blaue Elba and other light 
wines which have been made in Los Angeles 
county during the past five years, scarcely a 
pipe over two years old remains with us. We 
are glad to know that, hereafter, provision is 
to be made for the future. A large part of this 
year's wine yield will go into the cellars of our 
viguerons and will be kept there until age has 
mellowed it and brought out a delicious bouquet 
which is seldom approached in any country. 
Mr. Arpad Haraszthy in an article contributed 
by him to a Sacramento paper, says that the 
whole State is stripped bare of sweet wines. 
Such wine makers as Mr. L. J. Rose in their 
eagerness to meet the Eastern demand for Cali- 
fornia wines half way, have simply cleaned out 
their cellars in the past. Per contra, we learn 
that abont 150,000 gallons of wine at Sunny 
Slope will this year be kept in stock. 



January 15, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FBESS 



37 



NAPA. 

Vine Cuttings. — Yountville Cor. Register: 
The grape business is booming. The demand 
for cuttings is immense. Certain varieties are 
all engaged in most of the vineyards. H. W. 
Crabb had an order a few days ago from San 
Joaquin county for 400,000 cuttings. 
SANTA CLARA. 

Agricultural Society. — Herald, Jan. 8: A 
meeting of the Santa Clara Valley Agricultural 
Society for the annual election of officers, the 
presentation and consideration of reports, will 
be held on Thursday, the 20th inst., at City 
Market hall, San Jose. 
SANTA CRUZ. 

Editors Press: — We are having delightful 
weather; warm, bright sunny days and clear, 
moonlight nights. The garden is gay with flow- 
ers, humming-birds and butterflies. The air is 
melodious with the song of birds. The hills 
and meadows are carpeted with luxuriant grass. 
The evergreen oaks and redwoods are putting 
on their new garments and gradually dropping 
the darker hued leaves of the old year. The 
early sown grain is looking fine. The farmers 
are busy as bees, plowing, sowing and harrow- 
ing. The prospect for bread enough and to 
spare was never better at this season of the 
year. We had plentiful, bountiful rains at 
Christmas; and in accordance with a time hon- 
ored custom in our family, we had a Christmas 
family gathering. It was held in ourhouse,and 
although the weather was decidedly moist, there 
were 20 of our kith and kin gathered together 
in the best room at "Sunny Bank." The little 
folks were fairly represented, for I had three 
grandsons, two grandnieces and one grand- 
nephew present. It was such a delightful time 
we had, that we all wished for many returns of 
Christmas. In decorating my house for this 
family party, there was one portion of the decor- 
ations of which I was exceedingly proud. It 
was the flowers — the blessed, beautiful flowers! 
If the editor of the Press will permit me, I 
should like to tell some of the dear old friends 
in Iowa, Illinois, Devonshire, Eng., and Man- 
trose, in Scotland (who I know will see the 
Press), the number and variety of flowers that 

I gathered in my own garden, in the open air, 
the afternoon of the day before Christmas, to 
decorate and adorn my house with. There were 
14 varieties of tea roses, 14 varieties geraniums, 

II varieties fuchias,6 abutilons, 4 of honeysuckle, 
4 of acacias, 4 of chrysanthemum, 3 of Veronica, 
3 periwinkle, 2 of salvia, 2 of solanum, alyssum, 
achania, antirrhinum, candytuft, coral flower, 
cobea scandeus, diasma alba, white feverfew, 
gilliflower, heliotrope, laurestinus, mahania, 
mignonette, narcissus, pomegranate, peperita 
gum, petunia, pansies, sweet violets, white val- 
erian, verbenas, wall flower, wax flower, tri- 
tomas, calla lilies, 2 varieties spirea and 2 of 
pinks, making 96 varieties of flowers, besides many 
beautiful foliage plants and climbers for pendants, 
and cypress, and silver fir, and redwood, and pep- 
per tree. Oh, they were enchanting ! It was hap- 
piness almost unalloyed to hear the exclamations 
of delight at the beauty of the flowers. I only 
wished that I could have all my friends from the 
far-away countries to have joined our Christmas 
party and enjoyed the beautiful flowers — Mar- 
tha Wilson, Santa Cruz. 

SONOMA. 

Broncho Grass. — Healdsburg Enterprise, 
Jan. 6: A species of grass called "broncho" 
has become quite abundant in some parts of 
this section and is proving an injury to sheep- 
men. It resembles the wild-oat, only being a 
smaller and finer herbage. It seeds profusely 
and propagates rapidly, although not an indig- 
enous growth. When matured, it is full of 
small stickers, which get into the wool, making 
shearing more difficult and injuring very much 
the value of that commodity, similar to burrs. 
The only consolation it affords is that it makes 
splendid feed. 
YOLO. 

Editors Press: — I have been living in Yolo 
county since 1854. We have had a number of 
dry years, so that we have not harvested any- 
thing; it was hard for us to make a living. In 
1861 our land was put on the market; at that 
time I made a proposal to my neighbors that it 
was necessary to look out for water, in case of 
a dry season. All were of the same opinion, 
but none of them did anything for the common 
benefit. I did not know enough of the English 
language to make my neighbors understand 
me, and when I saw that nobody cared to do 
anything, I said to myself, "All right; you 
take a rest and I'll work." Many of them are 
not better off now than they were in 1861, 
while they might have prospered, if we had 
had water for irrigating purposes. To-day, 
thank God, I can live on what I have made by 
hard work, while the others have to toil hard 
yet. Our Legislature, having passed the Debris 
bill, I must pay my taxes accordingly, and I 
would like to state my opinion as to what 
would benefit the public of Colusa, Yolo and 
Solano counties. There ought to be a canal 
made, taking the water from the Sacramento 
river, near Fremont, as well as from the Coast 
Range, Cache creek and Putah creek. I hope 
that our representative in the Legisla 
ture will pass a bill taxing all farms lying 
along the canal, at the rate of five cents per 
acre, which would bring enough money to fin- 
ish the great work in a number of years. It 
would be worth millions for these people, as 
they can make a living on 40 acres. I hope 
you will find my remarks worthy of being pub 
lished in your paper, as I would like to have 
the matter brought before the Legislature.— 
H. Fredericks, Woodland. 



An Agricultural Conference. 

There was held in Sacramento, in accordance 
with the invitation of the State Board of Agri- 
culture, a conference concerning subjects of 
general agricultural interests. The attendance 
was chiefly members of the State Board, some 
of whom also served as representatives of the 
districts in which they reside, together with 
other delegates, as follows: District No. 2, L. 
U. Shippee; District No. 3, Dr. Mason and Mr. 
Mcintosh; District No. 4, Wm. Zartman; Dis- 
trict No. 7, H. S. Ball, Jessie D. Carr; District 
No. 8, Thomas Fraser and Mr. Coloman; also 
Mathew Cooke, representing the State Horti- 
cultural Society. 

There was some discussion of the dates for 
holding the district fairs so as not to have the 
exhibitions collide upon the same dates. The 
dates as foreshadowed are as follows: Chico 
fair, Sept. 5th; Golden Gate fair, Oakland, 
Sept. 12th; Eldorado fair, Sept, 13th; State 
fair, Sacramento, Sept. 19; San Joaquin fair, 
Stockton, Sept. 27th; San Jose fair, Oct. 5th; 
Monterey fair, Oct. 12th; Lassen and Plumas, 
Oct. 12; Los Angeles fair, Oct. 23d. Some of 
these fairs are contemporaneous, but they are 
in distant districts. Some other exhibitions 
are not mentioned, as no reports of their dates 
were made. 

A communication from the State Horticultu- 
ral Society on the subject of the protection, by 
legislation, of fruit trees and grapevines from 
noxious insects, and a series of resolutions 
adopted by the Society were read, pointing out 
the danger to agricultural and horticultural in- 
terests from the rapid spread of noxious in- 
sects. These resolutions were given in our re- 



ne?y; 5, J. R. Weller; 6. Thomas Mott; 7, Jesse 
D. Carr; 8, Dana Perkins; 9, Dr. T. D. Felt; 
10, C. C. Bush; 11, John W. Thompson. 
Matthew Cooke, from the State Horticultural 
Society was added. 

Mr. Shippee offered a resolution, indorsing 
the suggestions in the message of Governor 
Perkins relative to District Societies gathering 
statistics of resources and production, etc., and 
reporting the same to the State Board. 
Adopted. 

Mr. Chase offered the following: 

Resolved, That it is the sense of this convention that all 
agricultural and horticultural matters of a public nature 
should be managed through the State Board of Agricul- 
ture, as a branch of the State Government. 

Mr. Newton offered the following: 
Resolved, That we are in favor of a rigid enforcement of 
the laws to prohibit gambling during the holding of State 
and District agricultural fairs on the grounds under con- 
trol of the societies. 

These resolutions were adopted. 

Our New Senator. 

We borrow from the Resources of California 
an excellent likeness of the new U. S. Senator from 
California, Gen. John F. Miller. Gen. Miller 
came to this State in 1853, and having received 
a thorough education in the profession of the 
law in New York and at his old home in South 
Band, Indiana, where for a time he practiced, 
he opened a law office at Napa, and commenced 
to practice at that place and in this city, reap- 
ing an honorable reputation, both with the 
members of the bar and the community gener 
ally. 

Called back to Indiana in 1856 by illness in 
his family, he was compelled to stay there for 
a time, much to his own regret, always having 
intended to make this State his permanent 




GEN. JOHN P. MILLER, U. S. SENATOR PROM CALIFORNIA. 



port of the Horticultural Society meeting in 
last week's Press. Mr. Cooke on the part of 
the Horticultural Society urged the resolutions 
upon the conference and citing the danger from 
noxious insects. Unless a law is passed to en- 
force a fight against it, it will blot out the grape 
interest. He told how the apple worm spread 
all over the State from one single tree, the fruit 
of which was not destroyed, and the boxes from 
which went to market. Fifteen cents a tree 
will kill out the worm, if only all men can be 
made to abate the nuisance. It is necessary to 
have a State Entomologist, but more necessary 
to have immediate action against the coddling 
moth, scale bug, phylloxera and red spider, all 
of which can be destroyed for a song; but there 
is no use for one to cleanse his orchard if the 
adjoining owner refuses. Mr. Larue said if 
something is not done soon we will have neither 
apples nor pears, in thi3 valley at least, and 
probably not in the mountains. Mr. Boggs 
moved that the matter b« referred to the legis- 
lative committee, to be appointed. Mr. Chase 
hoped the meeting would indorse the action of 
the Horticultural Society. The motion of Mr. 
Boggs prevailed unanimously. Mr. Chase 
moved the appointment of a legislative commit- 
tee to present to the Legislature the claims of 
the societies upon the State for aid in the ad- 
vancement of agricultural expositions. Mr. 
Chase's motion prevailed unanimously, after a 
long and exceedingly interesting discussion, in 
which nearly all present took an earnest part. 
The Record-Union says: "The discussion and 
interchange was very extended, full of enthusi- 
asm and marked by the highest spirit of true 
citizenship, anxious for the prosperity of the 
State. " Mr. Boggs moved that the legislative 
committee consist of one from each District So- 
ciety, to act with the three already named by 
the State Board. Carried, and the Chair 
named; District 1, A. C. Dietz; 2, L. U. Ship- 
pee; 3, J. W. B. Montgomery; 4, A. P. Whit- 



home. When Gov. Morton called the Legisla 
ture of Indiana together, at the time of the fir 
ing upon Fort Sumter, for the purpose of pro 
viding means for any requisition of men, etc., 
that the general government might make, Mil 
ler. who had served in the State Senate, was ap 
pointed by Gov. Morton as an aid on his staff 
with the rank of Colonel. Resigning his seat 
in the senate, he immediately of ganized the 29 th 
Regiment of Indiana Volunteers, and was ap 
pointed its Colonel, and early in October, 1861 
joined Gen. Rousseau's forces, then in Ken 
tucky. In the following February he succeeded 
to the command of a brigade, under Gen. Buell, 
who was then in and around Bowling Green 
and took a leading part in all the subsequent 
campaigns in that State. His war record is 
without a blemish. In all the military trusts 
that were given him, he showed the qualities 
of the soldier, and suffice it to say, that not a 
scintilla or breath of suspicion upon any 
act of his while in the army was ever brought 
against him, and the loss of one of his eyes at 
tests to his bravery and suffering while serving 
his country in the field. 

In September, 1865, he resigned his position 
in the army to return to California with his 
family, intending again to enter .into the prac- 
tice of his profession. Recognizing his worth, 
however, soon after his arrival he was appointed, 
by President Johnson, Collector of this port, 
which position he held until 1870, declining a 
re-appointment. Leaving public life, Gen. Mil- 
ler engaged in commercial pursuits, which gave 
the fullest exercise to his executive ability. 
He is now to go to Washington as successor to 
Senator Booth. 



Compliment to an Agent. — Prof. W. A. 
Sanders, of Fresno county, reports an interview 
with our agent, Mr. Kelleher, and gives him 
high praise for his zeal and diligence in the ser- 
vice of the Pre^s. 



News in Brief. 

Corn product of Los Angeles county for 
1880, 800,000 bushels. 

The fire insurance companies report a poor 
business during the year. 

Later advices do not confirm the report of 
the capture of Lima by the Chileans. 

Appeals are being made in New York for 
the relief of colored refugees in Kansas. 

It is reported that the Western Union and 
American Union telegraph companies have been 
united. 

There were 937 patients — 596 males and 31 
females in the Napa Insane asylum on Decem- 
ber 31st. 

Bonanza City promises to be the liveliest 
mining camp in Idaho this spring. Five new 
mills are already promised. 

O'Leary has accepted Sir John Astley's 
challenge to furnish a pedestrian to walk 
against Rowell for $10,000. 

Diphtheria is prevailing to an alarming ex- 
tent in portions of Yamhill county, Or., and a 
number of deaths are reported. 

The total indebtedness of San Benito county 
on January 1, 1881, was $456,387.29. Of this 
amount $369,065.60 are in bonds. 

On Friday, at Reno, Nevada, a man named 
Antone Astroden accidentally cut off his foot 
at the instep while chopping wood. 

It is understood that Justice Swayne will re- 
tire from the Bench next week, and that he 
will be succeeded by Stanley Matthews. 

The Indian Appropriation bill was passed by 
the House yesterday, but the Board of Indian 
Commissioners was lopped off as a useless ex- 
crescence. 

The cold weather at Chihuahua surpasses any 
thing of the kind within the memory of the old- 
est inhabitant. There has been ice in Paso del 
Norte two inches thick. 

The house of a Protestant minister residing 
in Jalapa, having been stoned by fanatics, the 
government immediately took measures for the 
punishment of the offenders. 

The syndicate in Calcutta formed last sum- 
mer for the purpose of introducing Indian tea 
into the Austrian market has resolved to ex- 
tend its operations to the United States and 
Canada. 

Jesse T. Bowles, a farmer of Clark county, 
W. T.j while butchering a calf a short time 
since, was kicked by the animal on the hand 
which held his knife, and the blade was driven 
four inches into his thigh. 

Last Sunday three Indians shot at two Chi- 
namen near the mouth of the South Yuba, half 
a mile below Bridgeport. One Chinaman was 
instantly killed, the other escaped without in- 
jury. The Indians were arrested. 

The New York World's Fair Commission re- 
port that generous subscriptions are being made. 
Mayor Grace welcomed the members of the Com- 
mission to the city. An address setting forth 
the object of the Commission is issued. 

The scheme for the construction of the 
Grand Eastern railroad from Pesth through 
Belgrade to Constantinople, under international 
auspices, has been submitted to the Austrian 
and Servian governments, and to a great Lon- 
don financial firm. 

The Fenian scare has extended to Ports- 
mouth. The authorities have received anony- 
mous warnings of contemplated attacks on 
Government establishments. They do not at- 
tach much importance to the warning, yet have 
taken some extra precaution. 

Dr. Meares, the Health Officer, having noti- 
fied the trustees of the Free Public Library that 
the small-pox epidemic has materially dimin- 
ished, and that the library need no longer be 
closed, for circulation, it has again been opened 
for the circulation of books as usual. 

The United States Consul in Venezuela in- 
forms the Department of State that he is trying 
to organize a scientific and commercial explor- 
ing expedition of Americans to visit Venezuela. 
He regards the opportunity for American mer- 
chants in that country as very good. 

The New York Times, regarding the meeting 
of the World's Fair Commission: "It is not 
easy to see how an organization originated as 
this was, and conducted as it has been up to 
this time, is to be brought readily into effective 
working order for so gigantic a task as it is strug- 
gling with." 

A writer in the New York Sun says General 
Grant will probably start for Mexico within the 
next 30 days for the purpose of obtaining accu- 
rate information, and forming an opinion as to 
several concessions for the benefit of the Con- 
solidation Committee of the Mexican railway, 
of which he is a member. 

A Holland correspondent writes that the 
suggestion of Rotterdam newspapers, that 
members of the Red Cross be dispatched to the 
Transvaal to aid the wounded Boers, has been 
received with lively sympathy. A subscription 
is talked of for the purpose of starting some 
surgeons immediately for the Transvaal. 

Our Consul at Maracaibo, Venezuela, in a 
dispatch to the State Department, says he is 
trying to organize a scientific and commercial 
exploring party in the United States to visit 
Venezuela this winter for the double purpose of 
seeing the country and people, and examining 
the interior water courses, with a view to util- 
ize them by a system of canals for inland trans- 
portation. Inasmuch as the United States oc- 
cupies a foremost place in Venezuela markets, 
and can extend its trade indefinitely with proper 
effort, it is urged that it is important our mer- 
chants should become conversant with the 
country and its needs. 



38 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 15, 1881, 




The Golden Wedding Day. 

The golden wedding day ! 
The sunlight day that touches with new light 
The fairest pictures hung ou memory's wall. 
The love-crowned day, when joys of by-gone years 
Come trooping forth to meet us at love's call. 

O, merry, gladsome day ! 

A resting place, dear friends. 

To cheer you on your way. 

The suns of fifty years 
Hare mellowed into sweetness golden fruit, 
That richly clusters on the dear homo tree; 
The fruit of love, of faith, of patient hope. 
Of calmly trusting when you could not see. 

O, kindly, tender years ! 

Shower down, to-day, your gold, 

Your choicest gifts of cheer. 

Fair youth and love are here. 
Just fifty years, to-day, you met and said 
The words that true hearts only dare to say; 
And you have kept them truthfully and well 
Through all the checkered years that marks your way 
You are not old to-day, 
Love knows no age, dear friends- 
Bridegroom and bride alway. 

We are here to-day. 
Though some soft hands you may not clasp in yours, 
Yet they are here to comfort and to wreathe 
A crown of amaranth that shall bloom on 
When earth's June roses shall have ceased to breath. 

O, dear, eternal years, 

That gives us back our own 

To-day, so near. 

What can we give to you? 
You are so rich in all that God can give, 
Our gifts seem meager from our willing hand; 
But we will pray that He will give you all 
To grace your mansion in the better land. 

O, golden wedding day ! 

Bring gifts to these dear friends ; 

Bring golden gifts to-day. 

And may the years to come 
Be your best years with sunset glow aflame, 
And we who love you will be near to see 
The golden light melt into eventide. 
And say, "How sweet two lives in one may he." 

O, happy, sunset days, 

That give the bes" of all, 

All golden-gifted days. 



"Only a Farmer." 

"I don't liko the country, and I never would 
have come here but for the chance of becoming 
Mrs. Allen Waters — that's the truth." 

Her mother looked up amused at the frank- 
ness of her youngest daughter, and, as for the 
eldest daughter, Dora, she sank back in her 
seat with a pained blush in her dark cheek. 

"I am sure, Ada, you need not complain. 
You have a far easier living at the Hollyhock's 
than either mother or I," she said. 

"Why everything need be so hateful, I don't 
see," grumbled Miss Ada, frowning under her 
flaxen curls. "If father hadn't died now, he 
mi^ht have run along for years, until Dor* and 
I were suitably married, and kept up appear- 
ance so we could have made good matches. 
Now everybody knows we are poor." 

"And everybody knows we are honest!" cried 
Dora, who still trembled at the mention of her 
dead father. We settled everything as honora- 
bly as possible, and came here to live, glad of 
Uncle Alfred's offer — at least I was." 

"And I am sure I was, my dear," said Mrs. 
Atherton, with a sigh. "I am thankful to have 
a roof over my head in my old age." 

"Uncle Alfred was absorbed in floriculture, 
and made a pet of the place for years. It is 
lovely here, I think," said Dora, leaning to look 
out into the bright summer garden. 

"I don't care for flowers," returned Ada, 
moodily. "I can't make myself happy with 
hose and watering pots. I think I would be 
better than this with the Waters' place oppo- 
site. But Allen Waters is away and the gates 
shut against us. In fact there is nobody 
here. " 

"You calculated a great deal on the society 
of a man you don't know in the least, Ada," 
said Dora, returning to her sewing. 

"I'm not in the least bit like you, Dora, with 
your notions of congeniality and similar tastes," 
burst forth Ada. "I've a taste for comfort and 
luxury, and I could love any man who could 
give them to me. Besides," somewhat moder- 
ating her violence, as her mother looked an- 
noyed at her extreme statement, "you know we 
have always heard of what a fine fellow Allen 
Waters was. "' 

Dora said no more. Her bright, dark face 
burned with indignation. She was ashamed of 
Ada, grieved, yet secretly tried to make some 
excuse for her sister. 

Day by day Ada continued her complaints of 
the Hollyhocks. She was miserable herself, 
and she certainly made every one else so. While 
Dora was as busy as a bee, Ada moped herself 
almost sick. 

The little phieton which Dora had driven in 
as a child was left to the family, and at her 
mother's suggestion, Dora hired a mild, 
fat Dobbin of a neighboring farmer one 
day ana invited Ada to a drive. 

"There's lovely scenery along the valley road. 
It will make a little change for you, Ada. Be- 
sides, I've a bit of news to liven you up." 

Ada turned languidly. 



"Allen Waters is coming home," said Dora 
with a faintly mischievous smile. 

After a moment's thought Ada rose, arrayed 
herself in her prettiest driving costume, and en 
tered the carriage. 

"Drive past the Waters estate, Dora. What 
a fat, lazy horse! There is no fun in driving 
you can't drive in style. There, now see the 
Waters place. It's all I expected it to be. 
There'd be some comfort in living if one could 
be mistress there. It's no better marriage than 
I ought to have made if papa had not failed. " 

And with discontented lips and an arrogant toss 
of the head, Ada was driven past a hay wagon 
in which was a man in his shirt sleeves. 

He glanced at the young ladies with blank 
curiosity. 

"Did you bow, Dora ? Impudent fellow! How 
he stared! Country folks!" sneered Ada. 

"I bowed because he bowed to us, Ada. You 
would not have me repel such a mere civility? 
He is probably some one who knows us, though 
we are strangers here." 
"I detest such people!" 

"I don't think I could detest anyone who 
wore such white shirt sleeves and looked so com- 
fortable under a broad straw hat this hot day," 
laughed Dora, carelessly. 

But the very next moment Ada was thankful 
for the existence of "such people," for the pha? 
ton broke down, and, with a dismal scream, she 
tipped from her seat and landed among the road- 
side buttercups and clover. 

The mild, fat old horse instantly stopped. 
Dora looked anxiously about her for help. No 
house was near. She looked appealingly up and 
down the quiet road; then — oh, gladly! she saw 
the hay wagon, the straw hat and the white 
shirt sleeves drawing near. 

"You've broken down," said the owner, hast- 
ily jumping down. 

"Thank you, yes. The carriage seems com- 
ing all to pieces," said Dora, trembling with 
fright. "Could you do anything to help? I 
should be, oh, so much obliged to you!" 

"Yes," said Ada, shaking the dust off her 
silk skirts. "We are the Misses Atherton. We 
will pay you, of course." 

The man bent to look at the axletree. His 
face was turned toward Dora, and she saw him 
smile. 

"It's not so very bad, then?" she said anx- 
iously. 

"It might be fixed, I think, so you could get 
home safely; but I have'nt much time; in fact, 
I am in a hurry." 

"What is your time worth to you?" asked 
Ada, with the air she once heard a millionaire 
use in speaking to some workmen he was about 
to employ. 

Sometimes more, and sometimes less," 
he replied, with the same quizzical smile. 

But he had produced a cord from his pocket, 
and, with deft fingers, began mending the 
broken trace. Then he produced some nails, 
and with a stone pounded away vigorously be- 
neath the carriage. 

There? By driving carefully you will be 
able to reach home safely," he said at last, 
rising. 

There was a something in his composed 
manner and distinct enunciation which made 
Ada stare for an instant; but she could see 
little beneath the broad straw hat but a curling 
black beard, a tanned cheek, and two piercing 
eyes. 

"What is to pay ? 
"Nothing." 

He offered a hand to help Dora into the 

carriage. 

She seated herself and drew out a little em- 
broidered portmonnaie. 

"I beg your pardon," she said earnestly, 
"but you must let me pay you. You Baid you 
were in a hurry; we have taken your time, and 
you have done us a great service. I have noth- 
ing but a half sovereign. Pray take it. I am 
sorry it is so little," blushing as she tendered 
him a shining coin. 

Again the quizzical smile, and the eyes — 
they had a world of meaning in them, those 
piercing black eyes under the hat brim. Dora 
felt her heart beat strangely. 

It relieved her greatly that the man extended 
his hand and received the money. 

"Thank you," he said quietly. 

"What may your name be?" asked Ada, 
who had seated herself unassisted, "and your 
occupation? You are quite handy," patroniz- 
ingly. 

The man laughed outright, a low, mellow 
laugh. 

"My name does not matter; I am a farmer. 
Good-day ladies." 

He stepped back lifting hishat, smiling again 
at the look of consternation upon the features 
of the girls at the grace and the face the move- 
ment revealed. 

A kingly brow shaded by close-clipped yet 
beautiful hair, a white forehead, eyes dauntlessly 
bright, with scorn and a smile in them. 

The phseton turned one way, the hay wagon 
another. 

"Whoever thought that he looked like that, 
under that old hat, in a hay cart?" said Ada, 
breathlessly. "Who can it be?" How provok- 
ing! He was a right down gentleman, though 
he said he was only a farmer." 

Poor Adal Her mortification had just begun. 

That evening, with silk hat doffed from the 
handsome head, faultlessly arrayed, Mr. Allen 
Waters presented himself in the little parlor 
of the Hollyhock, and introducing himself, 
begged leave to inquire if the young ladies had 
reached home quite safely. 



Ada apologized qnite eagerly, and tried to be 
sweet, but Mr. Waters seemed to have eyes 
only for Dora's brunette face. 

He came again and again to the Hollyhocki 
and at last one day boldly declared himself 
Dora's lover. 

"You have known me but such a little while, 
you don't know half my faults, " she murmured, 

"I don't care if I don't," he laughed, "I love 
you and have loved you ever since you offered 
me that half sovereign so charmingly, blushing 
and ashamed of the small sum. Why, you lit 
tie darling, do you know your appealing dark 
eyes kept me from meeting a man who would 
have paid me §100 that day?" 

"And you have never got it?" cried Dora, 
aghast. 

"No; but that does not matter. I have your 
half sovereign, and had rather have it." 

Such an incorrigible fellow as that of course 
had his own way, and Dora became Mrs. Allen 
Waters. She loves her husband because nnder 
all circumstances, she finds him a gentleman. — 
Selected. 



Agreeable Men. 

Editors Press: — How many or few of the 
masculine gender can be classed as agreeable, it 
is not for me to say. There is at least one of 
your contributors who, according to the criti 
cism of some of the fair ones on his article in 
the Press, headed "Agreeable Women," in their 
estimation must not only "be a very agreeable 
man, but is also a great reformer — the great re 
former of the age. " I waited very patiently for 
my paper (the Press) this week, to see if there 
were any more laudatory remarks from other 
old or young maids about Mr. Taylor's effusion 
"Agreeable Women," before I would say 
anything about it. But ne'er another has taken 
up the refrain, thinking, perhaps, Miss Smith 
Aunt Jerusha and the other old maid has said 
enough about it for the present. As too much 
praise would more than likely exalt Mr. Taylor 
above measure and get him on his high horse to 
run around and demolish the good dinners, pies 
and cakes that the old maids of the land would 
get up for him to the neglect of his farm duties 
if he has got a farm. Be that as it may, Mr. 
Taylor is certainly a favorite. There is not 
doubt on or in my mind but Mr. Taylor is 
very loving and lovable man, becanse no other 
kind or style of man could ever originate such a 
masterly composition as his "Agreeable Wo- 
men," written for the columns of the Press. 

It's no wonder Aunt Jerusha, Miss Smith and 
the other old maid should break out into such 
magnificent eulogies on or about the man that 
had the hardihood and manhood, as well, to 
write up the "Agreeable Women;" and it is no 
wonder that, in their exaltation of the man, they 
each and all finished up by stating, if he ever 
came in their locality, that they would hash him 
up as good a meal as they were master or mis 
tress of, whether he was married or single. 

Burns says, the wisest man the world e'er 
saw, he dearly loved the lasses, but he does not 
tell us whether they loved him or not. Now, 
there is quite a difference in loving and being 
loved. Mr. Taylor not only loves, but his lov« 
is returned by not only one, but three loving 
women that, from the hints thrown out, if Mr, 
Taylor is a single man, he could get the hand 
(the heart he has) of either Miss Smith, Aunt 
Jerusha or the other old maid. If he was in- 
clined to Mormoni8m, the hands of three fair 
ones, and live the remainder of his born days in 
extreme felicity or the very reverse. Be that 
as it may, Mr. Taylor ought to be the happy, 
proud mar. With these few remarks I will 
drop the subject, hoping that Miss Smith, Aunt 
Jerusha and the other old maid will extend 
their invitations to the writer, and they will 
see how quick I will jump at the chance of de- 
vouring some of that hash, pies, etc., they so 
kindly invited Mr. Taylor to. Peter Pipkin. 
Ferndale, Cal. 



Music Healthful. — Music, like painting 
and statuary, refines, elevates and ennobles. 
Song is the language of gladness, and it is the 
utterance of devotion. But, coming lower 
down, it is physically beneficial. It rouses the 
circulation, wakes up the bodily energies, and 
diffuses life and animation around. Does a lazy 
in sing ? Does a milk-and-water-character 
ever strike a stirring note ? Never! Song is 
the outlet of mental and physical activity, and 
increases both by its exercise. No child has 
completed a religious education who has not 
been taught to sing the songs of Zion. No part 
of our religious worship is sweeter than this. 
In David's day it was a practice and a 
study. 

Man's Love. — Thus writes Bushnell: Every 
man's life, practically speaking, is shaped by 
his love. If it is a downward, early love, then 
his actions will be tinged by it; all his life will 
be as his reigning love. This love, yon per- 
ceive, is not mere sentiment, or casual emotion, 
but is the man's settled affinity; it is that 
which is to his character what the magnetic 
force is to the needle, the power that adjusts 
all his aims and works, and practically deter- 
mines the man. It must only be a downward 
love, or an upward love; for being the last love 
and deepest, of the man, there cannot be two 
last and deepest, it must be one or the other. 
And then, as this love changes, it works a gen- 
eral revolution of the man. 



New Year Call from Jewell. 

Editors Press:— Although not from Ver- 
mont, I hope I may claim a welcome from the 
Home Circle. It was a most happy idea of 
Mrs. Nichols, and I hope to see our circle com- 
plete, and her record among us, most certainly. 
They say ladies don't like to tell their ages, 
but I feel sure our home circle is composed of 
thoBe who count gray hairs and wrinkles a 
glory, especially when adorning an agreeable 
face and healthy body. For, be it understood, 
none of us are disagreeable women. 

I was born in New York city on St. Valen- 
tine's day, 1834— when that great metropolis 
was in its infancy, comparatively speaking. 
My father, Joseph Perkins, was, at the time 
of his death, eight years after, the leading steel 
and copper-plate engraver in the United States. 
Of course, my school days were spent very dif- 
ferently from those who attended the free 
country schools at that time. There were no 
public schools in the city then, although there 
was a free mechanic's school established and 
supported by the mechanics and tradesmen of 
the city. With the exception of a few months 
or a year at the mechanic s school, I attended 
paid schools always, save when we had a gov- 
erness at home. 

My father was from New Hampshire and my 
mother from Massachusetts, so our summer va- 
cations were usually passed in the country, and 
the few weeks' visit was all too short for us 
children. 

The mysteries of pig life, chicken, duck and 
goose raising, were wonderfully charming to 
us, and the one year I was left with an auntie 
up in New Hampshire, among its hills, big 
snow drifts in winter, and sunny freedom in 
summer, are dearly remembered to this day. 

I feel it is almost cruel to the children to 
bring them up in cities, deprived of pure air, 
water, sun and dirt. Yes, our bodies need 
contact with mother earth and its electricity to 
be well and hearty, and then with plenty of 
washing at times our boys and girls grow stout 
and rosy. Fortunately my parents under- 
stood and observed the laws governing health, 
my father being a Grahamite, as the health re- 
formers were called in those days. Owing to 
our simple diet of graham bread (unfermented), 
plenty of fruit, milk, etc. (no tea nor coffee, 
pork nor pastry), daily baths, out-door exercise, 
warm, loose clothing, large shoes, etc., we are 
as a family unusually exempt from the ills of 
age and the cares that life usually brings. 

I came to California in the fall of 1851. Have 
lived in Sacramento, San Francisco, Vallejo, 
Petaluma, Santa Cruz, San Jose, and finally in 
our mountain-top eyrie, eight miles from Los 
Gatos post-office. In 1874 I returned to "New 
York to attend medical lectures. Graduated 
in 1876, and went to Minnesota to practice 
with my former husband, Dr. Parke JewelL 
I returned to California in the spring of 1878, 
widowed, with my baby girl, on the same 
steamer with the publisher of the Rural 
Press, Mr. A. T. Dewey, and his most agreea- 
>le wife, through whose introduction, three 
years later, 1 met my present husband. 

L. P. J. Herriko. 

Deer Ridge Farm, 1881. 



The Stove In the HalL 



It is rather late to think of new moves in the 
household for this winter, but our own recent 
experience so enforces the following, which we 
take from the Rural New Yorker, that we place 
it on file in the "Home Circle," to be acted 
upon whenever convenient: How to make the 
house comfortable in the winter, is a question 
asily answered, if the house has a hall in it, 
out of which rooms down stairs and up stairs 
open; put a stove in the hall. If the hall is six 
ft. in width, this can always be done. If you 
cannot decide in what part of the hall to put 
the stove, nor where to have the stove pipe 
holes cut, call in ycur neighbors and hold a 
council over the matter. Some one will have 
the wit to see the way clear for the stove, stove 
ipe and all. The stove should be for coal, so 
that the fire will keep all night, and never go 
out. The first expense will De considerable, as 
oftentimes a line of stove pipe will be needed as 
long as the moral law, and it must be put up 
neatly, with hooks and wire to hold it in place; 
when pipe is run across a room, see that the 
seam of the pipe is not on the nnder side. 
When there is unusual length of pipe, and the 
wood or coal is wet, so much moisture gathers 
in the pipe as often to fall in drops between the 
pieces unless the joining of the pipe is close 
enough on the under side to form a continuous 
trough for the water to run in, until it empties 
into the chimney. 

With a good stove well put up in the hall, 
you may laugh at the cold and be comfortable 
the whole winter through. The hall is really 
the heart of the house, and if that is bright and 
warm, the whole house will share warmth and 
brightness. The upstairs rooms will be warmer 
than those below, and if you wish your room 
cool to sleep in, you have but to close the door 
that opens into the hall and open a window. 
For warming a house a stove in the hall is 
worth a furnace in the cellar, beside being more 
healthful — according to my notion — and very 
much more economical. It will not consume 
more than one-quarter as much fuel. It will 
pay for itself the first winter in economy of fuel 
and work; and also in comfort and health, and 
lead you to exclaim a great many times in the 
nipping cold weather, "Oh that blessed, blessed 
stover 



January 15, i881.] 



TMI PACIFIC fttt&AL PRESS. 



39 



Chaff. 

It is said that the hogs in Iowa have such 
long noses that the settlers employ them to 
plow the fields. The practice is to bury a corn 
cob on one side of the lot and place the hog op- 
posite to it on the other side, when the porker, 
scenting it, immediately digs his snout into the 
soil, and pressing forward turns a furrow equal 
to that made by the best plow right up to the 
cob. If a stump should lie in a direct road, the 
Iowa hog does not hesitate or work around it, 
but splits it open with his snout and goes on. 
This is following the nose to some purpose. 

An intelligent farmer living in Des Moines 
county, has invented a henophone, modeled on 
the principle of a telephone, by which one old 
reliable hen, occupying a central office in the 
hennery, sits on all the nests about the estab- 
lishment, leaving other fowls free to lay eggs 
scratch and cackle. As fast as a new nest con- 
tains the full complement of eggs, it is con- 
nected with the central office by a copper wire, 
and the business is settled. The only trouble 
with the machine is that it sits so hard that it 
hatched out the porcelain nest eggs along with 
the others, so that one chick in every nest is 
born with glass eyes, and the farmer has to buy 
and train a dog to lead it around. This makes 
it expensive. — Burlington Hawheye. 

Homely Accomplishments. 

There are a few of the accomplishments prized 
by our grandmothers which oven in those days 
of machinery, of co-operation, and of luxurious 
living, we cannot afford to have classed with 
the lost arts. Among these is the art of plain 
sewing. In the olden times the sampler and 
patchwork made girlish fingers early acquainted 
with the use of the needle, and though no one 
can care to see those particular industries re- 
vived, yet there are few women who do not find 
sooner or later that in their lives "the needle 
bears equality with the beautiful craft of the 
pencil and the mighty power of the pen." 
Whether it is cheaper or not to buy ready-made 
under-clothing is not the question. The point 
insisted on is that every woman should know 
how to make her own clothing neatly, skillfully 
and readily. She may add to this knowledge 
that of embroidery and lace making, just as she 
may add to practical knowledge of bread mak- 
ing that of making cakes and desserts. There 
is a great effort made now-a-days to acquire ac- 
complishments comparatively useless and the 
neglect of those which are of first consequence. 
The little girl may begin her apprenticeship to 
the needle by making doll clothes, and as pat- 
terns for all manner of lilliputian garments are 
for sale in pattern stores, she can learn to cut 
out and put together at the same time. Of 
course she must have instruction, direction, as 
sistance; to give these is one of the purposes 
her mother was specially created for. By and 
by the juvenile seamstress may be promoted 
and permited to exercise her skill on large gar- 
ments and later be taught machine sewing. 
But before this she should master all the mys- 
teries of "over and over" stitch, of hemming, 
felling, overcasting, catstitch, backstitch, gath- 
ering and facing down. Little folks always 
want to do what they can't do, and a promise 
of permission to undertake a difficult task will 
often stimulate a child to do well that which is 
entirely within its power. Then they should 
be permitted to enter upon large undertak 
ings. 

Mending is another accomplishment possessed 
by very few young ladies. This branch of do 
mestic industry is usually relegated to the 
mother or grandmother of the family when 
th«re is a grandmother, and the young ladies 
play the piano or embroider when they would 
be more usefully employed in mending. This 
imposes a great deal of drudgery ou the one 
who has all the mending to do, and releases 
from what should be a pleasant task, those most 
able to perform it. No matter how wealthy 
a young lady is, she should know when 
her wardrobe is in perfect order and be 
able to keep it so with her own hands. — Re 
li(/ious Herald. 

Strong or Weak Men. — We mistake strong 
feeling to be strong character. A man who 
bears all before him— before whose frown do- 
mestics tremble and whose bursts of fury make 
the children of the house quake — because he 
has his will obeyed, and his own way in all 
things, we call him a strong man. The truth 
is, that is a weak man; it is his passions that are 
strong; he, mastered by them, is weak. You 
must measure the strength of a man by the 
power of the feelings he subdues, not by the 
power of those which subdue him. And hence 
composure is very often the highest result of 
strength. Did we ever see a man receive a flat 
grand insult, and only grow a little pale and 
then reply quietly ? That was a man spiritually 
strong. Or did we never see a man in anguish, 
stand as if carved out of solid rock, mastering 
himself ? Or one bearing a hopeless daily trial, 
remain silent and never tell the world what it 
was that cankered his home peace ? That is 
strength. He who, with strong passions, re 
mains chaste — he who, keenly sensitive, with 
manly power and indignation in him, can be 
provoked, and yet can restrain himself and for- 
give — these are strong men, spiritual heroes. — 
Robertson, 



Y^NQ F@Lks' CoLlJpiN. 




Our Puzzle Box. 

Numerical Enigma. 

I am composed of twenty letters. 

My 10, 13, 8. 6 goes on the railroad train. 

My 17, 18, 19 is a weight. 

My 3, 2, 10, 20, 1 the sun does once in every twenty- 
four hours. 
My 7, 0, 4 is the name of a profession. 
My 12, 5, 14, 15 is a salt spring. 
My 11 is in battle. 

My whole is the name of a distinguished lawyer of the 
eighteenth century 

JAMES. 

Curtailment?. 

1. Curtail a kitchen vessel and leave a male relative. 

2. Curtail a beverage and leave a small insect. 

3. Curtail a sailing vessel and leave a dangerous reptile. 

4. Curtail an officer of a ship and leave a rug. 

5. Curtail germs and leave to perceive. 

G. Curtail to reduce and leave a small winged animal. 

7. Curtail a color and leave a part of the face. 

8. Curtail a planet and leave to injure, 

9. Curtail a fastening and leave a large body of water. 
10. Curtail pallid and leave an associate. 

CupnA. 

Arithmorems. 

The names of distinguished men. 

1. 200hanok. 6. 201 non. 

2. 1500 aas 7. 

3. 1000 nsoer. 8 

4. 1501 ason. 

5. 50 tery. 



100 bunanha 

8. 100 jansok. 

9. 1101 fore. 
10. 5 burenan. 



Hidden Cities. 

1. Adam and Kve were cast out of Eden to new fields 
of toil. 

2. Mr. Jones went east on the morning train. 

3. We sent the can to New York to have it filled. 

Aunt Hannah. 

Charades. 

Names of vegetables : 

1. An article used to draw water and relatives. 

2. State of equality and to cut off. 

3. A vehicle and to putrify. 

4. Equal value and to kill. 

Aunt Hannah. 

Answers to Last Puzzles. 

CROss-WoRn Enigma.— Ethan Allen. 

Geographical Puzzle.— 1. May. 2. Ann. 3. Man. 4. 
Tom. 5. Turkey. 6. Salmon. 7. Salt. 8. Sandwich. 9 
Milk. 10. Bath. 11. Cologne. 12. Cork. 13. Wolf. 14. 
Dead. 15. Negro. 10. Yellow-stone. 

Hir.uEN Animals.— 1. Bear. 2. Dog. 3. Tiger. 4. Lion, 
5. Camel, ij. Panther. 7. Cat. 8. Deer. 

Problem. —12.04 years. 



The Little Girl and the Birds. 

There lives near Harrisburg, Ohio — an out 
of-the-way place in Hancock county, about 
three miles west of Mount Blanchard — a very 
remarkable child only five years old, who seems 
to have the power to charm birds at will. Her 
mother first noticed this strange fascination the 
child possesses about a year ago. The little 
girl was out in the door-yard among a bevy of 
snow birds, and when she spoke to them they 
would come and light upon her, twittering with 
glee. On taking them in her hands and strok 
ing them the birds, instead of trying to get 
away from their fair captor, seemed to be 
highly pleased, and when let loose would fly 
away a short distance and immediately return 
to the child again. She took several of them 
into the house to show to her mother, who, 
thinking she might hurt them, put them out of 
doors, but no sooner was the door opened than 
the birds flew into the room again, lit upon the 
girl's head, and began to chirp. The birds re- 
mained about the premises all winter, flying to 
the little girl whenever the door opened. The 
parents of the child became alarmed, believing 
that this strange power was an ill omen, and 
that the much-dreaded visitor, death, was about 
to visit their home. But death did not come, 
and during the last summer the child has had 
many pet birds. The child handles the birds 
so gently that a humming-bird once in her 
hands does not fail to return. Last winter a 
bevy of birds kept her company, and she 
played with them for hours at a time. Every 
morning the birds fly to her window, and leave 
only when the sun sinks in the west. The par 
ents of the little girl are poor, superstitious 
people, and have been reticent about the mat 
ter until lately, fearing that some great calam 
ity was about to befall them. 

A Noble Boy. — A crippled beggar was striv- 
ing to pick up some clothes that had been 
thrown from the window, when a crowd of 
rude boys gathered about him, mimicking his 
awkward movements, and hooting at his help 
lessness and rags. Presently a noble little fel- 
low came up, and pushing through the crowd, 
he helped the poor crippled man to pick up 
his gifts and put them in a bundle. Then, 
slipping a piece of silver into his hand, he was 
running away, when a voice far above' him 
said, "Little boy with a straw hat, look up." 
A lady, leaning from an upper window, said 
earnestly, "God bless you for that!" As he 
walked along he thought how glad he had made 
his own heart by doing good. He thought of 
the poor beggar's grateful look; of the lady's 
smile and her approval; and last, and better 
than all, he could almost hear his heavenly 
Father whispering, "Blessed are the merciful; 
for they shall obtain mercy." Little reader, 
when you have an opportunity for doing good, 
and feel tempted to neglect it, remember the 
"little boy with the straw hat." 



Temporary Deafness. 

According to Dr. H. Augustus Wilson," a 
very common cause of deafness is the harden- 
ing of wax in the ear and the unscientific plan 
that people adopt for its removal. They gen- 
erally succeed in making a bad matter worse. 
The ear is not so exquisitively sensitive to the 
presence of foreign matter as the eye, and hence 
those who work at the ear with hairpins and 
toothpicks are likely to injure themselves irre- 
parably. Only the softest materials and the 
gentlest pressure should be used in cleaning 
the ear. In a recent clinical lecture, Dr. Wil- 
son gave, in popular form, some very useful and 
practical information touching the removal of 
ear wax. If the ticking of a watch can be 
heard at a distance of 28 inches the hearing is 
good. Each ear should be tested by the watch 
separately. Noises in the head, sometimes 
ringing, frequently are due to hardened wax in 
the ear. Sudden deafness is sometimes caused 
as follows : A small mass of wax, from ill- 
health or uncleanliness, becomes hard. A con- 
tinued secretion of wax then blocks up the ear 
tube still more. An injudicious attempt is 
then made to remove the wax by introducing, 
perhaps, a match end, a pin head, or a pen 
holder, which instead of removing pushes down 
the wax and packs it against the tympanum; 
or by a sudden draught or the act of swallow- 
ing the wax is suddenly pressed upon the mem 
brane, and loss of hearing immediately ensues, 
because the membrane can no longer vibrate. 
The removal of the wax is in some cases, es- 
pecially those of long standing, somewat dif 
ticult; but with gentle treatment and patience 
may rinaly be accomplished and the hearing 
fully restored. The best ordinary means for 
removing wax, when not badly compacted, are 
half a drachm of sodium carbonate dissolved in 
an ounce of water, applied lightly, by means of 
a bit of absorbent cotton or sponge attached to 
a suitable handle. When the wax is much com- 
pacted it may be softened by means of water, 
quite warm, and a syringe. — Sci. Am. 

An Improved Glue Dressing for Wounds, 
Cabinet makers and wood workers generally are 
familiar with the uses of glue in dressing tool 
cuts and other slight wounds incident to their 
calling. The glue got is always handy in their 
shops, and a glued rag answers as well as the 
best adhesive plaster. In a recent paper before 
the Philadelphia Academy of Surgery, Dr. Hew. 
son recommends the addition of acetic acid to 
the glue, and a little attar of roses to cover the 
odor of the glue and the acid. This compound 
spread on paper or muslin makes, he says, a 
good substitute for adhesive plaster for surgical 
use. It is easily and quickly prepared, simply 
by putting into a vessel of boiling water, a bot 
tie containing one part of glue to four, by meas 
ure, of the acid, and letting the bottle remain 
in this bath until the glue is fully dissolved and 
mixed with the acid. Common glue may be 
used and officinal acetic acid, to be had at any 
drug store. The mixture should be kept in a 
wide-mouthed bottle, well stoppered by a long 
cork, which can always be removed by heating 
the neck of the bottle. Care should be taken 
to keep the mouth of the bottle clean by wiping 
it well with a cloth dipped in hot water, 
bottle of this cheap and easily prepared dress 
ing would be a good thing to have at home as 
well as at a workshop. 

A Spinal Boot of the Optic Nerve. — Stil 
ling, of Strasburg, showed preparations to the 
International Ophthalmological Congress at 
Mailand, in September last, which he believes 
demonstrate the existence of a spinal root of the 
optic nerve, which brings the retina into di 
rect connection with the medulla. This root 
passes from the external corpus geniculatum, in 
a winding course, deep between the bundles of 
the crus cerebri, and can be traced into the pons 
and it appeare to course down in the direction 
of the medulla, although its further progress 
cannot be demonstrated. The existence of this 
branch is interesting on account of the light it 
throws on certain physiological relations between 
the medulla and the retina, and may constitute 
the hitherto undiscovered link between certain 
diseases of the spinal cord and of the optic 
nerve. 



A Cup of Tea. — In a recent lecture by Mr.G. 
R. Tweedle, F. C. S., London, on "A Cup of 
Tea," the speaker divided the subject into four 
sections — the tea, the water, the milk and the 
sugar. The lecturer first drew attention to tea 
drinking with every-day life, and showed that 
the principal components of tea were theine and 
the essential oil of tannin, which latter pos- 
sessed astringent properties. He informed the 
audience that the best time to take tea was 
about three hours after dinner or any other 
heavy meal, and deprecated in the strongest 
terms the excess to which tea drinking is car- 
ried by some people, asserting that such a prac- 
tice induced a nervous disorganization and im- 
peded digestion. He showed that the sole dif- 
ference between black and green tea was one of 
preparation, aud that both kinds could be ob- 
tained from the leaves of the same plant. After 
asserting that the adulteration of tea had very 
much decreased of late years, which the tea- 
drinking public will be glad to know, the lec- 
turer proceeded to treat of the various kinds of 
shrubs grown in different parts of the world and 
the countries where the different kinds of teas 
were consumed, the lecturer came to the con- 
sideration of the milk, its value as a nutritive 
agent, and referring to its adulteration he made 
the astounding assertion that in London alone 
every year no less than £70,000 was spent on 
water which was used for milk. Passing on to 
regard the sugar, the lecturer denied the com- 
mon error that sugar was injurious to the teeth, 
bringing forward as an example the negroes of 
Jamaica, who, he said, though they were the 
greatest eaters of sugar in the world, were pro- 
verbial for their beautiful teeth. 



Effects of Electric Light. — It is said that 
if a person of fair complexion exposes himself to 
the electric light for some time in examining 
the action of lamps, the hands and cheeks will 
show all the symptoms of "sunburn," even in 
midwinter, and he will develop freckles on his 
countenance as quickly as when he goes about 
unprotected by a sun umbrella in midsum- 
mer. * 



ispc Ec@ 



Sea Sickness. — Mr. F. W. Cory, in the Lan- 
cet, states that the best remedy he has found 
for sea sickness is a combination of small doses 
of bromide of potassium and hydrate of chloral 
taken with citrate of magnesia during efferves- 



Cold Feet. — Persons who are troubled with 
cold feet will find it greatly to both comfort and 
health to sprinkle powdered mustard or pepper 
in their stockings. 

Coffee Fumes. — In some recent experiments 
at Paris the fumes of burning coffee were shown 
to have a disinfecting power quite remarka- 
ble. 



Chocolate and Cream Cake. — Two cupfuls 
of white sugar (we prefer white coffee C, as it 
can be more quickly beaten to a froth, with 
butter) one-half cupful of butter, one cupful of 
sweet milk; the whites of four eggs, and three 
cupfuls of flour, with three teaspoonfuls of bak- 
ing powder in ' the last half cup. Add the 
beaten whites and flour alternately, and stir 
well for a few minutes. This batter makes 
three layers in cake tins that are one inch deep 
and about ten inches in diameter. Butter the 
tins well and paper both bottom and sides, 
then the layers can be easily removed. Stir in 
a bowl the whites of two eggs and pulverized 
sugar, allowing about ten spoonfuls to the white 
of one egg. Add about one-third of a cake of 
sweet chocolate, grated fine, and stir until it 
will spread well. Put the layers together with 
this, and also frost the top and sides with the 
same. This makes a large and excellent cake. 
For cocoanut cake we bake layers the same as 
for chocolate. Then stir the whites of two 
eggs with sugar, and spread on each layer. 
Sprinkle on this frosting fresh grated cocoanut, 
or the prepared. We think the fresh is much 
the better. Blanched almonds, split and placed 
in the frosting, also makes an excellent almond 
cake. 



Dutch Apple Pudding. — One pint of flour, 
one teaspoon soda, half a teaspoon salt, an egg, 
nearly a cup of milk, two teaspoons butter, four 
large apples. Mix the salt, soda and cream tar- 
tar with the flour, and rub through a sieve. 
Beat the egg light and add the milk to it. Rub 
the butter into the flour. Pour the milk and 
egg on this, and mix quickly and thoroughly. 
Spread the dough about half an inch deep on a 
buttered baking pan. Have the apples pared, 
cored and cut into eighths. Stick the pieces 
into the dough in rows. Sprinkle with two 
tablespoons of sugar, and bake in a quick oven 
for about 25 minutes. This pudding is to be 
eaten with sugar and milk or lemon sauce. 



Garzpacho. — In Mexico the peasants make 
a dish of onions and cucumbers called by this 
name. Peel and chop finely some cucumbers 
and onions. Take one heaping cup of each, add 
a long, red Chile pepper finely chopped, also a 
heaping cup of bread crumbs. Add salt to 
taste, half a cup of olive oil, one tablespoon or 
more of vinegar, and water enough to moisten 
well. Put it into an earthen pipkin, set it on a 
rather slow fire or hot ashes. Simmer until 
thoroughly cooked. Serve hot with "tortillas" 
or waste bread. A little garlic is sometimes 
added, and the mixture is often served uncooked 
as a salad. 

Silver Cake. — One lb. of butter, the same 
quantity of flour, one and a quarter lbs. of sugar, 
one dozen eggs, three lbs. of citron chopped up 
very fine, two small cocoanuts peeled and grated, 
two lbs. of almonds (weighed in the shell), 
blanched and pounded, one wineglassful of 
brandy and the same quantity of wine, three 
teaspoonfuls of cinnamon, two of mace and one 
of nutmeg. It must be baked carefully in a slow, 
regularly heated oven, and when done is worthy 
of being handsomely iced. 

Graham Bread. — For one loaf of bread take 
one pint of milk, one teaspoonful of salt, one 
cupful of wheat flour, and sufficient graham to 
make a thick batter. Warm the milk and add 
yeast as for other bread. Let this sponge rise, 
then mould into a loaf with graham flour, mak- 
ing it as soft as possible. When risen again, 
bake about an hour in a moderate oven. A 
little molasses is liked by many persons, but 
soda should never be used, if one wish«a a 
healthful loaf, 



40 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 15, 1881. 




DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 
A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWEB. 

Ofice, SOS Sansome St., N. E. Corner Pine. St 

Annual Subscriptions, 84; six months, 82; three 
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The Scientific Press Patent Agency. 
DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 



A. T. DBWBY. 



W. B. BWBR. 



B. H. STRONO 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 15, 1881. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

EDITORIALS — Duroc or Red Swine; Frost in Cali- 
fornia; Starvation Method with Insects, 33 Our New 
Senator, 37. The Week; California as a Cotton State, 
40. Agricultural Subjects before the Law Makers; 
Angular Hailstones; Alaska; A Curious HorseShoe, 41 

ILLUSTRATIONS. — Thoroughbred Duroc Hog- 
" Captain Jack," 33. Gen. John E. Miller, U. S. Sen- 
ator from California, 37- Fort Wrangell with its Mis 
sion Church and School; Angular Hailstones; A German 
Horse Shoe, 41. 

CORRESPONDENCE —Water Privileges, 34. 

THE APIARY— Suggestions and Experience with 
Bees 34 * 

THE 'DAIRY.— Ensilage and Dairy Cows, 34. 

THE FIELD.— The Sun Dried Beet* from Los Ange- 
les, 34-5. The Threshing Problem, 35. 

HORTICULTURE.— Seedling vs. Grafted Chest- 
nuts — Or Chataigne* against M:\rrons, 35. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— Petitions Author- 
ized by the National Grange ; Roseville Grange Ball ; 
Yuba City Grange; Address from the National Lecturer; 
Meeting of the Grangers' Bank; Resolutions of Respect, 
36. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties of California, 36-7- 

NEWS IN BRIEF, on page 36 and other pages. 

HOME CIRCLE.— The Golden Wedding Day (Po- 
etry); "Only a Farmer;" Agreeable Men; Music 
Healthful; Man's Love; New Year Call from Jewell; 
The Stove in the Hall, 38 Chaff; Homely Accom- 
plishments; Strong or Weak Men, 39. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.— Our Puzzle Box; 
The Little Girl and the Birds; A Noble Boy, 39. 

GOOD HEALTH.— Temporary Deafness; An Im- 
proved Glue Dressing for Wounds; A Spinal Boot of 
the Optic Nerve; Effects of Electric Light; Sea Sick- 
ness; Cold Feet; Coffee Fumes, 39. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. -A Cup of Tea; Chocolate 
and Cream Cako; Dutch Apple Pudding; Garzpacho; 
Silver Cake; Graham Bread, 39. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL.— Fruit Packages Free of In- 
sects; The French Still Looking Toward American Vines; 
Olive Insects, 40. 

QUERIES AND REPLIES. -An Arabian Grass; 
Churning the Whole Milk; Shivering Timber, 40. 

Business Announcements. 

Glidden's Patent Steel Barb Wire— Jones & Oivens, Sac. 
Seeds, Trees, Etc — W. R Strong & Co., Sacramento, Cal. 
Bnlbs and Plants— J. L. Childs, Queens, N. J. 
Plant Seed Company, St Louis, Mo. 
Brown Leghorns — Geo. Trefzer, Napa, Cal. 
Grangers' Bank, San Francisco, Cal. 



The Week. 



The sigus have been set for another storm 
for a day or two, and the rains have been 
falling up the coast with a wind reaching us 
from the southwest. It has been expected that 
the clouds would beat their way down, as is 
their wont. As we write on Wednesday night, 
the outlook seems to favor a clearing, and the 
course of field work may not be checked after 
all. There have been days of unusual activity 
all through the country since the last storm, 
and great areas have been turned, harrowed and 
seeded. There is, however, much yet to be 
reached by the teams, and a further cessation from 
storms would be greeted with satisfaction by 
all. 

All reports are that tree and vine planting has 
been proceeding at a most rapid rate, and those 
who have trees and cuttings for sale are buried 
beneath heavy orders. Already favorite sorts 
of trees show signs of becoming as scarce as ap- 
ricots and petite prunes have been for months. 
Orchards of pears, cherries and other fruits are 
being set in localities where heretofore there 
have been nothing but a few trees around the 
farmhouse. The success of a few trees is lead- 
ing to extensive orchards of the kinds found 
successful on a small scale and doubtless many 
of the ventures will ere long prove remunera- 
tive and bring horticultural fame to regions 
now known only as pieces of the great grain 
country. It will be well for all that such pleas- 
ant diversification has set in. 

The law-mills at Sacramento and Washing- 
ton are now in full motion, and all interests are 
carrying forward their grists. It behooves all 
to watch and see that the public welfare is 
served by those who represent them. 



California as a Cotton State. 



There is reason to believe that California 
has a future both in cotton growing and cotton 
manufacturing. The cotton grown last year 
was quite satisfactory to the growers and to 
purchasers, and it was quickly taken in the 
place of southern cotton which has hitherto 
been imported by our makers of "all wool" fab- 
rics. It is a matter of note that Prof. Hilgard, 
who is superintending the cotton department 
of the census of 1SS0, found such quality in the 
samples grown here and such adaptation in his 
study of our conditions of soil and climate that 
he assures us that California will be treated as 
one of the virtually.if not actually, cotton-grow- 
ing States in the work and publications of the 
tenth census. In a recent note to the Bulletin 
Prof. Hilgard assigns these reasons for conclud- 
ing that California is fitted for a cotton -growing 
State and will be benefitted by it: 

I have during the past season investigated fully the 
question of cotton production in various parts of Califor- 
nia, and I am satisfied that from Napadown toSan Diego, 
an excellent staple can be grown. The best varieties of 
seed remain to be determined yet, and it is to be hoped 
that this will be done promptly and systematically. 
What renders this culture of especial importance to Cal- 
ifornia is the fact that, being a deep-rooted plant and re- 
quiring summer cultivation, it can be successfully grown 
in lands too alkaline to be permanently available for 
cereal culture, as is largely the case at the head of the 
San Joaquin valley. Furthermore, unlike cereal culture, 
:otton-growing can easily be made to improve instead of 
impoverishing the soil, by inaugurating at the onset the 
simple syBtem of returns to the land, by giving back the 
seed-cake. The lint of cotton takes so little plant food 
from the soil that this simple restitution is, in all mod- 
erately fertile regions, fullysuhlcient to maintain fertility 
permanently. I am satisfied that when the merits ol this 
culture once come to be generally understood, not one 
but a dozen cotton mills will be wanted to furnish a mar 
ket for the product. 

There is reason to expect the speedy equip- 
ment of a cotton mill in this city. The daily 
papers have printed accounts of the plans of 
Mr. J, W. Tripp, a practical cotton manufac- 
turer, who proposes to carry out the enterprise. 
Mr. Tripp assures the reporters that the 
project is received with much favor, both by 
the capitalists and the working classes, who de- 
sire moderately remunerative employment for 
their young people. He thinks he can find 
abundant hands among the white youth and 
will not invoke mongolian aid. Property own- 
ers look upon the beginning of cotton manu- 
facturing in this city as likely to advance their 
interests, and certainly fanners will be pleased 
to grow cotton if they can be shown a profit in 
it. Mr. Tripp's views upon the subject of cot- 
ton-growing and its relation to our general 
prosperity and advancement as a State are cer- 
tainly forcible. He believes he could import 
cotton from the south by the railroad soon to 
be opened and manufacture it at a profit, but 
he hopes to get California-grown material. 
He points to the valley of the San Joaquin, 300 
miles in length by about 50 in width, which 
ought to be one vast cotton field, because of its 
peculiar adaptation to that product, and yet we 
send abroad for the bags to put our flour in. 
This is all wrong. The State will never see its 
highest prosperity until we learn to grow the 
raw material which will least impoverish the 
soil, and then work up that raw material here 
at home into fabrics which everybody uses, and 
give employment to our labor, growth to the 
city and a home market to our farmers. Mr. 
Tripp believes this State offers peculiar advant- 
ages for cotton manufacturing and especially 
great if we grow the raw material. Massa- 
chusetts brings all her raw cotton from the 
Southern States and grows rich at manufactur- 
ing, in spite of a most bitter winter climate for 
nearly half the year. We are one of the con- 
tributors who enrich that State, and yet we can 
grow the cotton in California, and have on this 
peninsula the very best climate in this world 
ibr the manufacture of it. 

There certainly seems every reason for the 
uprising of the cotton industry in this State. 
The growing is certainly going forward. Hag- 
gin & Carr raised last year in Kern county 
about 200 bales of cotton, and are intending to 
raise from five to ten thousand bales this year. 
Unless we establish cotton manufacturing, that 
cotton will be sent away just as hides and wool 
are, and then brought back to us at enormously 
enhanced prices in the shape of coarse cotton 
clothes. Mr. Tripp proposes to put a stop to 
that ruinous process by erecting a large cotton 
factory and working up that cotton right here 
in San Francisco, by employing the men and 
women, boys and girls of this city who are 
waiting and hoping for employment. We trust 
his looms will soon be humming. 



EfjjoptoLoqic^L. 



A Gi.ad Renewal. — "I see that my sub- 
cription to the Rural expires to-morrow and I 
haste to renew it. I cannot do without your 
paper. If I could have but one paper it would 
je the Rukac Press, for it comes to us every 
week overflowing with good things — and it 
seems to me it grows better and better each 
year." — Martha Wilson, Santa Cruz county. 



The Arid Appropriation. — The telegraph 
announces that Representative Covert, Chairman 
of the Committee on Agriculture, has promised 
Mr. Davis that he will have an item inserted in 
the forthcoming agricultural appropriation bill 
to duplicate the last year's appropriation of 
$5,000 for the collection of special data concern- 
ing the agricultural needs of the so-called 
'arid region of the United States, where the 
rainfall is confined to one season of the year, as 
in California." 



Fruit Packages Free of Insects. 

Editors Press: — I have lately received two 
letters which have such an important bearing 
upon the question of checking the increase and 
spreading of noxious insects that they seem 
well worthy of publication. Mr. R. B. Blow 
era, of Woodland, lately told me that he long 
since discarded the use of returned boxes for 
table grapes. He not only fears the introduc 
tion of noxious insects from infested vineyards 
and stores, but he does not believe that it is 
profitable to use a box repeatedly for other reas 
ons. A free box costs very little, and as it is 
clean and fresh the fruit in it is attractive 
appearance, and sells more readily and at 
higher price than that in an old box. Boxes af- 
ter once using are saturated to a greater or less 
degree with the juice of broken fruit, and con 
tain the germs of fermentation and mold, 
which soon attacks fresh fruit if put in them. 
In answer to a letter asking Mr. Blowers to give 
his views on this matter at the December meet 
ing of the State Horticultural Society, and sug 
gesting that the larger boxes used by the apple 
and pear growers might make it difficult for 
them to adopt the system which he had found 
profitable with grapes, Mr. Blowers answered as 
follows: "I am sorry that I cannot meet with you 
The apple and pear men are the very 
ones who have suffered most by return boxes, 
and return boxes would not be objectionable if 
they were disinfected. A large box could be as 
easily treated as a small one. There should be 
a quarantine place where all packages of empty 
boxes could be treated previous to being re- 
turned, or several such places in San Francisco. 
If that had been done for the last 10 years, it 
would have saved tens of thousands of dollars 
annually, which are now being destroyed by 
fruit pests. The merchants as well as the grow 
ers are interested in the protection of the goose 
that lays the golden egg." 

Scalding the Apple Worm. 
Mr. Matthew Cooke, whose little pamphlet 
on the coddling moth has been so widly distrib- 
uted, gives me the following experience of Mr. 
R. Kerchival, of Courtland, as related to him 
a few days since. "In 1878, I lost all my win- 
ter or late crop of pears. In 1879, I followed 
the directions in your pamphlet, except that in- 
stead of burning the scrapings I sunk them in 
the river. I bought 160 lbs. of the wash 
and applied it on the trees. I commenced to 
overhaul my baskets and boxes in the spring; 
I found from 9 to 12 larva; in each basket. I 
have a boiler on my premises that contains 70 
gallons, and in this I scalded 10,000 baskets 
and 2,000 boxes. On the baskets taking six 
for an average, and that is very low, I destroyed 
60,000 larva? of the coddling moth. Results: 
the greater portion of my late pears were saved. 
If all my neighbors had done the same as I 
have done, I would have saved all. However, 
I may say the pro/it teas nearly $10 for every 
one it cost me." 

Most of your readers know that the gentle- 
men quoted above are noted as practical and 
successful fruit growers, whose opinions on any 
part of their business should carry weight. It 
has occurred to me that the steam which goes 
to waste in dozens of places in all of our large 
towns could be used for cleansing packages of 
insects and their eggs. Say have two apart- 
ments side by side. Fill one with boxes and 
turn in the steam as long as need be to do thor- 
ough work. In the meantime packages have 
accumulated in the second chamber, which re- 
ceives the steam in its turn. As soon as the 
steam is shut off from a chamber, let it be pro- 
vided with dry heat, perhaps from a steam coil, 
and a draft of air to carry off the moisture. I 
leave the details to those most interested, but 
protest against any patents. In this way some 
income could be secured from the, at present, 
valueless exhaust steam. Others may be able 
to suggest better devices than this for cleansing 
boxes; if so, let us hear from them. — C. H. 
Dwinelle, University of California, Berkeley, 
Jan. 10th. 

The French Still Looking Toward American 
Vinea 

The latest London papers bring information 
concerning the French Superior Commission on 
the Phylloxera, which lately held its final sit- 
ting under the presidency of the Minister of Ag- 
riculture and Commerce. The introduction of 
American stocks into the department of the Gi- 
ronde was authorized. The commission then 
decided that no one had gained the £12,000 
prize for an efficient remedy. The remedies 
approved by the commission continue to be, as 
before, submersion, sulphur of carbon, and sul- 
phocarbonate ot potassium. They recommend 
further the continuance of State aid to those 
departments which are attempting the reconsti- 
tution of their vineyards by the aid of Ameri- 
can descriptions. In certain departments this 
attempt has hitherto proved very successful. 
The nursery established at Saintes (Charente 
Inferieur) distributed last year 7,000 roots and 
this year 30,000; and further anticipated pro- 
viding double if not triple the last number next 
year, with the promised aid of Government. 

Olive Insecta 
Olive tree insects have not attracted much 
attention in this State, as yet. We have seen 
a twig borer which pruned the limbs 



somewhat, and scales have also shown 
some liking for the tree. We read that 
in Europe they are suffering considerably from 
a pest which works like the curculio on the plum. 
This insect has done much injury in Provence, 
and has this year intruded into Languedoc, and 
in the department of Herault has made sad 
havoc with an otherwise good yield. The egg 
is deposited in the olive. The larvae gnaw the 
pulp, and make passages through it. The 
olive withers and falls, and the larva passes 
into the soil, there to transform itself into the 
shape of a chrysalis. But, happily, this very 
circumstance of the olive falling gives an oppor- 
tunity for the partial extermination of the in- 
truder. The olives, which are fit neither for 
the manufacture of oil nor for eating, make a 
good meal for turkeys. 

A Giant Borer. 
Editors Priss:— I send by this mail a specimen that I 
found in a live oak root grubbed up this morning. I 
send it, thinking you might want a pet or a curiosity.— J. 
D. Enas, Napa, Cal. 

The grub is a borer; the larva of one of the 
Prionian beetles. It is about three inches in 
length. These insects usually infest forest 
trees, but are not averse to cultivated trees, as 
one of them killed a fruit tree for Mr. Hatch 
of Solano county, and Elwood Cooper of Santa 
Barbara took one from a walnut tree. They 
are wholesale chaps; they bore with a large auger. 



QdEr\IES \HO t\Ef»LIES. 



An Arabian Grass. 

Editors Press:— I send you, by to-day's mail, a speci- 
men bunch (but with only a part of the long roots) of 
Alleppo Sorghum, grown from a single seed since last 
March. It is a native of the driest portions of Asia, 
Africa and adjacent islands. It sends down a number of 
immense roots, some of them, in some varieties, over an 
inch in diameter, and reaching to a depth of more than 20 
ft., thus making the grass as perfectly proof against 
drouth as are shrubs and trees that have like sized peren- 
nial roots. No more fibrous-rooted, sod-forming grass can 
withstand prolonged drouth. Just in proportion to the 
size and length of the perennial roots, and their ability to 
supply moisture, in large quantities, from great depths in 
the earth, Just in that same ratio will rank the ability of 
any plant to remain green, and in active growth, during 
extended periods of drouth. 

The botanic name Sorghum Balepente (Halepense be- 
ing the Arabic name of Alleppo) was given to this grass 
more than a century ago. But, unfortunately, many 
other names have since been given to mere varieties of it: 
Panicum KpettabUe, Angola panic, "West Indian Valley 
Grass," Bog Rute (Root) (iratt, "Phillips Grass," "John- 
son Grass," etc. The grass varies in hight from 2 to 20 
ft., according to the variety. It is all readily propagated 
from root cuttings, or from seed. But all varieties of it 
are not equally proof against drouth, or equally well 
adapted to growth on poor, worn-out soil. The roots of 
some varieties are sweet, some of a bitterish taste, and 
some of no pronounced flavor; but under whatever taste, 
name, or size of growth it may appear, it is but the same 
Sorghum Haleptnte in its different varieties — the only 
grass that remains green, and in active growth, through- 
out the dry season in the driest parts of the earth. — W. A. 
Sakdrrs, Sanders, Cal. 

The bunch was duly received. The stems 
are 20 in number, about one yard long and well 
feathered with tender leaves. Such grass 
would be a rich bite for animals, and no mis- 
take. 

Churning the Whole Milk. 

Editors Prrbs:— All the senseless litigation concerning 
our colony having come to an t-nd I, in common with the 
entire community, am now starting in with fresh vigor to 
re-organize the various departments of my farm. There 
are many points I would like to discUBS with my fellow 
readers of the Prrss and which I purpose taking up soon, 
now that I may turn from the infamous administration of 
'aw in our country to the congenial topics pertaining to 
our common pursuits. 1 write now to ask if you know of 
any dairy in our State in which butter is made by churn- 
'ng the milk. I would be glad to travel 200 miles, If neces- 
sary, to inspect and study such a dairy. There are reas- 
ons why that method, if it could be successful in our 
large, hot valleys, would be the most profitable mode of 
handling milk.— B. Marrs, Fresno, Cal. 

We do not know of a dairy where churning 
the whole milk is practiced. The operation is 
feasible enough, of course, but there are reasons 
which weigh against it under ordinary condi- 
tions. We should like to know of any reader 
who has worked by this plan and whether it 
proves of especial advantage in hot regions. 

Shivering Timber. 
Editors Prrbs :— I would be very much obliged if you 
will inform what are the component parts of the nitro- 
glycerine, as I have some very hard wood to cut. and it is 
so cracked inside that common powder has no effect on it. 
— D. W Laws, Tulare City, Cal. 

Nitro-glycerine is made by the action of a 
mixture of concentrated nitric and sulphuric 
acids upon glycerine, introduced drop by drop. 
We would not advise our correspondent to at- 
tempt its manufacture or use, as it is extremely 
dangerous. Dynamite or giant powder is now 
used instead of nitro-glycerine, as it is not prone 
to explode by accidental shock. 



The Yosemitk. — The report of the commis- 
sioners entrusted with the management of the 
Yosemite valley and the Mariposa big tree grove 
has just been submitted to Gov. Perkins. The 
financial statement appended to the report 
shows a balance in bank to the credit of the 
commission of 12,577.45. Under the head of 
Needed Appropriations, the report says : Should 
it appear expedient in the judgment of the 
Legislature to extinguish private titles to roads 
and trails within the grant, an appropriation of 
$25,000 will be needed for that purpose, which 
amount, with $25,000 additional to make other 
improvements, not urgent, although necessary 
in time, would not be more than 5% of the cash 
annual income to the State by the world-wide 
fame of Yosemite's stupendous scenery. The 
report of the Guardian of the valley, accom- 
panying the commissioners' report, shows that 
the average number of visitors to the valley for 
the nine years from 1855 to 1864, to have been 
653, and the total number of visitors from 1864 
to December, 1880, to have been 25,518. 



January 15, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



41 



Agricultural Subjects Before the Law 
Makers. 

There have been many agricultural subjects 
broached in the bills already presented to the 
Legislature now in session at Sacramento, and 
there are many more to come, for there are im- 
portant considerations still unmentioned. We 
propose to give a brief outline of the measures 
now pending. 

Mr. Sears' Senate bill against cheese and but- 
ter frauds provides that makers of butter and 
cheese not made wholly of milk or cream, shall 
mark all packages plainly with the true and ap- 
propriate name of the article. The seller of such 
articles unmarked is guilty of a misdemeanor. 
Penalties shall be fine not less than $10 or more 
than $500, or imprisonment from 10 to 90 days, 
or both fine and imprisonment. But skimmed 
milk, salt rennet and harmless coloring matter 
may be used. Mr. Sears has also introduced a bill 
which makes the sale of adulterated milk a mis- 
demeanor with $10 to $500 fine, or 10 to 
90 days in jail, or both. 

Mr. Enos has a Senate bill that the ^ 
act of 1880 for protection of fruit trees .■•TBI 
and vines shall be repealed. That act B* 5 ^ 
created commissions in each county to j 
destroy or remove diseased vines or trees b°^Z 
threatening neighboring vineyards or ^zr 5 ^: 

orchards. If this act is repealed, we : 

trust a better one may take its place, for 
it is plain that careful fruit growers must . 
have some protection against their shift- 
less neighbors. 

The subject of sheep protection is re- 
ceiving some attention. There was a 
bill introduced early by Mr. Pardee for 
the proteetion of sheep, of which we have 
never seen an outline. We suppose that 
it is an anti-scab law. At all events, 
a measure of this kind is greatly needed. 
Mr. Moreland has introduced an anti- 
dog bill, which provides that the owner 
of a dog killing or injuring sheep shall 
be liable in damages. Anyone is author- 
ized to kill a dog known to engage in 
sheep killing or chasing. Mr. Lampson 
hasintroduced an act to encourage the 
destruction of coyotes, the provisions of 
which are not reported. 

Senator Anderson has introduced a 
bill relating to roads and highways, 
which amends section 2,045 of the Polit- 
ical Code. It classifies the counties of 
the State into three classes, as follows: 

First Class — Alameda, San Francisco, Santa 
Clara and Sacramento. 

Second Class — Alpine, Amador, Butte, Cala- 
veras, Contra Costa, Del Norte, El Dorado, Humboldt, Inyo, 
Kern, Lassen, Marin, Mariposa, Mendocino, Merced, Modoc, 
Mono, Monterey, Napa, Plumas, San Bernardino, San Diego, 
San Luis Obispo, Shasta, Santa Barbara f Santa Cruz, Sierra, 
Siskiyou, Sonoma, Solano, Stanislaus, Sutter, Tehama, 
Trinity, Tulare, Tuolumno and Ventura. The remaining; 
counties constitute the third class. 

In all the counties of the second class each 
township shall constitute one road district, 
provided that the Board of Supervisors may, 
on the petition of 50 tax-payers of any town- 
ship, divide the township into two or more dis- 
tricts. We do not yet learn the details which 
are to be observed to insure good roads. The 
bill so far as reported seems to relate only to 
classification. 

The arrangement of the serious land trouble 
in Tulare county has been mooted. The follow- 
ing is the substance of Senator Howell's resolu- 
tion relating to the Mussel Slough settlers: 

Inasmuch as the legislature, at its 23d session, adopted 
a resolution reciting the {act of the settlement upon the 
Mussel Slough lands, in this State, the controversy be- 
tween these settlers and the Southern Paoific Railroad Co., 
shitting of the railroad land grant so as to include these 
lands, ihe construction of a short branch line of railroad 
through their lands and failure to complete the entire line 
as contemplated by the grant, and requesting our repre- 
sentatives in Congress to ask for National aid for the set- 
tlers in securing a final adjustment of the questions in dis- 
pute; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That our Congressmen be requested to ask 
for the appointment of a Congressional Committee to in- 
vestigate the validity of the land grant to the Southern 
Pacific railroad, with special reference to lands in Tulare 
and Fresno counties of this State. 

In addition to the general claim by far-off re- 
gions of the State, that the expenditure of 
money for debris damming is a use of their 
money which they do not approve, there are 
loudly whispered rumors that there have been 
jobs in the construction by which individuals 
have been enriched at the public expense. This 
subject should be closely investigated, for this 
matter is certainly serious enough to be handled 
honestly, and the State' cannot afford to fill the 
pockets of thieves in the hope of relieving suf- 
fering farmers. Senator Glasscock introduced 
a resolution that a special committee be ap- 
pointed for the investigation, but it was amended, 
and the search was entrusted to the standing 
committee of the Senate on irrigation, water 
rights and drainage. The special correspondent 
of the Bulletin telegraphed from the State cap- 
ital yesterday, that "there are some people in 
Sacramento and elsewhere, who believe that a 
good, wholesome investigation of the debris 
measure, from the beginning of the last Legis- 
lature to the present time, would purify the 
moral atmosphere and make some statesmen 
hunt their holes. Senator Glasscock said yes- 
terday that the story was correct that the State 
had paid 40 cents a oubic yard for work which 
had been done for individuals at 11 cents a yard. 
Then the story has been going around, among 
engineers, too, that the dams would not stand." 
There should certainly be a careful investigation 
of these charges before action is taken on the 
subject, We notice that Senator Sears thinks 



the expense of restricting the debris should now 
come upon the general Government, and has in- 
troduced resolutions to request our Congress- 
men to ask the general Government for an ap- 
propriation for that purpose. This would be 
well enough if there could be any surety that 
the general Government would take up the mat- 
ter in earnest; but there is not, and the danger 
is that the sufferers by the debris may be re- 
manded to their old dangerous position. The 
people of the State should have learned by this 
time that the debris question is one of the great- 
est importance, and should not be dropped be- 
tween two stools. We see that it is unfair to 
tax the distant counties to dam the debris unless 
some corresponding public benefit is bestowed 
upon them by State aid in matters which they 
cannot arrange for themselves. We believe in 
all measures looking toward the safety and de- 
velopment of the State, but they must be wisely 
and honeBtly administered. It is time that job- 
bery was eliminated from public enterprises, 
and if dishonesty has crept into the debris work 
and the design in the enterprise still be found 



or imprisonment of 30 days, or both. Mr. 
Wendell, also in the Senate, has a bill which 
amends Sec. 6.34 of the Penal Code so as to 
make it unlawful to take salmon between sun- 
rise Saturday and sunset Tuesday following, or 
to set or draw nets or seines for salmon in that 
time. Also unlawful to take, buy or sell shad 
between April 1st and December 31st. But any 
one may catch with hook and line any fish in 
the tide waters of the State. Under the pres- 
ent law no salmon can be taken, bought or sold 
between August 1st and September 15th, or 
taken by net or seine between sunrise Saturday 
and noon Sunday. As to the remainder of the 
section no change is made. 

Angular Hailstones. 

A remarkable hailstorm passed over Thymbra 
farm, on the plains of Troy, Asia Minor, some 
time since, on which occasion angular hailstones 
fell, similar to those figured in the accompany- 
ing engraving. Mr. Frank Calvert, in describ- 




PORT WRANGBLL WITH ITS MISSION CHURCH AND SCHOOL. 



calculated to accomplish desired results, there 
should be a thorough weeding out of the thieves 
rather than the total abandonment of useful 
undertakings. We ought to be able to build 
dams cheaply and honestly, and the people will 
make short work of any legislator or office 
holder who uses his position to grow fat out of 
relief measures. 

Another subject of wide interest is the value 
of the services rendered by the railroad com- 
mission. These services are lightly esteemed 
by some of the legislators it is plain, for a bill 
has been introduced in the assembly to reduce 
the pay of the Commissioners to $100 per year, 
and to give them a room in the Capitol building 
to save office rent in San Francisco. The com- 
mission has submitted no report which has as 
yet been made public, and we cannot therefore 




A German Horseshoe. 

teli how much they have accomplished, but 
from the meetings they have held during the 
year, it has not appeared that they have caught 
any very large fish. The transportation com- 
panies have politely defied them, and some of 
the Commissioners have returned much the same 
behavior to some parties who would report 
grievances to them. And beyond this lies the 
apparent indisposition of the people to aid the 
commission in its work. We wait to be con- 
vinced to the contrary, but from the evidence 
so far in fight the commission should be shown 
how to do more good or released from their ob- 
ligations. 

Mr. Wendell has introduced a bill to amend 
an act to promote drainage, providing that 
swamp and overflowed lands shall alone be in- 
cluded in drainage districts. 

Other subjects of rural interest are proposi- 
tions concerning fish and game. Mr. Pool has 
introduced a bill in the Senate, making it unlaw- 
ful to hunt game on inclosed lands of another 
without oonsent. Punishment, fine, $10 to $200, 



ing the phenomenon to the Scientific American, 
says: A gale was blowing at the time from the 
southward, when a sudden massing of dark 
clouds flying in various conoentrio directions 
was observed. As the clouds passed over the 
farm there was a heavy disoharge of hailstones, 
for the space of about five minutes, which whit- 
ened the ground with an icy covering. The 
hailstones were above the average size. The 
remarkable feature, however, was the extraor- 
dinary shapes these stones presented, some of 
which were round or irregular with angular pro- 
jections, others flattened with but two of these 
points. Shapeless masses of ice also fell. The 




Angular Hallstonea. 

stones were whiter at the core than on the ex- 
ternal portion. To account for this phenome- 
non, it may be suggested that the upper portion 
of the cloud was suddenly converted to snow, 
which, falling and gyrating in the lower, 
formed the nucleus around which the vapor was 
condensed and frozen; while a rotatory motion 
gave the round form to the body, or added to 
the spherical nucleus of the snow, the angular 
poitions of the crystals increased in size. The 
delicate arrangement of the original hexagonal 
crystals of the snow was destroyed, which ex- 
plains the various shapes and irregular number 
of angles in the hailstones. The drawing is 
made from a sketch taken at the time, which 
represents the natural size of the hailstones. 
Violent guests of wind, but no electrical dis- 
charge, accompanied the fall. 

The alliance of the Emperors of Austria, 
Germany and Russia may be regarded as re- 
established, the possibility of their meeting be- 
ing discussed. 



Alaska. 

Our Territory of Alaska has of late attra 
more attention than usual. It is an unmet 
tract of country which is very little known. 
That its interior will be better known before 
long, there is little doubt. Gold has been found 
on the Yukon river, and also, lately, on the 
Takow river. In the spring there will be 
further prospecting done. 

A story is now current that rich discoveries 
of silver were made last season in Alaska by the 
crew of a whaling vessel. The story, as told 
by the captain of the whaler, is as follows: 
While the vessel was lying in a small bay at 
the mouth of one of the rivers which empty 
into theocean on the coast of Alaska, a great 
many of the natives came aboard to trade for 
sea bisquit. They were treated so liberally 
by the white men that the chief invited the 
captain to accompany them up the river on a 
fishing excursion. A whale-boat was manned, 
and the captain, one of the mates and 
four men started on the expedition. 
The entire party went up the river about 
15 miles, passing over a rapid which was 
difficult on account of the swift current 
and rocky obstructions. Soon after pas- 
sing the rapids they came in sight of a 
hill, fringed with trees and shrubs at its 
base, but barren and rocky toward the 
summit, which seemed to be not more 
than 400 or 500 ft. high. Going up the 
hill, what was supposed to be a crater of 
an extinct volcano was found. The cap- 
tain saw a matallic substance and broke 
it off with a boat ax. Where the ax had 
cleaved its way through the rock, he saw 
it was as soft nearly as lead, although 
it did not shine. He thought then that 
it was a metal of some kind, and kept it. 
The mate meantime had picked up some 
of the loose rocks and boulders, and they 
started away. Toward evening a native 
brought a piece of rock about 12 inches 
long by 6 inches thick which weighed 
48 lbs., aud sparkled with gold, stating 
that he had found it near another hill 
farther up the river, and that such rock 
was easily gathered there. The party 
returned to the vessel, and in due time 
arrived in San Francisco. Here the 
story was told to a gentleman living in 
Oakland, and the specimens handed over 
to him for the purpose of having proper 
assays made. This was done, and the 
piece which the captain chopped off 
the top of the hill with the ax, went 
$6,000 per ton in silver, and the loose 
rocks picked up on the side of the hill went as 
high as $275, silver, per ton. 

On the strength of this story, for which we 
do not vouch, it is said that an Oakland com- 
pany has been formed to send the whaler up 
next April for a cargo of the ore. 

There is good coal up there we know, whether 
there is silver or not. The Corwin, in her 
Arctic trip, thiii year found a splendid bed of 
coal in northern Alaska. It is near the beach, 
and easily quarried out. Capt. Hooper in- 
formed the writer that the coal was of good 
quality. 

Alaska has very many good harbors, and our 
Government is having the coast-line properly 
surveyed. Mr. Dall has been there with a sur- 
veying party, on the Yukon, this year. 

Among the harbors and towns on the Alas- 
kan coast, is that of Fort Wrangel, so named 
after the famous Russian Arctic explorer. We 
give an engraving of this place herewith. Fort 
Wrangel is this side of Sitka, on the steamer's 
course. The place is a small one, and is noted 
for two features — the presence of numerous In- 
dians, whose peculiarities at once strike the 
new comer, and for its being the point of the 
first introduction of our missionary work. It 
is a great free-trading station, though now not 
as important as formerly. 

Our engraving is taken by permission from ConV'ing '» 
forthcoming work entitled "Picturesque Northwest." 



A Curious Horse Shoe. 

A few weeks since we took occasion to men- 
tion that a German manufacturer had invented 
a horse shoe composed of iron and hemp, which 
is said to be meeting with great favor. At that 
time we asked some German friends to favor us 
with a sketch from which to make an engraving- 
The suggestion met with a prompt response, and 
we this week give an engraving showing the 
new shoe. 

It is of malleable iron, having a deep wide 
groove into which tarred hemp rope is firmly 
wedged. The rope protrudes beyond the rim 
of the iron and the whole is said to form a 
light and extremely serviceable shoe. 

The advantages claimed for it are that there 
is no liability of the horse falling or slipping, no 
jerking or straining of muscles by an accidental 
or mis-step. It is also thought to be a prevent- 
ive of cracking, etc., of hoofs. Easier and surer 
walking is ensured on the smoothest pavement. 

These shoes are worked from the best iron 
made and fitted cold. The tough black oakum 
will last, it is claimed, as long as iron. The shoe 
made in this manner has, it is said, met the ap- 
proval of Emperor William. We do not know 
of its being patented in this country, though it 
may be. 



42 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



("January 15, t88i. 



Garlic in Wheat— the Trouble and How 
to Remedy It.— The United States Miller says 
of this troublesome plant: It has a head some- 
what like a seed onion and containing seeds 
about the size of a wheat grain and only a trifle 
lighter. This seed contains a glutinous ma- 
terial which, in grinding, gums up the pores of 
the burrs, necessitating frequent scrubbing of 
the stone faces. The best dress for grinding 
garlicky wheat is obtained by cracking them 
roughly all over the face and dressing them 
quite open about the eye. Separation of the 
garlic from the wheat is very difficult, by rea- 
son of the similarity in the size and weight of 
wheat and garlic grains. To manufacture gar- 
licky wheat, it must be cleaned several times, 
then choppedor half ground. This will break 
the garlic, which is somewhat softer than the 
wheat, and allow its gum to diffuse itself 
through the meal, so as not to close the stones 
very much in the second grinding. It is better 
if the chopped grain be allowed to lie a consid- 
erable time before second grinding, that the 
garlic may dry. 



Sterling Music Books. 

NEW ENGLAND CONSERVATORY METH- 
OD FOR THE PIANOFORTE. 

In 3 parts; each, $1.50, or complete, $3.25. This is a 
method of established reputation, which has been in 
constant use in the great Conservatory, and is getting to 
be everywhere known and valued. Has received decided 
commendations from the best teachers. 

DICTIONARY OF MUSICAL INFORMA- 
TION. ($1.25.) Very convenient book of reference. 

GROVE'S DICTIONARY OF MUSIC AND 
MUSICIANS. Vol 1, ($0.00.) A grand encyclopedia. 

STAIN ER AND BARRETT'S DICTIONARY 
OF MUSICAL TERMS. (Complete, $6.00) a fa- 
mous and useful work. 

RICHTER'S COUNTERPOINT. ($2.00.) 

RICHTER'S FUGUE. ($2 00) 

Two Standard Works on Composition. 

THE WELCOME CHORUS, ($1.00.) For High 
Schools, and SONG BELLS (50 cts.) for Common 
Schools, should be in the mind of every teacher in need 
of new books. 

JOHNSON'S NEW METHOD FOR HAR- 
MONY. ($1.00.) By A. N. Johnson. Is unexcelled 
for ease, simplicity, and thoroughness. 

TEMPERANCE LIGHT, (12 cts.) 

TEMPERANCE JEWELS, (35 cts.) 

HULL'S TEMPERANCE GLEE BOOK,(40c.) 

Are our three best Temperance Books. Try tiikm ! 

A 7ty book mailed, punt-free, for above prices. 

OLIVER DITSON & CO., BOSTON. 

O. H. Ditson St Co., 843 Broadway, N. Y. 



Dr. Smith's Caloric 
Vita^)ils. 

iW Improved Means and Methods of Healing. Why not ? 
Caloric Vita Oils, these wonderful ancient curative remedies 
restored to the healing art by a retired Chilean physician, 
through whose advice they are now variously preuared and 
used In Dr. Smith's Phreno-Medical Institute, 633 Califor- 
nia street, Han Francisco, as sweating, absorbing, healing 
and pain-killing remedies, and which are by no means a new 
experiment, but have proven their wonderful healing virtues 
in over 25,000 cases in a single Kuropean Medical Sanitarium, 
and are now offered for sale and use. purely on their active 
healing merits. Accordingly, gentlemen or ladies are offered 
a free trial of these vita or life-giving oils, who suffer from 
Asthma, Bronchial, Lung or Throat Troubles, deep-seated 
inflammation or painful disease of any kind. Congestion 
Heart, Liver and Kidneys, Lame Back, Stiff Joiuta, Con- 
tracted Muscles or Tendons, Dropsy or Cold Extremities, 
Tumors or Glandular Swellings, in short, all forms of dis- 
ease that result from congestion or impeded circulation. In 
cleansing the blood of scrofulous drugs or virus poisons, and 
in the cure of chronic disease, the Institute employs all the 
Hygienic and' Medical appliances of Eastern and European 
water cures. Since the fall of '53 we have given special at- 
tention to diseases of the brain and nervo-vital system, and 
for the past 22 years have had gentlemen constantly under 
treatment who have suffered from some form of muscular, 
nervous or vital debility, and by using an electric medical 
magnet of great power in connection with the above reme- 
dies, we have quickly and permanently restored those who 
had even failed to get relief by other means. Phrenology is 
the key to physical as well as mental diseases. Health con- 
sultations are free, either verbal or by letter. Barlow J. 
Smith. M, D.. Proprietor. 633 California street. S. F. 



NEW C'l LVMl 3 IO> 




Price- Plain Barrels, 12 Bore, $15 OO. 

" " lO " 16 OO. 

Twist Barrels, 12 Bore, 17 OO. 
11 11 m lO " 18 OO, 

The frame and trimmings of all these guns arc nickel plated. 
This gun possesses many advantages over any single breech- 
loading gun yet produced in this country. It has a patent 
side snap action with a safety attachment, by means of which 
it can bt: opened only when the gun la at half-cock, thus in- 
suring perfect safety in loading. The workmanship and ma- 
terials uaed are first class; no gun being allowed to leave the 
factory until it has been thoroughly inspected. "We take 
great pleasure in offering this gun to the public, and feel safe 
to say it is the best Am. Single Breech-Loader yet produced. 
E. T. ALLEN, Afft., 416 Market St., S. F. 



JOS. HANSEL, 
Carriage and Wagon Manufacturer. 

All klmls of Spring Wagons. Buggies, etc.. constantly on 
hand anil for Sale at the Lowest Rates, anil guaranteed to 
Kivo satisfaction. Blacksinithlug and General Jobbing done 
witb neatnesn and dispatch. Also, on hand of my own make 
the Latest Improved Harrows and my Patent Buck Board 
and Breaking Carta. Carriage Painting and Trinuainz 
Neatly Done HUNTER. STREET. STOCKTON Cal 
Adjoining the Baptist Chuxeh. 



THE AMERICAN COLONY. 

Los Angeles County, Cal. 

This New Colony is now forming and will occupy 10,000 acres of the very best land, and in a most desirable 
location in Southern California. 

Good land, abundant water, delightful climate and an exceedingly advantageous and beautiful situation aresome 
of the natural advantages of this Colony. 

The lands are being subdivided into 5, 10, !0 and 40 Acre Lots. 

The 40 Acre Farms will range in prices from $500 to §1,000 There is also a Town Site. 
*W For a beautiful lithograph plate and the Colony Prospectus, Maps, Plats, Circulars, Etc., send stamp, 
or apply to 

W. E. WILLMORE, Manager, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Or to the California Immigrant Union, W. H. MARTIN, General Agent, Chrouicle Building, Room 3, San 
Francisco, Cal. 



NICOLL 



TAIL.O 

Branch, of XTew York. 



! ! 



INSPECT OUR IMMENSE STOCK. 
Do Wot Fail to See 

THE ELECTRIC LIGHT ! ! 

Call and see the ELECTRIC LIGHT at NICOLL 'S, by which Colors and 
Quality may be Seen as Clearly at NIGHT as at NOONDAY. 



ORDER; 



From $5.00. 



TO 
Pants 

Suits 

From $20-00, 

Overcoats 



-HSW a. 



From $18 .00. 



Ulsters 



TO ORDER: 
I Black Doeskin Pants 

From $7.00 

[White Vests 

From $3.0 

Taney Vests 
Dress Coats 

From $20.00. From $6.00. 

GENUINE 0x BEAVER SUITS from $65. English Cords for Hunting Suits. 

Samples, with instructions for self-measurement, sent free. 

Only White Labor Employed, and none but Experienced and First-Class Cutters. 
A SMALL STOCK OF UNCALLED FOR PANTS, VESTS, COATS, OVERCOATS, ULSTERS, 

AT AN IMMENSE REDUCTION. 

Nicoll the Tailor's Grand Tailoring Emporium 

727 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



From $15.00. 




S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Ave., San Francisco. 

iWFree Coach to the House. O. F. BECKER, Proprietor 



FOREST AND STREAM. 

The American Sportsmen's Journal. 

DEVOTED TO SHOOTINO, FISHING, YACHTING, 
THE DOG AND THE RIFLE. 

Send for Specimen Copy to 

Forest and Stream Publishing Co., 

30 Park Row, New York City, N. Y. 



MONEY TO LOAN. 

In sums of $2,000 and upwards on Good, Productive 
Farms at fair rate of interest. Farms bought and sold. 
Apply to A. SCHULLBB, 

310 California Street, 9. F. 



it 



NEW 



Hydraulic Rami 

The only Horizontal Ram made. Will do 
good work on light fall. SeDd for Circular 

H. F. MORROW, Chester, Pa. 



LTnrYrilfinrv Su P erier Wood and Metal Engrav- 
LIIhI Of lift. 1,1 Eloctrotyping and Stereotyp- 
ic ■*•»■■■ o mg done at o jf( c0 of tlieMiNi.N'a 
*° SonaiiFic Pbibs, San Francisco, at favorable rates 




Wholesale and Retail. 



Handsomely Illustrated Catalogue with description and 
culture of the beat Flowers and Vegetables. Mailed 
free to all. 

THOMAS A. COX & CO., 
SEED MERCHANTS, 

409 Sansome Street, San Francisco 



NAPA VALLEY 

POULTRY FARM. 



Largest establishment on 
the Pacific Coast. All the 
LEADING VARIETIES 
MADE A SPECIALTY. Great 
care taken in mating stock for 
shipment. Send three cent 
stamp for circular and prico 
list. Postal card not noticed. 

R. O. HEAD, 

P. O Box 263, Napa, Cal. 




TRKK. Elegant Illuminated Book Mark. 
' Sent to all for two three cent stamps. BUST & PREN- 
TICE, 40 Beekniau.Street, New York. 



Agricultural Articles. 



THE CALIFORNIA 

Spring Tooth Harrow 

OR CULTIVATOR. 




IS WHAT EVERY FARMER WHO HAS HAD PLOWED 
LAND EXPOSED TO THE HEAVY RAINS 

Must Have if they would do Perfect Work. 

Such Soil is rendered Fine and Mellow, 8ee is per- 
fectly covered and Vegetation destroyed. They alone will 
bsvc the replowing of thousands of acres, and at the rate 
ofifrom Twenty to Fifty Acres per day. Farmers 
buy the best, buy an implement that has no equal, 
one that will do work that no other tool can. 

MANUFACTURED AND SOI.D ONLY BT 

BATCHELOR, VAN GELDER & CO., 

Nos. 900 & 002 K 8treet. Sacramento. 
AND THEIR AUTHORIZED AGENTS. 

The Famous " Enterprise," 



PERKINS' PATENT 
Self Regulating 



WINDMILLS, 

Pumps & Fixture!. 




These Mills and Primps 
reliable and always give sat- 
Isfaction. Simple, strong and 
durable in all parte. Solid 
wrought iron crank shaft with 
double tearinos for the crank 
to work in, all turned 
run in babbitted boxes.. 

Positively self regulating 
with no coil spnngor springs 
of any kind. No little rods. 
Joints, levers or balls to get 
out of order, as such things 
do. Mills in use six to nine years In good order now, that 
have never cost one cent for repairs. 

All sizes of Pumping and Power Mills. Theusands In 
use. Alt warranted. Address fer circulars and infer 
■nation, 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES, LTTERMOILE, 
ALAMEDA CO., CAL. Also, Best Feed Mills for sale. 

San Francisco Agency, LINFORTH, RICE 

St CO.. 333 & 335 Market Street. 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSONS 




Took the Premium orer all at the great plowing Hatch Id 
St'»cktou, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who hare 
been long in the business and know what U required in the 
construction of Gang Plows. It la quickly adjusted. Suf- 
ficient play is given so that the tongue will pass orer cradle 
knolls without changing the working position of the shares. 
It is so constructed that the wheels themselves govern the 
action of the Plow correctly. It has various points of supe- 
riority, and can be relied upon as the best and most desira- 
ble Gang Plow In the world. 

Iron Founders, Machinists and Manufacturers of Improved 
Agricultural Implements. General Jobbing and repairing 
done in the best manner at mont reasonable rates. Bend for 
circular to MATTKSON 4 WILLIAMSON, 

Stockton, OsJL 



Zimmerman 
Fruit and Vegetable 
DRIER AND BAKER. 

description and testimonials I LINFORTH, RICE 
& CO., General Agents for Pacific Coast, 323 St 325 
Market St., S. F. 



Best and on- 
ly Galvaniz- 
ed Iron Por- 
table Fire 
Proof Ma- 
chine for the 
purpose It 
has no supe- 
rior. Send 
for Circu- 
lars and read 



SWINE! SWINE!! 

Having engaged in Fruit Growing, am determined to 
close out my entire stock of Thoroughbred Poland China 
Swine (all of good Pedigree) by the First of February 
next. Prices, Crated and delivered at the Railroad De- 
pot, with Food for Journey, Brood Sows, in Pig, 920; 
Boars. 10 to 12 months old, 1 12; Shoats, £ to months 
old, 97 each, $12 a pair and 115 per trio. 

Also, Black Cochin Chickens and Eggs for sale. 

Jerusalem Artichokes for sale in large or small lots. 
Address 

T. C. STARR, 
San Bernardino, Cal 



50 



New Style Cards. Lithographed in bright colors, lOe. 
69 Ag - t». Samples 10c Conn. Card Co. Northferd, u 



January 15, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FBESS. 



43 



purciiasgrs of stock will find in this dlrhctory tub 
Names of bomb of tub Most Rrliablb Brkkders. 

Oor Ratbs. — Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
60 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 



CATTLE. 



HENRY PIERCE, 728 Montgomery Street, S. F. 
Jersey Cattle, bred from Importation direct from 
Jersey Island, and winners of most of the prizes at 
Oakland, Stockton and the State Fairs. " Victor of 
Yerba Buena," of noted butter strains on the Island, 
and known to be the best Bull ever imported to this 
coast, now stands at the head of this famous herd. 
" King of Scituate," son of the famous 705 pound butter 
Cow, Jersey Belle, of Scituate, which now stands at the 
head of Mr. Pierce's noted herd, at Scituate, Mass., 
will soon be brought here. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, S. F. Importers 
and breeders of all varieties of Thoroughbred Cattle, 
Sheep, Horses, and Berkshire Swine. 4)1 animals fully 
pedi greed. 

PAGE BROTHERS, 213 Clay street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petal ami, Sonoma Co.) Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and Spanish Merino Sheep. 

C. CLARK, Milpitas, Santa Clara Co. Importer and 
Breeder of Short-Horn Cattle. Has a herd of 14 Cows 
and Bulls, among which are one Gwynne-Princess Bull, 
by Imported Grand Prince of Lightburne, and cows 
of the Dutchess of York family: heifers being by the 
Imported Bull Sheriff, a Seraphina Bull and Kirkleving- 
ton Duke 2d, a pure Bates Bull. The whole herd for 
sale or single animals if desired. 

JESSE D. CARR, Salinas City, Monterey Co., Cal., Pro- 
prietor of Gabilan Herd. The foundation of the Gabilan 
Herd was secured by importations of the best attainable 
representatives of the most popular families. The herd 
includes groups of the time-honored Louan and Hope 
families; also representatives of the pure Bates, Oxfords, 
Duchesses, Young Marys and Roses of Sharon. Fine 
Trotting Horses, Thoroughbred and Graded Merino 
Bucks, also Thoroughbred and Cross Bred Shropshire- 
down Bucks always on hand and for sale at reasonable 
prices. 

M. WICK, Oroville, Butte County, Cal. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred Cattle, Short-Horns. Young Bulls and 
Heifers for sale at all times of the year. 



COL. C. YOUNGER, Forest Home Herd, San Jose, 
Cal. Breeder of Short-Horn Durhams, and pure bred 
Cotswold Sheep. Young Bulls and Bucks always for 
sale. Australian Rye Grass. 

HORSES. 

HENRY MILLER, San Francisco, Cal. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred Norman Horses of the Stock Imported 
by Mr. Perry, of Illinois, took First Premium at San 
Jose Fair, 1880. 

R. J. MERKELEY, Sacramento, Cal., Breeder of 
Norman-Percherou Horses and Short-Horn Durhams. 
My stock is all registered. Took three first-class pre- 
miums on Horses at State Fair, 1880. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 

JOHN S. HARRIS, Hollister, Cal. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred registered Goats. Took Eight Premi- 
ums at the State Fair of 1880. I had one Buck at the 
State Fair with staple 16 inches long. Correspondence 
solicited. 



L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 



J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Solano Co , Cal. Breeder 
and Importer of Shropshire Sheep. Rams and Ewes 
for sale. Also, cross-bred Merino and Shropshire. 

E. W- WOOLSEY & SON, Fulton, Sonoma Co., 
Cal. Importers and Breeders of choice Thoroughbred 
Spanish Merino Sheep. City office, No. 418 California 
St., S. F. 



POULTRY. 



ALBERT BURBANK, 43 California Market, S. F. 
Importer and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry, 
Dogs, etc. Eggs for hatching. Send for price list. 



WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Importer 
and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Berkshire 
and Magie Poland -China Swine. 

MRS. L. J. W ATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Pekin Ducks, etc. 



A. O. RIX, Washington, Alameda County, CalL'ornia. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for Circular. 



MRS. L. E. McMAHA N, Dixon, Solano Co.. Cal. 
Importer and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Eggs 
for Hatching. Send for price list. 

T. D. MORRIS, Sonoma, Sonoma County, Cal. Breeder 
and Importer of all the varieties of Land and Water 
Fowls. Eggs for hatching sent any distance with 
safety. Satisfaction guaranteed. Send for price list. 



SWINE, 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co., Cal 
Importer, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 

T. C. STARR, San Bernardino, Cal. Poland-China 
Swine and Black Cochin Chickens for sale. 



JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 



L. N. SCOTT, Lincoln, Placer County, Cal. Breeder 
of Pure Poland China Swine. My stock is shipped di- 
rect from Iowa and is the purest breed. Took first 
premium at State Fair, 1880. 



ELIAS GALLUP, Hanford, Cal. Breeder of Pure 
Poland China Swine, with recorded pedigree. My 
stock is from the celebrated "McCreary Bismarck" 
breed, by D. M. McGee, Oxford, Ohio. Took tve pre- 
miums at State Fair, 1880 



BEES. 



J. D. EN AS, Sunnyside, Napa, Cal. Breeds Pure 
Italian t^ueen Bees. Comb Foundation. 



50 



Lithogiaphed Chromo Cards, no 2 alike, 10c. Name 
in fancy type. Conn, Card Co., Northford, Ct. 



IRRIGATED LANDS FOR LEASE AND SALE. 

THE GREAT COLORADO VALLEY LAND AND IRRIGATING CO. 

Offer for Lease and Sale a large tract of land in small farms, on extra liberal terms to settlers. 
Adapted to the growing of Semi-Tropical and Deciduous Fruits, Fibrous Plants, Vines, Cereals, Etc. 
Situated on the California side of the Colorado river, opposite the town of Enrenberg, and deriving its irrigating 
water by Canal from the Colorado river. 

Full particulars, terms, etc., will be forwarded on application to 

THOMAS H. BLYTHE, 724i Market Street, San Francisco. 

Or to GEORGE S. IRISH, Superintendent, (on the land). 




ILLUSTRATE^ 




Is an Elegant Book of 120 Paces, One Col- 
ored Flower Plate, and 600 Illustrations, 
with Descriptions of the best Flowers and Vegetables, 
and directions for growing. Only 10 cents. In English 
or German. If you afterwards order seeds deduct the 10 

Ce 'viCK'S SEEDS are the best in the world. The 
Floral Guidb will tell how to get and grow them. 

Vick's Flower and Vegetable Garden, 175 
Pages, Colored Plates, 500 Engravings. For 50 cents 
in paper covers; si. 00 in elegant cloth. In German or 
English. 

Vick's Illustrated Monthly Magazine-32 
pages, a Colored Plate in every number and many flue 
Engravings. Price 81.25 a year; Five Copies for $5 00 
Specimen Numbers sent for 10 cents; 3 trial copies for 25 
cents. Address „ _ 

J A.MES VICK, Rochester, N. Y. 



BEFORE BUYING OR RENTING AN 
OHC AN 

Send for our LATEST Illustrated Catalogue (32 pp. 
4to), with newest styles, at $51 and upward; or $6.38 
per quarter, and up. Sent free. MASON & HAMLIN 
ORGAN CO., 164 Tremont St., BOSTON; 46 E. 14th St. 
NEW YORK; 149 Wabash Av., CHICAGO. 

Mason and Hamlin Organs. 

Wholesale and Retail Agents 

KOHLER & CHASE, 

Post Street, near Dupont, - - - SAN FRANCISCO 



AUZERAIS HOUSE, 

Santa Clara Street, San Jose, Cal. 

CHAS. B. PEARSON, Proprietor. 

Strictly Plr»t-Cla«« and Moderate Charges. 

^■Auzerais House Coach and Carriages in attendance 
on arrival of Trains. 



50 



Chromos, name in new type. 10c. by mail. 40 Agt' 
Samples, 10c. V. S. Card Co., Northford. Ct. 



GRANGERS' BANK 

Of California, 

SAN PBANCISCO, CAL. 

Authorized Capital, - $1,000,000, 

In 10,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $400,000. 

OFFICERS: 

G. W. COLBY President 

JOHN LEWELLING Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 

FRANK McMULLEN Secretary 

DIRECTORS: 

G. W. COLBY President Butte Co 

JOHN LEWELLING, Vice-President Napa Co 

J. V. WEBSTER AlamedaCo 

URIAH WOOD San Benito Co 

J. C. MERYFIELD Solano Co 

THOMAS McCONNELL Sacramento Co 

I. C. STEELE San Mateo Co 

SOLOMON JEWETT Kern Co 

O J. CRESSEY Stanislaus Co 

SENECA EWER Napa Co 

A. D. LOGAN Colusa Co 

The Bank was opened on the first of August 1874 for the 
transaction of general Banking business. 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and conducted in the 
usual way. 

GOLD and SILVER deoosits received 

CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued for Gold and Silver 

TERM DEPOSITS are received and interest allowed as 
follows: 6% per annum if left for 3 months; 7% per annum if 
left for 6 months; &'/ t er annum if left for lfl months. 

EXCHANGE on the Atlantic States bought an* sold. 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER, 
Cashier and Manager. 

San Francisco, Oet. 15, 1880. 

ST. DAVID'S, 

A FIRST-CLASS LODGING HOUSL 

CONTAINS 113 ROOMS. 
715 Howard St., near Third, San Francisco. 



This House is especially designed as a comfortable home for 
gentlemen and ladies visiting the city from the interior. No 
dark rooms. Gas and running water in each room. The floors 
are covered with body Brussels carpet, and all of the furniture 
is made of solid black walnut. Each bed has a spring m&t- 
tress, with an additional hair top mattress, making them the 
most luxurious and healthy beds in the world. Ludies wish- 
ing to cook for themselves or families, are allowed the free 
use of a large public kitchen and dining room, with dishes. 
Servants wash the dishes and keep up a constant tire from 
6 A. M. to 7 P. m. Hot and cold baths, a large parlor and read- 
ing room, containing a Grand Piano — all free to guests. Price 
single rooms per night, 50 cts. ; per week, from $2. 50 upwards. 

R. HUGHES, Proprietor. 

At Market Street Ferry, take Omnibus line of street earn 
to corner Third and Howard. 



M. COOKE. 



R. J. COOKE 



PIONEER BOX FACTORY, 

Corner of Front and M Streets, Sacramento. 

ALL KINDS OF 

Fruit and Packing Boxes Made to Order, 

AND IN SHOOKS. 

tSSt Communications Promptly Attended to. 
COOKE & SONS, Successors to Cooki & Grboort 



Jackson's Agricultural Machine Works 

AND FOUNDRY, 

6th and Bluxome Sts., near S. P. R. R., San Francisco. 

Manufacturer of Feeders and 
Elevators, with recently invented 
Spreader. Horse Forks for Head- 
ings or Hay. Folding Derricks. 
Hoadley Straw-Burner and Auto- 
matic Cut-off Governor for Por- 
table Engine. Separator Shoes 
and Repairs. WINDMILLS for 
Stockmen and Gardeners. Buy 
and sell second-hand Threshers 
and Engines. Machine Castings 
a specialty. Address 

BYRON JACKSON, Prop'r. 




100,000 BLUE AND RED GUMS. 

200,000 Cypress, Pine and Acacia. 

Very fine Stock and Cheap. Beautiful, Fresh and 
Finest Variety of Monterey Cypress Seed, $3.00 per 
pound, pre-paid by mail. Blue Gum and Aca- 
cia Seeds. Postoffiee address 

GEO. &. BAILEY, Oakland, Cal. 

Nursery located at Dwightway Station, East Berkeley 

SADDLES, = w. DAVIS, 

UADKICQC U/UIPQ 410 Market St., S. P. 

rlHnilP.OO, If nil O. Manufacturer and Dealer 
■ C1TUCD «— «— — in All Goods in tliis line 
LLA I ntn, - — ■ trSeudfor Catalogue 



A. Aitkkn. 



F. N. Fish. 



AITKEN & FISH, 

Premium Pioneer Marble Works, 

617K St., Bet Sixth as Seventh, - .SACRAMENTO, CAL. 



Lands for Sale and *o L 



AGRICULTURAL GRANT. 

150.000 ACRES. 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

In quantity to suit purchaser. No residence or im- 
provements required. 

By a recent order of the Hon. Commissioner of the 
General Land Office, the Regents of the University of Cal- 
ifornia are authorized to receive applications for land un- 
der the COLLEGE GRANT, not to exigf 11,400 acres. 

TERMS OF SALE. 

For Lands Outside of Railroad Grants, $5 OO 
For Lands Within a Railroad Grant, $6.25 

If purchasers prefer, they can pay 20 per cent, (or $1.00 
per acre) as the first payment, and will be allowed a credit 
of five years for the remaining SO per cent, (or $4 00 per 
acre). At seven per cent, per annum interest. 

Printed blanks for making applications and full infor- 
mation will be furnished free of charge, by addressing 

J. HAM HARRIS, Land Agent, 

P. O. Box 2040, San Francisco, Cal. 

San Francisco, Dec. 20, 1880. 

A GOOD HOME 

For sale, very cheap, in the very pleasant and healthy 
village of Soquel, Santa Cruz, Cal. , near the famous water- 
ing place 

CAMP CAPITOLA. 

Also a well patronized 

BLACKSMITH SHOP, 

Together or separate. For particulars inquire o 
C. H. HALL, 
Soquel, Cal. 



FOR SALE. 

215 ACRES OF GOOD GRAIN, GRASS 
and Fruit Land. 

Two miles from the Soquel Wharf and Railroad Depot. 
Price, $3,500. Four Good Springs and 

20 Acres of Heavy Timber 

On it. Also, 100 acres ore mile from the Railroad, 
cheap. For particula s, inquire of 

J. PARRISH, 

Soquel. Cal 




For Sale in large or small tracts, on easy terms, in 
the best parts of the State. 

McAfee brothers, 

202 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

FRUIT AND GRAIN FARM FOR SALE, 

Near Sacramento, Cal. 

Eighty acres of choice land, two miles from city limits; 
half mile east upper Stockton road; 800 Fruit trees, one acre 
Grapevines, two acres Blackberries. Sixty-rive acres iu Grain 
will be sold with or without crop. Good House and Out 
Buildings. Farm well fenced; five Windmills and Horse 
Power; Fish Pond; three-quarters of a mile from good 
School This property will be sold cheap. Terms cash. 
Apply at the ranch. J. K. HOUSTON. 



SANTA CRUZ COUNTY. 

Good Crops every Season without Irrigation. 

Farms, Stock Ranches, Dairy Farms, Fruit Farms, 
Vineyards, Chicken Ranches, and Homesteads of every 
class and description in this and adjoining counties for 
sale and rent on reasonable terms. State requirements 
and obtain suitable particulars from the Real Estate 
EXCHANGE & MART, 

Santa Cruz, Cal 



GRAND ALL 

SPRING SKELETON BUGGY. 

LIGHTEST AND EASIEST RUNNING. 

Cannot be upset by cramping or sudden turning. 

Will pass over the roughest roads or car tracks without 
jolting. Especially adapted for mountain roads. War- 
ranted for two years. 

A. MERSEREAU, 
No. 1927 Mission St., Manufacturer 



SAVE YOUR HORSES! 

Safety, Security and Economy. 

Haggard k Brown's Wagon Tongue Support. 

The undersigned has the agency for this coast. For 
trade price list or exclusive territory, address, 

W. E. LIVEBMORE, Los Gatos, 

Santa Clara County, Cal. 



JOSEPH F. HILL, 

MANUFACTURER OF FIRST-CLASS 

Buggies, Farm & Freight Wagons. 

OF ALL DESCRIPTIONS 

Cor. Thirteenth and J Sts., Sacramento, Cal. 
43T Repairing promptly attended to *Bi 

C A All Gold, Chromo and Lithograph Cards, no 2 alike, 
Otc name on, 10 cts. C. DePuy, Syracuse, N. Y, 



44 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



(January 15, 1881. 



The Barbed Wire Decision. 

A decision has just bfcen rendered as to the 
right to manufacture the barbed wire which is 
so largely used in fencing. It seems to be ad 
mitted on all sides that this is the most im- 
portant mercantile decision that has ever been 
rendered in this country. Its importance rises 
from the fact that there has already been more 
than a hundred thousand tons used, and there 
seems to be practically no limit to the demand 
hereafter; and to the additional fact, that that 
portion of this vast amount sold during the past 
four years, sjfcich has been manufactured by 
infringers of the patents, now decided to be 
valid, renders the parties engaged in such un 
lawful manufacture, sale and use, liable for 
damages to the plaintiffs, the Washburn & Moen 
Manufacturing Co., and I. L. Ellwood. The 
law allows the plaintiffs to collect damages 
from the manufacturer, the jobber, the retailer 
and the consumer, and they can elect which 
they shall first sue. 

It is conceded that this decision puts very 
great power in the hands of the plaintiffs, and 
the question is nervously asked: "How will 
they use it ? both with reference to the past 
and to the future. We cannot of course speak 
with authority; but a suggestion may not be 
out of place. These are not adventurers, who 
have sprung into power through some acci- 
dental combination of circumstances. 

The Washburn & Moen Manufacturing Co. 
is an incorporated company of nearly 50 years 
standing, with a capital of $1,500,000, and pos- 
sessing one of the largest wire mills in the 
world. Is it not safe to assume that they will 
do nothing to tarnish the good reputation they 
have so long maintained ? Undoubtedly, the 
course of said plaintiffs will be more or less in- 
fluenced by frauk expressions of willingness on 
the part of those who have infringed on their 
rights, to discontinue further infringements, 
and to make just and reasonable reparations 
for the past. What will be, in fad, the future 
policy of the plaintiffs remains to be seen; but 
we believe, however, it will be such as to meet 
the approval of a just and liberal public senti- 
ment, having due regard to the injury and 
great expense to which they have, as it now 
appears, from the decision of the court, been 
unlawfully subjected during the past four 
years. — Chicago Industrial World, Dee. 23d. 

The Minneapolis Flour Mills.— Gen. C. 
C. Washburn, who recently visited Minne- 
apolis, says that the mills of that place will 
grind 22,000,000 bushels of hard spring wheat 
during the year 1881. Minneapolis millers are 
now universally using roller mills. Eastern 
mills can no longer compete with Minnesota 
mills, for the reason that they cannot obtain the 
proper quality of wheat. All the hard wheat 
which reaches Chicago is mixed with soft to 
grade it up, and consequently millers there or 
east of there cannot get the same quality of 
wheat, all alike in its nature to make the best 
grades of what is known to the trade as patent 
Hour. Minneapolis Hour can be delivered in 
Great Britain for $1.20 per barrel above its cost 
in Minneapolis. Minneapolis millers are taking 
steps to improve their transportation facilities, 
so as to transport their produce in as direct and 
short a line as possible, and as soon as the ar- 
rangements are perfected, but little Hour will go 
East by way of Chicago. 

Colusa County Annual.— The Colusa Sun 
has issued a neat pamphlet of 80 pages, "Colusa 
County Annual," being a holiday supplement 
to the Colusa Am. It contains many matters 
both of local and general interest, and many 
valuable statistics. A list of the land owners 
of the county, with their postofiice addresses, 
will be appreciated by all who have anything to 
bring to the attention of the solid men of the 
county. The Sun is an open-eyed journal ; and 
in its devotion to local interests, both in news 
and editorial columns, it has a character of its 
own. 



Thk West Shore. —This magazine, published 
by L. Samuel, of Portland, Oregon, is exhibit- 
ing much enterprise in making known the pro- 
gress and resources of the northwest. The De- 
cember number was replete with engravings and 
descriptions of Columbia river scenery, and fu- 
ture numbers are promised to be still more val- 
uable. Mr. Samuels expects to have ready for 
hie February issue a colored map of the entire 
Pacific northwest from the latest surveys. 

The American Exchange hotel, so well 
known to all the traveling public, has been re- 
fitted, overhauled and put in first rate condi- 
tion, and is now under the management of 
Charles Montgomery, proprietor of the three 
"Montgomery Hotels" on Second street, in this 
city. He is an old hotel man, having had many 
years experience. He will run the American 
Exchange on improved principles, The build- 
ing has been thoroughly renovated. 

The California Horticulturist.— The ed- 
itor, Mr. Charles Shinn, has accepted a position 
on one of the San Francisco daily newspapers, 
and the magazine has been bought by the Pa- 
cific Rural Press, already well known to many 
of our readers as one of the most enterprising 
rural paper* on the Pacific coast. — Gardeners' 
Monthly. 



Our Agents, 



Our Friends can do much In aid of our paper and th e 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
influence and encouraging favors. We intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

J. F. Ohbornk— San Francisco. 

A. C. Knox— Pacific Coast. 

O. W. McGrew.— Santa Clara county. 
M. P. Owen— Santa Cruz County. 

J. W. A. Wright— Merced, Tulare and Kern counties. 
N. E. Boy I) — San Bernardino and Los Angeles counties. 
Jareu C. Hoao — California. 

B. W. Crowrll — Co lusa and Yolo counties. 

D. W. Kellbuek— Fresno, San Benito, Monterey and 
San Luis Obispo counties. 
W. O. Waknock, Sonoma County. 
M. 1'. Owkn— Santa Cruz County, Cal. 



[COM. ] 

Vaccination for Scab in Sheep- 

Editors Press :— I desire to announce to your readers 
that 1 have discovered a method of protecting sheep from 
the scab disease by vaccination. The principle is identi- 
cal with that involved in vaccination to prevent smallpox 
in the human species. 1 do not claim that my method of 
vaccinating sheep will prove an absolute prevention of 
skin disease, but it will either prevent it or reduce the dis- 
ease to a milder form, as vaccination in human kind reduces 
smallpox to varioloid. In the case of sheep there may, in 
some cases, be a slight surface irritation of the skin which 
can be easily removed, but there will be no attack of the 
scab in its well-known virulent and penetrating forms. 
Anyone desirous of inquiring into this new method of 
meeting the scab disease may address me at the Baldwin 
Hotel, San Francisco. S. U. Kennedy. 

San Francisco, Dec. 8th. 

P. S.— Address, after January IS, 1881, Omaha, Ne- 
braska. 



Various Causei — 

Advancing years, care, sickness, disappointment, and 
hereditary predisposition —all operate to turn the hair gray, 
and either of them inclines it to shed prematurely. 
Aver's Hair Vigor will restore faded or gray, light or red 
hair to a rich brown or deep black, as may be desired. It 
softens and cleanses the scalp, giving it a healthy action. 
It removes and cures dandruff and humors. By its use 
falling hair is checked, and a new growth will be produced 
in all cases where the follicles are not destroyed or the 
glands decayed. Its effects are beautifully Bhowu oh 
brashy, weak, or sickly hair, on which a few applications 
will produce the gloss and freshness of youth. Harmless 
and sure in its ojieratiuu, it is incomparable as a dressing, 
and is especially valued for the soft luster and richness of 
tone it imparts. It contains neither oil nor dye, and wil: 
not soil or color white cambric; yet it lasts long on the 
hair, and keeps it fresh and vigorous. 

For Sale by all Dealers. 



Attend to Thia. 



Our subscribers w ill find the date they have paid to 
printed on the label of their paper. If it is not correct 
(or if the paper should ever come beyond the time de- 
sired), be sure to notify the publishers by letter or postal 
card. If we are not notified within a reasonable time we 
cannot be responsible for the errors or omission of agents. 



Important additions arc being continually made in 
Woodward's Gardens. The grotto walled with aquaria is 
constantly receiving accessions of new fish and other 
marine life. The number of sea lions is increased and 
there is a better chance to study their actions. The 
pavilion has new varieties of performances. The floral 
department is replete and the wild animals in good vigor. 
A day at Woodward's Gardens is a day well spent. 



Sample Copies —Occasionally we send copies of our 
paper to oersons who we believe would be benefi ted by 
subscribing for it, or willing to assist us in cxtendin g its 
circulation. We call the attention of such to our pros- 
pectus and terms of subscription, and request that they 
circulate the copy sent. 



The Yosemite is strictly first class and the leading hotel 
of Stockton. Prices moderate. Jas. Caven, Propr. 



First-Class in Every Respect.— When you visit Stock- 
ton stop at the Mansion House. Free Coach to the 
house. J H. CROSS, Proprietor. 



Pav Cash In advanco— $3 a year for the 
Rural Preas. Credit rates, $4. 



Note— Our quotations are for Wednesday, not Saturday 
the date which the paper bears. 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE. ETC. 

Sam Francisco, Wednesday, .Ian. 12, 1881. 
There is little to note in the Produce markets this week. 
Grain of all kinds is quiet, and prices slightly reduced a, 
a rule. In Wheat there is much interest manifested in 
accounts of Grain still on hand in the different regions' 
The Produce Exchange has made extra exertions to have 
its report complete this year, and until that is prepared 
there will be something of hesitancy to invest largely. 
The latest advices from Liverpool are as follows: 
Liverpool, Jan. 11- Good to choice California Wheat, 
9s 8dcy 10s. In spot lots there is uothing doing, and priceB 
are nominal; cargoes on passage for shipment are slow, 
while there is a continued strong demand for floating car- 
goes, and those near at hand are held firm at 47s V 
quarter. 

The Forelan Review. 

London, Jan. 10 — The Mark Lane Ezpreti, In its re- 
view of the British Grain trade for the past week, says: 
The fine day and seasonable weather has favored the grow- 
ing crops and imparted a healthier tone to trade in Bread- 
stuffs. The holiday season having expired, there were 
signs of activity, though transient at the beginning of the 
week. Except at a few prominent markets, where values 
were improved, prices were unchanged throughout the 
country. Since Monday, Breadstuffs hare met a dull and 
abored sale. Ou Wednesday business was at a standstill, 



and Friday it was slow at a slight decline. The foreign 
market was very quiet and in favor of buyers until Fri- 
day, when American advices strengthened holders. At 
London stocks were in moderate supply, though consider- 
ably above that of the previous week, which was also 
moderate. The quantity on passage was materially 
greater. Indian Wheats are rather cheaper. Nearly all 
foreign Flour was obtainable inside the current price. 
Barley was slow, but good malting samples readily "sold. 
The rest continues in favor of buyers. Foreign Barley is 
also Blow. Oats are not marketed freely, but prices are 
steady. Foreign Oats are in restricted demand and un- 
changed. Maize is slow and declining. Sales of English 
Wheat for the past week were 22,297 quarters at 43s 4d, 
against 30,075 quarters at 46s 2<1 at the same period last 
year. Imports into the United Kingdom, for the week 
ending Jan. 1st, were 1.12S.C79 cwts of Wheat, and 347,- 
920 cwts of Flour. 

Frelsrhts and Charters. 

The latest chartors reported are the ship Solitaire, 632 
tons. Wheat to Cork, £3 6s; ship Pactolut, 1,206 tons, 
Wheat to Liverpool direct, £3 Is 3d; Cork, £3 3s 2d; ship 
A merica, 2,(i. r >4 tons, and ship St. Paul, 1,894 tons, Wheat 
to Cork and Liverpool, respectively, private; ship J. B. 
Walker, 2,172 tons, Wheat to Liverpool direct, £3; British 
ship Juhn o' Gaunt, 1,327 tons, Wheat to Liverpool di" 
rect, £3 5s; Cork, £3 7s 6d. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

Boston, Jan. 7. — The Wool market has been quiet this 
week, the sales comprising only 1,130,000 lbs of all kinds, 
and the prices indicating no change. The large stocks in 
New York, Boston and Philadelphia (some 50,000,000 ths) 
make the buyer hold off, but at this time last year there 
were very large supplies on the way, against a limited 
quantity now. Of 95,000,000 lbs of foreign Wool received 
at New York and Boston last year, there is very little left, 
and our manufactures must have consumed at least 100,- 
000,000 His of foreign Wool last year, while at the present 
time there is no margin for importation, or is there likely 
to be, unless prices advance. There is more or less Eng- 
lish combing now coming forward, as tho mills have been 
driven to purchase in Great Britain on account of the 
small stock of this grade on hand. The prices of X and 
XX Ohio and Pennsylvania have ranged from 47#48c; 
Wisconsin and Michigan, 42}#44c; and combing and de- 
laines, 4S(ft55c, as to quality. Unwashed Wools remain 
the same, with moderate business; and pulled Wools have 
been Belling at 37#52c for common and choice supers. 
There is no movement of any consequence in foreign. 
Holders arc very confident that manufacturers will be in 
the market in force in a week or two, and that full prices 
will then he realized. 

Philadelphia, Jan. 7.— Wool is in light demand, prices 
steady. 

Boston, Jan. 11. — There continues to be a quiet market 
in Wool, the stormy weather for some dayB past interfer- 
ing with all kind of business. There is a firm feeling for 
all deiprable grades, and we look for more active move- 
ment in a week or two. Sales include Pennsylvania at 
47#48cfor X; XX, 60#51c; Michigan and Wisconsin X, 
47}#44c; No. 1 and medium, 47;rt4Uc; combing and de- 
laine, 48#50c; delaine, 50#55c; combing, unwashed, 24# 
40c, as to quality, including all grades; pulled Wools, 
firm, 37#52c; common and choice super California Wool, 
sales, 2f>#38c Spring; 18#30c Fall. Foreign Wool held 
firm, but market has been quiet. 

Eastern Orain and Provision Markets. 

Chicago. Jan. 8. — The grain markets have been bobbing 
about at a lively gait the past week, but no very decided 
movement has resulted. To all intents it has been simply 
a scalping deal, and prices leftoff about where they began, 
or a little lower. The market seems to be waiting devel- 
opment. Provisions were also unsettled, with a tendency 
to decline, which was ovorcome toward the close of the 
week, the market ending strong, with a good demand all 
around. The sales of the February options were as fol- 
lows: Wheat, 06}#100J ; Corn, :i«j«r.TOj; Oats, 30|M31J ; 
Pork, $12Ju;12.90; Lard, 18.1608.70. The closing February- 
prices were : Wheat, flSJWDSj ; Lard, $8.6S(rt8.67}. The 
closing cash prices were: Wheat, 9Si: Corn, 37J; Oats, 31; 
Rye, 87#8S; Barley, $1.13}; Pork, S12.80orl2.86; Lard, $S{ 
#8.65. The receipts for the week were: Wheat, 310,000 
buBhels ; Corn, 540.000 ; Oats, 277,000. The shipments 
were: Wheat, 227,000 bushels; Corn, 480,000; OaU, 328,- 
000. The receipts for the same time last year were : 
Wheat, 559,000; Com, 1,213.000; Oats, 214,000 The ship- 
ments were: Wheat, 112,000 bushels; Coru, 452,000, Oats, 
328,000. These figures indicate a large falling off in the 
receipts, but the receipts still exceed shipments, and 
stocks are piling up steadily. 

Chicago, Jan. 11.— Wheat, weak, easy 98c cash ; 98}c 
February; 99jc March. Corn, weak, 37c cash; 37}c Febru- 
ary; 42}<«42}c May. Oats, weak, 33jc cash; 33}c February; 
35}cMay7 Kye, 89c. Barley, heavy, S1.08. Whisky, SI. 11 
Pork, weak, easy, 813 05 cash for February; $13.22} March. 
Lard, weak, $8.72} cash; $3.S2} March. 

BAGS— There is no change, and the markets are quiet. 

BARLEY- Prices have declined slightly, so that the 
Grain is now about on the same basis as before the recent 
rise. We note sales: 300 sks light Brewing, $1.05; 200 do 
dark Coast Feed, 90c; and 200 do do, 87 }c V ctl. 

BEANS— Red Beans have dropped about 10c V ctl, and 
Limas are now quoted at $2.50 $1 ctl for the best. 

BUCKWHEAT— There has been a rise, and buyers are 
now offering 81.75 # ctl. 

CORN— Yellow Corn has taken a slight advance, and 
rates nre now from $1 to $1.05. The market is, however, 
quiet; 200 sks Small Round Yellow sold at $1.05. White 
Corn is nominal. 

DAIRY PRODUCE— The receipts of fresh Butter are 
larger, but all is taken freely, and prices are •till from 35c 
to 40c $ lb. Excellont fresh feed is reported from the 
Dairy districts. Cheese is unchanged. 

EGGS— Strictly fresh California Eggs are still scarce, 
although receipts are increasing. The demand is stil| 
ahead of the supply. Prices are a shade better than last 
week. 

FEED— Hay is unchanged. Ground Feeds are cheaper. 
Bran sells at $13, and Mill Feed at $17 from the mills. 

FRESH MEAT — Meats are firm and still advancing. 
Mutton and Pork have followed the lead taken by Bee' 
last week. PriceB are given in our table. There is no 
Spring Lamb yet, but it is expected booh. 

FRUIT— There have been Oregon Apples sold on th e 
wharf as high as $1.30 per box. California Apples are 
plenty and prices unchanged. Oranges are noticeably 
low this year so far. Limes are also cheaper than last 
week. 

HONEY— There is no change. 

HOPS— None are selling now and present quotations 
are only nominal. 

OATS— Oats are still quiet and the range of prices the 
same as before. We note sales: 600 sks good Coast Feed 
at $1.30, and 700 do poor Washington Territory, $1.07}. 

ONIONS — There are many poor Silverskin Onions arriv: 
ing, some of which are hard to sell at 50c per sack. The 
best are cheaper than last week, $1.75 per ctl being the 
top price. 

POTATOES— Potatoes are about the same as last week, 
except that Jersey Blues are a little lower. 

PROVISIONS— There is r.o change in cured meatr 
Bacon, has, however, a hardening tendency and the trade 
is firm. 



POULTRY — Hens are higher than for months, and 
other fowls show an advance. Ducks and Turkeys are do- 
ing nearly as well as Just before Christmas. Game fowls 
are slightly advanced. 

VEGETABLES -The rise in Carrots and Rutabagas has 
called in large supplies, and values have dropped low. 
Garlic is also abundant and hard to sell Mushrooms are 
scarce. 

WHEAT— Choice Milling lots are unchanged, but other 
grades have declined about 2}c per ctl. We note sales 
150 tons choice Milling, $1.60; 100 do No. 1 Shipping, 
$1.47}; 60 do and 1,000 and 700 sks do, $1.45; 60 and 40 
tons No. 2, $1.42}; 960 sks Odessa, $1.25, and 3,200 do 
superfine, $1.20. 

WOOL— There is no change and nothing doing this 
week. 



#13 00 





14 & 


II 




16 < 




17 




9 < 


I 


1U 


Filberts 


17 ( 


3 


18 


ONION-. 






Red 




■»! 


00 


Silver Skin 


50 ( 


rl 


75 


POTATOES. 








50 ( 




75 




50 ( 


| 


75 






.rl 


00 


" Kidney 


75 ( 


* 


iTi 


" Peachblow 


75 ( 




:v 




85 ( 


n 


00 




1 00 ( 


il 


10 


Early Rose, new. 


40 i 




00 


H'lf MnBay.Chile 60 ( 




75 




40 < 


i 


50 




1 00 


ti 


IS 


1 Till .V 


CAJ 


it;. 




6 50 ( 


It 


00 




5 00 ( 


n 


L0 




5 00 ( 


it 


M 


Ducks, tame, doz. 


6 50 ( 


a: 


N 



Mallard 3 50 «M 00 



Sprig. , 
Teal . 



.2 00 I 
.1 75 i 



Domestic Produce. 

[WHOLESALE.] 

Wednesday m . Jan. 12, 1381. 

BEANS «t PEAS. 

Bayo. otl 1 20 #1 25 

Butter 1 50 #1 75 

Castor 3 25 (S3 50 

Pea. _ gi 75 

Bed- 1 05 #1 15 

Pink 95 #1 05 

Sm'l White 1 70 -&1 80 

Lima — 6*2 50 

Field Peas.h'lk eyel 25 #1 37J 
do, green.. 1 10 -n 16 
BROOM « OK N . 

Southern 3 @ 3} 

Northern la 6 

„ ,„ t'HK CORY, 

California 1 r 4| 

German 6}# 7 

DAIRY PRODUCE, ETC. 

BUTTER. 

Cal. Freeh Roll, lb 37 

do Fane; Brands.. 37 

Pickle RoU. 331^, 

Firkin, new 32}3 

Western 221 

New York 

_ CHEESE. 

Cheese, Oal, lb 

EGOS. 

Cat. fresh, doz.... 
do. poor to good.. 

Ducks 

Oregon 

Eastern, by expr'as. 

Pickled here 

Utah 

FEED. 

Bran, ton — 

Corn Meal 23 50 #24 00 

Hay 10 00 #16 00 

Middlings #17 00 

Oil Cake Meal... 25 00 @ 

Straw, bale 40 @ 45 

hoik. 

Extra, City Mills . 4 75 #5 00 
do, Oo'utry Mills.4 50 #4 75 

do, Oregon 4 60 #4 75 

do. Walla Walla. 4 37}#4 75 

Superfine 2 75 #4 00 

I HI -II MEAT. 
Beef, 1st qual'y, a- 5} 

Second 44 

Third 3J 

Mutton 4 

Spring Lamb 

Pork, undressed... 4i 

Dressed A 

Veal 

Milk Calves 

do choice... 7 
GRAIN. ETC. 
Barley, feed, ctl... 87} 
do, Brewing. ..1 05 

Chevalier 1 15 #1 25 

do. Coast.. 1 00 #1 10 
Buckwheat — #1 75 I 



t2 60 

6 00 

Widgeon 1 75 62 00 

Geese, pair 1 75 §2 25 

Wild Gray. dor. 2 00 (a 2 50 

White do 1 00 ill 25 

Turkeys 14 # 16 

do, Dressed IS # 18| 

Snipe Eng 1 75 #2 00 

do. Common.... SO @ 75 

tuall, doz 75 #1 00 

abbiu 1 00 #1 25 

Hue 2 00 #2 50 

Venison — ■ — 

PROVISIONS. 
Cal. Bacon, extra 

clear, lb 12}l 

Medium 10 1 



Light 

Lard 

Oal. Smoked Beef 

Shoulders 

Hams, Cal 

Dupee's 

WhittaEer 

Royal 15 

SEEDS. 

Alfalfa, 14 

do, Chile — 

Canary 4 

Clover, Red 14 

White 60 

Cotton — 

Flaxseed 2 

Hemp — 

Italian Rye Grass 30 

Perennial SO 

Millet, German ... 10 
do. Common . . 7 
Mustard. White... 3 
Brown V 



Corn. White 97}#1 00 Rape : 3 1 

Yellow 1 00 #1 05 Ky Blue Grass..... SO . 

Small Round.. ..1 05 (31 10 3d quality 16 1 

Pop Corn 2 00 #2 50 ISweet V Onus. . . 



Oats 1 20 #1 35 I 

Milling 1 40 #1 60 

Rye — #1 50 

Wheat, No. 1 1 45 @1 47} 

do, No 2. 1 40 #1 42} 

do. No. 3 1 12 #1 15 

Choice Milling.. 1 50 @1 52} 
HIDES. 
Hldea,dry 18} 

Wet salted H 

HONEY. 111. 

Beeswax, lb 22; 

Houey in comb. . .. 12 

do. No 2 

Dark 

Extracted 

HOPS. 

Oregon 16 

California, new... 16 # 

Wash. Ter 17 <§ 

Old Hops - 8 - 

Nl I - Jobbing. 
Walnuts. Oal 8 « 10 

do Chile r: it 9 

Almonds, hd shl t> 8 <3 10 

Soft sh'l 14 .t 16 



H 



Ml I 



Orchard. 
Red Top..., 
Hungarian . 
Lawn , 

Mesquit 10 ■« 12 

Timothy 11}<& 12} 

TALLOW. 

Crude, t> 6} <B 6} 

Refined 7} @ 71 

WOOL. ETC. 

SPRING. 

Oregon. Eastern . . 26 (9 30 
do fine, heavy.. 21 vt 24 

do Valley 28 (ft 30 

fall— Lamb's W00L 

Southern 14 ■ 15 

Northern, hurry... 15 « 17 

do free 18 (g 20 

Fall, ordiu'y, south- 
ern 11 (3 14 

Fall. free, mount 1 16 @ 21 
Humboldt k Men- 
docino, free, fall. 
E Oregon (lamb). 
Valley, do do... 



23 9 26 
23 14 25 
28 or 33 



Fruits and Vegetables. 

I WHOLESALE. I 



FRUIT MARKET. 

Apples, box ....— 30 » 1 
Bananas, bnch.. 3 00 & 4 
Cocoanuts. 100.. 7 00 <a 8 
Cranberries, bbl.14 00 (al5 

Grapes <S— 

Limes, Mex 9« 

dorCaL box... 4 00 @ 7 
Lemons. Oal bi. 4 00 S 4 

Sicily, box ... . 8 00 @ 9 

Australian.... @— 

Oranges, Cal M..10 00 «30 

do, Tahiti. . . «— 

do. Mexican 10 00 M20 

do, Loreto... #20 

Pears, box — 50 H 1 

Pineapples, doz. 8 00 (it 9 

Plums, bx @— 

Prunes, German. W— 

Quinces, bx @— 

Raspbenies.ch't #— 

Strawber's,ch'st. 6»— 

Sugar Cane, bdle 2 00 «t 2 

DRIED FRITT. 
Apples, sliced, lb 6 (ft 

do, quartered. 5}@ 

Apricots 20 ®— 

Blackberries.... — % 

Citron 28 <8 

Dates 9 (8? 

Figs, pressed.... 7 dt 



Wednesday sc., Jan. 13. 1881. 



ink 

18 @- 
» «* 

9 I 



do, loose. 

Peaches 

do pared . . . 
Pears, siloed.... 
do, peeled... 

Plums 

Pitted 14 1 

Prunes 15 I 

Raisins, Oal, bi 2 00 1 
do. Halves... 2 25 1 
do, Quarters. . 3 50 1 

Eighths 2 75 I 

Zante Currants.. 

VEGETABLES. 

Asparagus — 25 @ 

Beets, ctl U 

Beans, String ... — 7 «t 
do, Lima.... — — &■ 

Cabbage, 100 lbs I 

Carrots, ak < 

Cauliflower, doz 1 3S 

Garlic. It. — 3 . 

Green Peas, lb . . — • 

Lettuce, doz 

Mushrooms, lb..— ! 

Parsnips, t> — 

Horseradish. . , . . 
Hquash, Marrow 

fat. tn 10 00 #15 00 

Turnips, oil — 60 Vt— 66 

Rutabaga @ 1 50 



Bags and Bagging. 

(JOBBING) PRICES ] 



Eng Standard Wheat. 9 $ 9} 

California Manufacture 
Hand Sewed, Mx36.. » # 9} 

22x40 — @- 

23x40 12 (.a\1\ 

24x40 IS #13; 

Machine Bwd, 22x36. 9 # 9. 

Flour Saoka, halves.... 9 #10 

Quarter* 5}# 6 

Kightha 3]# 4 

flisalsn 60 Inch — 1012) 



Wednesday m . Jan. 11, 



45 inch. 

40 Inch 

Wool Sacks, 
Hand Sewed, 3} lb. . 

4 tt> do, " 

Machine Sewed 

Standard Gunnies.... 

Bean Bags 

Twine. Detrick'a A 

A A 



January 15, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FBESS. 



45 



Commission Merchants. 



SIMON SWEET & CO., 
Wholesale Commission Merchants, 

GItAIN, POTATOES, FRUIT, BUTTER, EGGS, POUL- 
TRY, GAME, WOOL, WOOL BAGS, HIDES, 
PELTS, BEANS, TWINE, TALLOW, etc., 
and CALIFORNIA and OREGON 
PRODUCE of ALL KINDS. 
200 Washington Street, San Francisco. 
Consignments Solicited. 



J. M. HIXSON. CHAS. JUSTI. W. D. HIXSON. 

HIXSON, JUSTI & CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

For sale of Green and Dried Fruits, Oranges, Rais- 
ins, Honey, Beans, Potatoes, Onions, Poul- 
try and Eggs, Hides, Tallow, Wool, 
Grain, Hops, etc. All kinds of busi- 
ness promptly attended to. 

403 Davis St., and 204 Washington St., S. P. 



GEO. F. COFFIN &; CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

NO. 13 PINE STREET, 

UNION BLOCK, SAN FRANCISCO. 

Special attention given to Consignments of Grain nd Fruit 




Liberal advances on consignments. 

Wool Sacks, Twine, Shears, and Ranch SuDplies furnished 

DALTON & GRAY, 

Commission Merchants 

And Wholesale Dealers in all kinds of 

Country Produce, Fruits, Etc. 

404 and 406 Davis St, 
Bet. Washington and Jackson, SAN FRANCISCO. 

CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED. 

PAGE, MOORE & CO., 
WOOL and GRAIN 

Commission Merchants. 
NOS. 211 AND 213 CLAY STREET, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



DAVIS & SUTTON, 

No. 76 Warren Street, New Yorte. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce 

RipiRSKOB — Tradesmen's National Banc, N T ; Ell 
wanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y. ; C. W. Reed; Sacra 
men to, Cal. : A. Lusk & Co. San Francisco, CaL 



(Established in 1863.) 

BRYANT & COOK. 
Commission Merchants, 

— AND — 

DEALERS IN GRAIN, FLOUR, ETC. 

8 Davis St., near Market, S. F. 



EUGENE AVY, 
SHEEP and WOOL Commission Merchant, 

320 Saasome Street, San Francisco. 
Advances made on Consignments. 



Office of the Grangers' Bank of Califor- 

nia. Location, No 42 California Street, San Francisco 
Cal. 

Notice is hereby irlven that, at a meeting of the Direotors 
held ,.n th" Tenth III ) day of January, 1831. an installment. 
No live)..), of Ten (10) Dollars per share, was levied upon 
the capital stock of the Bank, payable immediately, to the 
Cashier of the Bank, at No. 42 California Street 8an Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

Any stock upon which this installment shall remain unpaid 
on the Eleventh (11) day of February, 1881, will be delin- 
quent, and advertised for sale at public auction, und unless 
payment is.made before, will be sold on Wednesday the 
Ninth (9) day of March, 1881, to pay the delinquent install- 
ments, together with costs of advertising and expenses of 
sale. By order of the Board of Directors. 
FRANK MoMULLEN, Sec'y 



California Inventors 



Should con- 
sult DEWEY 
& CO., Am kr- 

ican and Foreign Patent Solicitors, for obtaining 
Patents and Caveats. Established in 1860. Their long 
exverience as journalists and large practice as patent 
attorneys enables them to offer Pacific Coast inventors 
far better service than they can obtain elsewhere. Send 
for free circulars of information. Office of the Mining 
and Scientific Press and Pacific Rural Puss, No. 202 
fiansoue St.. San Francisco. 



Statement of the Actual Condition 

— OF THE — 

Grangers' Bank of California, 

At the Close of Business, December 31, 1880. 



ASSETS. 
Loans on Wheat, Real Estate, and other se- 
curities 31,519,067 85 

Due from Banks 2,085 07 

Real Estate (Bank's Interest in Grangers' 
Building) 77,200 00 



Other Real Estate . 
Office Furniture, Fixtures and Safes. 

Interest Accrued 

Other Assets Secured 

Cash on Hand 



9,806 94 
3,000 00 

19,267 60 
7,813 07 

62,608 08 



Total $1,700,848 61 

And that said Assets are situated in the following coun- 
ties, to wit: Alameda, Butte, Colusa, Contra Costa, 
Inyo, Merced, Kern, Washoe (Nevada), Solano, Sonoma, 
Stanislaus, San Francisco, Tulare, Tehama and Mon- 
terey. 

LIABILITIES. 

Capital Stock (four installments paid on 10,000 

shares) $ 400,000 00 

Paid-up Stock and Reserve Fund 25,760 00 

Due Depositors, Banks and Bankers 1,191,947 31 

Bills Payable (Mortgage assumed on Real Es- 
tate) 40,000 00 

Undivided Profits 43,141 30 



Total 31,700,848 61 

State of California, City and County of San Francisco — 
G. W. Colby and A. Montpellier, being each duly sworn, 
severally depose and say that they are respectively the 
President and Cashier of the Grangers' Bank of Califor- 
nia above mentioued, and that the foregoing statement 
is true. 

(Signed.) G. W. COLBY, President. 

A. MONTPELLIER, Cashier. 
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 7th day of 
January, A. D., 1881. 
(Signed.) F. C. MOSEBACH. Notary Public. 



PLYMOUTH ROCK EGGS FOR SALE. 

I make this BREED A SPKCIALTY and have a large- 
Flock of VERY FINE FOWLS, THOROUGHBRED. 

Ejrgs well Packed and Sent by Express- 
$2.00 per dozen. 

L. V. WILLITS, 

Watsonville, Santa Cruz County, Cal - 



COMBINED 

Pantry Dresser & Side-Board. 



The most unique and useful article for th» housekeeper. 
The Flour Bine can be cleaned from the bottom. Call 
and examine or send for circular and price. 

L. O. HUDSON, Stockton, Cal. 



DIVIDEND^ NOTICE. 
Grangers' Bank of California. 

At a meeting of the Board of Directors of the Grangers' 
Bank of California, held January Tenth (10), 1881, a divi- 
dend of nine (9) per cent, on the capital stock paid up was 
declared payable to the stockholders. It was also or- 
dered that the balance of the net earnings of the year, 
amounting to about two (2) per cent, be carried over to 
the reserve Fund. 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER, Cashier. 



DIVIDEND^ NOTICE. 
The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half year ending this date, the Board of Directors 
of The German Savings and Loan Society has declared a 
dividend on Term Deposits at the rate of five aud two-fifths 
(5 2-5) per cent, per annum, and on Ordinary Deposits at the 
rate of four and one half (4i) per cent, per annum, free from 
Federal Taxes, and payable on and after the fifteenth (15th) 
day of January, 1881. By order, GEORGE LETTE, Secy. 

San Francisco, December 31. 1880. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
San Francisco Savings Union, 

532 California Street, corner Webb. 
For the half year ending with thirty-first (31st) December 
1880, a Dividend has been declared at the rate of five and 
two fifths of one (1) percent. (5 2-5) per annum on term 
deposits, and four and one-half (41) per cent, per annum on 
ordinary deposits, free of Federal tax, i^yable on and after 
Monday, seventeenth (17th) January. 1881. 

LOVELL WHITE, Cashier. 



IMPROVED MACHINES 

FOR LAYING 

Asbestine Sub-Irrigation Pipe 

For Bale at Davisville, Yolo County, Cal. 
Apply to L. A. GOULD. 



Lowest prices ever known 
on Btir<*«'4*ti - Loaders, 
Ki fit"-, and Revolvers, 

OUR $15 SHOT-GUN 

I at greatly reduced price. 
1 Send stamp for our New 
Illustrated Catalogue (B) 
P.POWELL &SON, 838 Main Street, CINCINNATI, O. 




Giles H. Gray. James M. Haven. 

GRAY & HAVEN, 
Attorneys and Counsellers-at-Law, 

530 California St., SAN FRANCISCO- 



AGENTS WANTED &fei'. y K 

ting Machine ever Invented. Will knit a pair of 
Stockings, with heel and toe complete, lnS5© min- 
ute*. Will als» knit a great variety of fancy articles, 
for which there is alwaysa ready market. Send for cir- 
cnlar and terms to Xhe Tnombly Knitting Ma- 
chine Co., 409 Washington St., Boston, Mass. 



IENSILAGE. 
Latest facta— How to build and fill Silon, T3 I'm..-. - Illustrated, 
with Gofcrt's Treatise. Mailed for 10 Green Stamps. 
Ensilage Cutters for Hand or Power, Dry or Green Fodder, 
THE NEW YORK PLOW CO., 55 BEEKMAN ST., MEW YORK. 




A NEW TREATMENT 

For Consumption, Asthma, Bronchitis, Dys 
pepsia, Catarrh, Headache, Debility, Rheum- 
atism, Neuralgia and all Chronic and Nervous Dis 
orders. It is taken 

BY INHALATION, 

And acts directly upon the great nervous and organic cen 
ters, and cures by a natural process Of revitall- 
zation. 

SENT FREE: 

A Treatise on Compound Oxygen, giving the history of 
this new discovery, and a large record of most remarkable 
cures. Write for it. Address the proprietors. DRS. STAR- 
KEY & PALEN, 1109 and 1111 Girard street. Philadelphia 
Pa., or H. E. MATHEWS, 606 Montgomery street. San 
Francisco, Cal.. from whom can be procured both informa- 
tion and supplies. 

People May Hear With 

AUDIPHONES 

OR WITH 

EARPHONES. 



DEAF 



Trial before purchase. Don't waste your money oth- 
erwise. Send for free pamphlets. (Address H. E. 
Mathews, as above.) 



150 REGISTERED 

HOLSTEIN 

CATTLE 

Mostly Imported. The largest herd and largest 
milk Records in America. 

40 CLYDESDALE STALLIONS 

AND MARES, Largely Imported. 

60 HAMBELT0NIAN STALLIONS 

AND MARES of the Finest Breeding. 

Separate catalogues of each class cf stock sent to par 
ties specifying which is desired. Correspondence so 
licited. 

SMITHS 6c POWELL, 

Lakeside Stock Farm, Syracuse. N. Y, 



AMERICAN EXCHANGE HOTEL. 

Sansome Street, (Opposite Wells, Fargo 
& Co's Express), San Francisco. 



This Hotel, under the management of CHAS. MONT 
GOMERY, has been thoroughly renovated, and being in 
the very center of all the Banks, Insurance Offices and 
Commission Merchants, it offers special inducements to 
Merchants from the Interior and Farmers. 

Board, with Room, $1, S1.25 and $1.50 per day. Special 
rates by the week or month. 

FREE COACH from BOATS and CARS to HOTEL, 



GEO. TREFZER, 

BREEDER OF 

PLYMOUTH ROCKS, BROWN LEGHORNS 
and BLACK COCHINS. 

All from Imported Stock. Plymouth Rock and Brown 
Leghorn Fowls for sale at reasonable prices. Eggs, $2.50 
per 13; Black Cochin Eggs, $3.00 per 13; Pekin Duck 
Eggs, $2.00 per setting. 

GEO. TREFZER, Napa, Cal. 



TRADE 




MARK. 



LITTLE'S CHEMICAL FLUID. 

The New Non-Poisonous Sheep Dip and Disinfectant. 
Price reduced to $1.60 per gallon. For directions and tes- 
timonials apply to FALKNER. BELL & CO., 
Sole Agents, 430 California Street, S. F. 



P. H. McGrew, 

Carriage and Wagon 

MANUFACTURER. 
Nos. 1050, 1058 and 1000 Thirteenth Avenue, 
EAST OAKLAND, CAL. 



RUSBY & MERY'S 
IMPROVED FEED MIIJL, 

Using the Benoit Corrugated Rollers. 

More durable, crushes more grain. No danger of grain 
heating. It is used by the leading grain raisers in pref- 
erence to feed ground with burs. Sole Agents and Man- 
ufacturers for the Pacific Coast, Chico, Cal. 



Mission Rock Dock and Grain Warehouse. 

San Francisco, Cal. 
40,000 tons capacity. Storage at lowest rates. 
CHAS. H. SINCLAIR. Supt. 
CALIFORNIA DRY DOCK CO. - - Proprietors. 

Office— 318 California Street, Room 3. 




Baling 
Fencing 
Telegraph 
Telephone 
Galvanized 

Barbed Fence Wire. 

All kinds of Wire — iron, steel, 
Bessemer, spring, copper, brass 
and galvanized — on hand 
or Made to Order. 

A. S. HALLIDIE 

Wire Mills. 
Office, No. 6 California St. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

WIRE ROPE and CORDAGE 

Of every kind on hand or Made to Order. 




THE 
GIANT 



R|D MACHINE. 




Tliis "W« xi <J o r fvi 1 Improved 

SAW MACHINE 

Is warranted to eaw a 2 fool log in three min- 
utes, and more cord wood or lo^s of any size in a 
day than two men can chop or saw the old way. 
Every Farmer mid Lumberman needs one. 
ACENTS WANTED-< Ircnlarnnd terms Free. 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR TO 

LINFORTH, RICE *fe CO., 

General Agents for the Pacific Coast, 
333 and 335 Market Str t, San Francisco. 



H. S. SARGENT, 

Importer Breeder and Shipper of 

T2a.orough.bred Stock. 

Poland China or Magic Pigs 
from Imported Stock. 

Thoroughbred Jersey Bull. 
Also two J ersey Bull Calves, 

Strictly thoroughbred, for sale cheap. 

Bronze Turkeys for sale, bred from 
Imported stock. 

Address H. S. SARGENT, Stockton, Cal 
(Care Grangers' Union. 




PLANT SEED COMPANY'S 

Sd Catalogue and Almanac 

For 1881 

Containing Prices and Descrip- 
tion of 

Field, Vegetable, Trco sad Flower Seedi, Seed 
Grain, Norelties, Seed Potatoes, etc. 

*f Mailed Free to all applicant). Address, 

Plant Seed Company, 

ST. LOUIS, MO. 




SEEDS, 

BULBS, PLANTS. 



BEAUTIFUL ILLUSTRA- 
TED CATALOGUE FREE. 
M.v lilt of new, rare and beau- 
tiful flower* istbe best in the 
country. New Gladiolus, 
Tuberoses, Amaryllis, Roses, 
Carnations, choice Flower and 
Vegetable Seeds, Seedi of 
Hou^e plant*, Ac. The grea- 
test collection of Lille*, 100 
rare kinds. All needsexcept 
Greenhouse, nre sold in Fivs 
CUTS pAPi£Rs;the bestsy^tem 
ever adopted. Everything 
warranted true to name. See 2 
Catalogue: juices are low. 
The following tent bv mail postpaid. 10 Gladiolus, 10 sorti named 
BUc. 9 Lilies, 3 sorts nanvd, $1. 19 double Tuberoses, 7fic. All 6ns 
■Orta and flowering Bulbs. Remit current' v or poftafffl Manip«. My 
goodi bavo an t- >tutdislied reputation and go to ail parts of tbe world 

J. LEWIS 4 -II I MIS. QUEENS, N.Y. 




NOTICE. 

Oar Descriptive Illustrated Price 
List, No. 21). of Dry Goods, etc., will be 
Issued about March 1st, 1881. Prices 
quoted in No. 28 Trill remain good until 
that date. Send ns your name early for 
copy of No. 29. Free to any address. 
MONTGOMERY WARD & CO., 
227 & 229 Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 



46 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS 



[January 15, 1&81. 



Nathaniel Curry <fe Bro., 

113 Sansome Street. San Francisco, 




Sole Agents for the 

Sharps Rifle Co., of Bridgeport, Conn. 

FOR CALIFORNIA, OREGON, ARIZONA, NEVADA, WASHINGTON TERRITORY AND IDAHO. 

Alao Agent* for W. W. GREENER'S Celebrated Wedgefast, Chokebore, Breech-loading DOUBLE GON8; and 
all kinds of GUNS, RI FLES and PISTOLS made by the Leading Manufacturers ef England aud America. 
AMMUNITION of all kinds in quantities to suit. 



LAUTZ BRO'S <&, CO.'S SOAPS. 

Stearine, Marseilles, Cotton Oil and Acme'. 



THESE GOODS ARE THE BEST IN THE MARKET. ASK YOUR GROCER 
FOR THEM AND TAKE NO OTHERS. 

D. L. BECK & SONS, Agents Pacific Coast, No. 309 Sacramento Street, S. F 



Notice! 



Horse Medicine, 

D. D. T. 1868. 



THE GREAT POPULARITY OF OUR II . H. II. HORSE 
MEDICINE, D. D. T. 1S68 AS A 

FAMILY LINIMENT 

HAS INDUCED US TO PUT UP A SMALL SIZE. 
THREE SIZES CAN NOW BE HAD AT EVERY 
DRUG STORE AND NEARLY EVERY GRO- 
CERY STORE OS mi! PACIFIC COAST. 



Price of Large Size, $2.50. 

Medium Size, $1.00. 

Small Size, 50 Cents. 

Ask jour Druggist for it and if he has not the size you 
want, request him to send lor it, either to the wholesale 
Druggists of San Francisco; Portland, Oregon; or Sac- 
ramento. 

fSTWe recommend the larjest slies for use on horses 
as it contains more Liniment for the money. 

We Guarantee the Liniment to Have Ex- 
actly the Same Strength in 
all Three Sizes. 

Stockton, February 4, 18S0, H. H. Moore 4 Son, having 
this day pucahased the right, title and interest of Wil- 
liam ii Moore, in the H. H. H. Horse Medicine, will con- 
tinue its manufacture as sole proprietors. 

H. H. MOORE & SONS, Druggists, 

Sole Proprietors, ... - Stockton, Cal. 




Grape Cuttings. 



800,000 
GRAPE CUTTINGS 

Of the Following Varieties: 

ZINFINDELS, 

MALV0ISEAS. 

CUABANOS, 

CHASSELAS, 

REISSLINOS, 

BURGERS. 

These Cuttings are all from Strong, Vigorous Vines, 
and warranted true to name. Address 

E. B. SMITH, 

Rutherford, Napa Co., Cal. 



GRAPE CUTTINGS 

Send orders for all varieties required for planting to the 
undersigned. Prices, with advice as to selection of va- 
rieties, will tie given on demand. Order* for Charbono, 
Mataro, Sauvigntm Vertc. Folle Blanche, Golden ( has- 
sclas, and other most valuable wine Grapes, should be 
sent promptly, so that engagements may be in time from 
healthy vineyards. A fine assortment of raisin and tabb- 
varieties to be had; als">, a few thousand setdlings of the 

VZTIS CALZFORNICA, 

Suitable for grafting. Wild Grape Seeds. $1 per pound. 
Missouri and Texas phylloxera-proof stocks procured to 
order. CHAS A. WETMORE. 

Ill Licdesdorff Street, San FranciBco, Cal. 



Phylloxera- Proof Grapevines 

A SPECIALTY AT 

Magnolia Farm Nurseries, Napa Valley. 

Send for Catalogue of Fruit and Ornamental Trees. 
All free from disease and grown without irrigation. 
Address 

LEONARD COATES, 
Yountville, Napa County, Cal. 



Will be mailed frsk to nil applicants, and to witomers without 
ordering it. It contains five colored plates, 600 engravings, 
about WO pages, and full dc«crlpt|ons, prices and directions for 
planting I SOU varieties of Vegetable and Flower Seed., Plantt, 
noses, etc Invaluable to all. Michigan grown seeds will be. 
found mora reliable for planting In the Ttrrit-ritt than those 
grown farther South. Wl make a specialty of tnnplving 
Market Gardeners. Address, ^ 

D. M. FERRY & CO. , Detroit, Mich. 



W. M. OHAMIIF.hXMK, Ms. 



*. A. nOBINSOK. 




Life Scholarships, $70. 

I SEND FOB CIRCULAR. 



GRAPE CUTTINGS. 



Orders for Malvoisie, Zinfandel, Muscat, Black Ham. 
burg, Rose of Peru, Riessling and 100 other different va- 
rieties of Grape Cuttings will be received at 

EISEN VINEYARD, Fresno, Cal. 



GRAPE CUTTINGS. 



B Burgundy, Zinfindel, Charltoneau, Mataro, B. Hani 
burg, B. Malvusia, Ji.hannisberg, Riessling, Berger, 
GoliieH OhBsMelae, Seedless Sultana, Frankin Riessling. 
Price, ib per M. Impure of 

H. W. CRABB, 
Oakville, Napa Co., Ca! 



CUTTINGS ! 

White Muscat of Alexandria, 

PER THOUSAND. 
Cuttings rooted for next year if desired and ordered 
now. Refers to Oncsti & Connor as to quality, etc., Of 
vineyard. Address CHAS. E. SHILLABER, 
Cordelia, Solano Co., Ca 



Grape Cuttings for Sale. 

Charboneau, B. Malvoise, Muscat of Alexandria, Rose 
of Peru. 16.00 per thousand, delivered at the Santa Clara 
Railroad depol. 
N. B.— Vines 8 years old and healthy. Address 
J. C. MERITHEW, 

Santa Clara, (Sal. 



1850. THE H. C. SHAW 1880 

Plow Works- 




GANG PLOWS AND EXTRAS. 

No. 201 and 203 El Dorado Street, Stockton. 

THE STOCKTOfT GANG PLOW, 

Over 2,000 of H. O. Shaw's Improved Patent Stockton Gang Plows Sold In Five Years. 

Cahoon anil Gem Seed Sowers, Harrows, Etc. Buckeye Mower Extras, and Extras for all Plows and Machines 
I hare sold for the past TWENTY YEARS in this valley. OTSend for Circular and price list. Always on hand 
a full stock of Single Plows. 



C. 



821 Kearny Street, San Francisco Cal., 
D. LADD & CO., Branch House, 49 First Street, Portland, Or. 




Sole Agents for the Pacific Coast 

FOR THE 

BALLARD RIFLE. 

Pull line of Winchester, Burgess and Kennedy Magazine Rifles. Sharps and Remington. 
Complete Assortment of Breech and Muzzle Loading Shot Guns of all Makers. 
Pistols.of all Descriptions. Ammunition of all Kinds, Wholesale and Retail 

SEND FOR 1880 PRICE LIST 



E. DETRICK. 



J. H NICHOLSON 



E. DETRXCE. <& CO., 

SOLE PROPRIETORS AND MANUFACTURERS OF THE CELEBRATED 

DETRICK "E W" 22x36 GRAIN BAG. 

CALCUTTA, DUNDEE and PACIFIC JUTE HAND-SEWED BAGS always on hand. 
OUR No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 SECOND HAND GRAIN BAGS selected and graded with care. 

fpnTv HsvTT^O 3. * and S-ply for Grain Bags, 6 and 8-ply for Potato Ounnies, 3-plv extra run for Flour 
X W JlIS JCstd* Bags, made expressly for our trade and QUALITY GUARANTEED. 

FLOUR BAGS printed to order without extra ciiarqe. POTATO GL'NN'IKS, Wool, Bean, Ore and 

Salt and Seamless Cotton Bags. 

Sole agents west of the Rocky Mountains for Russell Manufacturing Company's 

Patent Solid Cotton Belting, 

sW CHEAPER THAN LEATHER OR RUBBER, AND BETTER THAN EITHER. ■» 

119, 121 and 124 Clay St., and 118 and 120 Commercial St , San Francisco- 



IMPORTANT TO FARMERS I 
WHITE RUSSIAN SEED WHEAT. 

NEW VARIETY— SURE CROP— LARGE YIELD. 



This new variety of wheat commends itself to the California farmers, for its strong and healthy growth; lta 
great productiveness, and above all. its 1VON RUSTING qualities. It has been successfully grown in Ventura Co., 
on the sea coast, where until the introduction of this variety and the " Odessa," all other kinds have invariably 
failed in consequence of Rust. It is a bald, white chaff wheat, stands well after ripening, and not liable to lodge 
when green. It has proven itself to be ahealthy and sure crop wheat, yielding this year an average of 50 bushels to 
llic acre. The White Russian Wheat was first grown in Wisconsin, where it pioved itself to be the best Spring 
Wheat ever raised in that State. It astonished all who tried it for its great productiveness, and no Wheat ever 
rown in this country received such unanimous commendation. It was increased from a small quantity received 
from Russia, ami has been known as the White Russian, though it is not exactly white, but much lighter than 
most varieties of Spring Wheat 

A limited quantity of this Seed Wheal, and of the Celebrated ODESSA NON-RUSTING Wheat grown 
from seed imported from Russia last year for sale by 

A. GERBEEDI1VG, 214 California Street, San Francisco. 



THE KENNEDY REPEATING RIFLE. 




24-inch Barrel. 15 Shots in Magazine. 
Weight, 8 1-2 to 9 Pounds. 

USES THE WINCHESTER MODEL 1873 CARTRIDGE, 44 CALIBRE, 40 GRAINS, CENTER KIRK. 
Out of 600 Glass Balls thrown from a trap, 479 were broken with this Rifle. Price* Low. Circulars on application to 

E. T. ALLEN, Pacific Coast Agent, 

416 UarketlSt., San rancisco, 



January 15, 1881.] 



THE PJLCIFIO lUliL P B E S S 



47 



Seeds, Plants, Etc. 




My Annual Catalogue of Vegetable and 
Flower Seed for 1881, rich in engravings from pho- 
tographs of the originals, will be sent FREE to all who 
apply. My old customers need not write for it. I offer 
one of the largest collections of vegetable seed ever sent 
out by any seed House in America, a large portion of 
which were grown on my six seed farms. Full direc- 
tions for cultivation on each package. All seed warran- 
ted to be both fresh and true to name; so far, that should 
it prove otherwise, / will refill the order gratis The 
original introducer of the Hubbard Squash, Phinney's 
Melon, Marblehead Cabbages, Mexican Corn, and scores 
of other vegetables, I invite the patronage of all who are 
anxious to have their seed directly from, the grower, 
fresh, true, and of tht very best strain. 
NEW VEGETABLES A SPECIALTY. 

JAMES J. H. GREGORY, Marblehead, Mass. 

R.J. TRUMBULL & CO., 

Growers, Importers, Wholesale and 
Retail Dealers in 




FLOWERING PLANTS, BULBS, FRUIT AND OR- 
NAMENTAL TREES, ETC. FANCY WIRE DE- 
SIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYRIN- 
GES, GARDEN HARDWARE, ETC. 

FREE TO APPLICANTS. — Ocr Descriptive Illus 
tratbd Catalogue of Sebds, Trees, Plants, Etc. 

B. J. TRUMBULL & CO., 

419 and 421 Sansome Street, S. P. 



ALL KINDS OF 

Fruit, Shade & Ornamental 

TREES, 

EVERGREENS, FLOWERING PLANTS, SHRUBBERY 
VINES, Etc. ORANGE and LKMON TREES of 
the best tested Varieties Budded ON 
THE ORANGE ROOT. 

Also a large stock of well rooted Grapevines, free from 
Phylloxera, having been grown by irrigation. We have 
the leading varieties for raisins, shipping or wine, inclu- 
ding Muscat, Muscatelle, Gordo Blanco, Seedless Sultana, 
Emperor, Tokays, Hamburg and Zinfindel. 

Our specialties consist of many new fruits, tested by us 
and known to be valuable. Also, Japanese Persimmon 
Trees, one and two years old from graft, and extra fine 
roots. We have Olive plants one year old, of both the 
Picholinne and Spanish varieties, in fact, everything us- 
ually kept in First-class Nurseries. 

Office and Tree Depot, I Street, between 
7th and 8th, Sacramento Cal. 

Send for Price Catalogue. Address CAPITAL NURS- 
ERIES, Box 407 Sacramento, Cal., or Penryn, Placer 
County, Cal. 

WILLIAMSON 6l CO., Prop's. 

STRAWBERRY PLANTS. 



Choicest Varieties for Home Use & Market 

SHARPLESS, CAPTAIN JACK, FOREST ROSE, CUM- 
BERLAND TRIUMPH, GLENDALE, SETH BOY- 
DEN, "MINER'S GREAT PROLIFIC," PRESI- 
DENT LINCOLN, PRESIDENT WILDER, 
HUDDLESTON'S FAVORITE, MARVIN, 
LONGFELLOW, WARREN, AND 
Mahy Others NEW and OLD. 

"CUTBBSRT RASPBERRY " 

And 16 other Varieties, New and Old. 

Plants Large, Stocky, Healthy and carefully selected. 
A few thousand vines of Table Grapes, well rooted, one 
and two year old, $20 to 830 per 1,000. 

Seud for circular giving honest descriptions and accu- 
rate illustrations. Address . 

C. XVI. SXX.VA & SON, 

Newcastle, Placer County, Cal. 



1 ,000,000 

Strawberry, Raspberry and Cranberry 

PLANTS FOR SALE. 

Per Dozen 100 1,000 
, 8 0.50i$l v 50|8 5.00 



Strawberry Plants— Ties. Wilder 

N J. Scarlet, Sterling, Great American . 0.60 1.751' 6.00 

Pres. Lincoln. Triomphe de gand 0.60 1.50 5.00 

Wilson Albany, Charles Downing 0.50 1.50i 5.00 

Essex Beauty Earlv, Centennial 0.60 1.75 6.00 

Monarch of the West, Cinderella 1.00 2.00 10.00 

Raspberry Plants— Cutnbert Early 1.60 5.00 35.00 

Pride of the Hudson, Brandywine 1.50 4.00 30.00 

Heratine, Clark, Philadelphia Red 1.25 4.00 25.00 

Henrietta, Hornet, Early Prolific 1.25 4.00 25.00 

Blackberry Plants— Deering Seedling 1.25 4.001 25.00 

Mammoth Cluster, Vina Seedling 1.00 3.C0I 20.00 

Kittatinny, Dorchester, Early Cluster... l.OO 3.00 20.00 
Orape Vines— Bl'k Hamburg, Bl'k Prill ce. 2. 00 8.00150.00 
Cranberry Vines I do not sell less than 10,000 vines in one 
•rder, at $10 per 1,000. If sent by mail add 20 cts. per dozen, 
and 50 cts. per hundred. Postoffice address, 
H. NYLAND, Bouldin Island, San Joaquin Co. 



Q 

CO 



. F. 



IMPORTER, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN 



2 Fruit and Evorgrson Trees, Plants, Etc. 



Q 

< 

o 



ALFALFA, GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS 

In Large Quantities and Offered in Lots to Suit Purchasers. 
Hedge Shears, Pruning and Budding Knives, Green House Syringes, Etc. 
Seed Warehouse, 317 Washington St., San Francisco. 



r 
o 

w 

w 
d 

C/3 




ALBERT DICKINSON, 

Dealer in Timothy, Clover, Flax, Hungarian, Millet, Red Top, 
Blue Grass, Lawn Grass, Orchard Grass, Bird Seeds',Etc. 
i POP CORN. 

115, 117 and 119 Kinzie Street, CHICAGO, ILLINO S. 



SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 

Importers, growers of, wholesale and retail dealers in 




Field, Grass, Flower and Tree Seeds. 

CLOVER, ALFALFA, 

BULBS, FRUIT, ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC. 

We call the attention of farmers and couDtry merchants 
to our unusually low prices. £3Trade price 
list on application. 

We issue the most complete guide to the Vegetable and 
Flower Garden ever issued upon this coast, it is hand- 
somely illustrated, and contains full descriptions of Vege- 
tables, Flowers, Grasses, Trees, etc., with full instruc- 
tions as to their culture; mailed free on application. 

SEVIN VINCENT &. CO., 

607 Sansome Street, S. F. 



J. P. SWEENEY & CO., 
SEEDSMEN, 

Nos. 409 and 411 Davis Street, between 
Washington and. Jackson, S. F. 



Hav ing on hand the largest stock of Seeds of any house 
on the Pacific Coast, consisting in part, the following va- 
rieties, which we will offer in quantities to suit purchasers 
at reduced rates: 
20,000 Pounds Alfalfa Clover Seed. 

4,000 Pounds Red Clover Seed. 

5,000 Pounds Australian Rye Grass Seed. 

4,000 Pounds Extra Clean Kentucky Blue Grass Seed. 

4,000 Pounds Red Top Seed. 
10,000 Pounds Timothy Grass Seed. 

5,000 Pounds Mesquit Grass Seed. 
10,000 Pounds Canary Seed. 
10,000 Pounds Rape and Hemp Seed. 

4,000 Pounds Mangel Wurtzel Beet Seed.. 

1,000 Pounds Assorted Table Beet Seeds. 

1,000 Pounds Assorted Onion Seeds. 

1,000 Pounds Assorted Turnip Seeds. 

AND A FULL SUPPL? OP 

GARDEN, VEGETABLE & FLOWER SEEDS. 

Also, a large assortment of California Conifer and 
Forest Tree Seeds. Fruit Trees in any quantity at Nurs- 
ery prices. 

J. P. SWEENEY & CO. 



GARDEN SEEDS. 



Thos. Meherin, 

Importer, Wholesale and Retail 
Dealer in 

Seeds, Trees & Plants. 

Alfalfa, Red and White Clover, Australian 
Rye Grass, Timothy and Orchard Grass, Ken- 
tucky Blue Grass, Hungarian Millet Grass, 
Red Top, Etc. 

Also, a Large and Choice Collection of FRUIT 
and ORNAMENTAL TREES, Bulbs, Roses, 
Magnolias, Palms, Etc., at reduced prices. 

Budding and Pruning Knives, Green House 
Syringes, Hedge and Pole Shears. 

THOS. MEHERIN, 516 Battery St. 

San Francisco, Cal. 
43T Send for Price List. 



Agt. for B. S. Fox's Nursery. 



B.K.BLISS&S0NS 
HAND BOOK. 

A COMPLETE GUIDE FOR 
THE GARDEN 8k FARM 

Seeds,Plants.Bulbs. Small Fruits 
Garden Requisites. 300 Illustrations 
150 Pages. Price 10 Cts. 



ft BARCLAY. ST. HEW YORK.) 



f 



Hew! Ik Very lest! True to to! 
FELIX GILLET'S NURSERY. 

Nevada City, California. 

SPECIALTIES : 

Nuts of all Kinds and Strawberries. 
PREPARTURIENS WALNUT, 

(Introduced in California in 1871, by Felix Gillet). 




The moat precocious of all soft-shell varieties of Walnut, 
bearing even when three years old; hardy, a late bloomer, 
very productive. First beariDc trees in California, at Felix 
Gillet s nursery, sixth crop 1880 Trees of that new and valu- 
able variety, raised in Ftlix Gillet's nurseries, Nevada City, 
sent to any part of California and the United States by mail, 
free of charge, in packages of two feet; well packed in damp 
moss and oiled paper, and guaranteed to arrive in as "fresh" 
a condition as when leaving the nursery, at the following 
prices; SI per tree for less than half a dozen; $10 per dozen. 
Larger trees sent by express or freight. See the catalogue 
and price list. 

Improved Kinds of Chestnuts. 

"Marron de L>on" and "Marron Combale" (introduced in 
California in 1871 by Felix Gillet). Grafted trees, from 6 to 
10 feet, §12 per dozen. 

Medlar tMonstrumsr) ; Black Mulberry (Noir of Spain) ; 
Italian and Spanish Filberts; French Everbearing Raspberry; 
Wilson's Early Blackberry; 27 varieties of English Gooseber- 
ries; ,42 varieties of grapes; 100 varieties of Pears, Plums, 
Peaches, Cherries, Apples. Walnuts and Chestnuts; the finest 
varieties of French, English and Dutch Strawberries. 

/tSTSEND FOR DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE AND PRICE LIST. 

FELIX GILLET, 

Nevada City, Cal. 



ROCK'S NURSERIES. 

TREES! TREES! 

The attention is called to my large and superior stock of 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees, 

SHRUBS, ROSES, 

Grapevines and Small Fruits, 

Of the most desirable varieties for general cultivation. 
Also many new and rare varieties of 

Japanese Plants, 

Semi-Tropical Flants, 

Greenhouse Flants, 

Bedding- Plants. 

NBW VARIETIES OF 

ORANGES AND LEMONS- 

Italian Olives, Etc. 

Descriptive Catalogue will be mailed to all applicants 

JOHN ROCK, San Jose, Cal. 



Adams' Patent Pillow Sham Holder 

Prices reduced Can be adjusted to auy ordinary sized bed, 
The best in the market. Try one. Sent post paid by mail 
Send for Illustrated Circular. G. W. WAGGONER 4 408 
Teul'i 8t< Oakland, Cal., C«n. Ag't for Pacific Coast. 



SANTA CLARA VALLE 

NURSERIES, 

San Jose, Cal. 

I offer for sale the coming season a large and well se- 
lected general assortment of NURSERY STOCK, con- 
sisting of 

Fruit Trees, Small Fruits, Ornamental 
Trees and Shrubs. 

EVERGREENS, GREENHOUSE PLANTS, 

ROSES, DAHLIAS, PELARGONIUMS, Etc. 
— ALSO — 

Pear, Apple and Mahaleb Cherry SeedliDgs. 

I desire to call particular attention to 
my LARGE STOCK of 

CHERRY and FEAR TRUES, 

At reduced rates in Large Quantities. 

I have also on hand a Fine lot of Grafted ORANGES, 
which, being: transplanted constantly, are sure to grow. 
Catalogues free on application. 

B. S. FOX, Proprietor, 

SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA. 

THOS. MEHERIN, Agent, 516 Battery St. 
San Francisco. 



HANNAY'S NURSERY. 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 

I OFFER FOR SALE THIS SEASON, A LARGE AND 
WELL ASSORTED STOCK OF 

FRUIT, SHADE & ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

MY TREES ARE WELL GROWN, AND 
HEALTHY, AND OF THE 

Best Known Varieties. 

JOHN HANNAY, 

(Successor to Hannay Bros.), San Jose, Cal' 

PEPPER'S NURSERIES, 

Established in 1858. 
For sale, all kinds of Fruit Trees, Vines and Fruiting 
Shrubs raised wi'hout irrigation. Also, a general assort- 
ment of Evergreen Trees and Shrubs, deciduous Flower- 
ing Shrubs; Koses, in assortment. Conservatory and 
Bedding Plants in great variety. Send for Catalogue and 
List of Pricen. Address 

W. H. PEPPER, 
Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 



JAPANESE 



LILIES. 



Just received, NEW and RARE Varieties. Wholesale 
and Retail. Prices on application. For description see 
Catalogue, frte to all. 

Japanese Persimmon Trees, 

Large fruited— best sorts. One, Two and Three year 
old Trees. Address 

THOS. A. COX &CO, Seed Merchants, 

409 SANSOME STREET, S. F. 



JAMES HANNAY'S NURSERY. 

East San Jose, Cal. 



I offer for sale, at low prices, a well assorted, healthy, 
and well grown stock of one and two year old Nursery 
Stock. Prompt attention given to all orders. 

Address 

JAMES HANNAY, San Jose. 



FRUIT TREES FOR SALE. 

Apple, Peach, Pear, Apricot, Plum, Prune, English 
Walrut, Orange, and many other kinds of Fruit Trees 
Vines, Etc., for sale at the lowest cash prices. Send 
for price list. 

MILTON THOMAS, 
Box 304 Los Angeles, Cal. 



LOS GATOS NURSERIES. 

I offer the trade this season a LARGE and GENERAL 
ASSORTMENT Of 

FRUIT TREES AND SMALL FRUITS. 

My trees are healthy, stalky and well,grown. Pricoa 
low down. Address S. NBWHALL, 

San Jose, Cal. 

JOHN SAUL'S 

Catalogue of New, Rare and Beau- 
tiful Plants 

Will be ready in February, with a Colored Plate. It is 
full in really good and beautiful plants. New Dracenas, 
New Crotous, New Pelargoniums, New Roses; Geraniums, 
Clematises, Etc., with a rich collection of Fine Foliage 
and other Greenhouse and Hothouse Plants, well grown 
and at low prices. Free to all my customers; to others 
10 cents, or a plain copy free. Catalogue of Seeds and 

JOHN SAUL, Washington, D. C. 

To Fis h Ra isers. 

I am now ready to sell Carp which were imported from 
Germany in 1872. in lots to suit. Address 

J. A. POPPE, Sonoma, Cal. 



50 



Landscape, Chroino Cards, etc., name on, 10c. 20 Gilt 
Edged Cards, 10c. Clinton & Ce., North Haven, Ct. 



48 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS 



[January 15, 1881. 



G-I-iII33DE:2SJ"'S 



PATENT STEEL BARB FENCING. 




COMBINES 

Effectiveness, 



Strength, Durability 
and Cheapness, 



The Standard Barb 
Wire and the 

BEST STOCK FENCE 

In the World. 

The Barb is a permanent fixture on the Cable, are placed only five inches apart, presenting points radiating 1 in every direction, making it impossible for an animal to touch 
the Cable without coming in contact with the sharp points. Tho wires are more evenly twisted, and made from the best steel, and has from 25 to 50 per cent, greater 
Strength than any Other made. It is cheaper, owing to the economy of wire in the simple and ingenious fastening of the Barb, rendering it lighter than any other made. 

The great superiority of Galvanized Wire over the common painted varieties is an established fact, and the only lasting barbed fence is that made of 

GALVAIVTIZBD "W" I RE. 

The Clidden Patent is the Most Perfect Galvanized Wire Ever Yet Produced. 

By this process the wire is completely coated, making an indestructiBle barrier to the action of the weather without in any way rotting or weakening the wire, but on the contrary, increas- 
ing its strength 10 to 20 per cent. Such a fence as this at slightly increased cost, lasts a lifetime, besides being handsomer to the eye and more plainly visible to stock. 

MORE SOLD AND IN USE THAN ALL OTHER MAKES COMBINED. 



WASTE OF OLD STYLE FENCES. 

Wasted in Massachusetts by old style fences, a strip II feet wide, total, 31,250 
acres of arable land.— (Sec'y Flint'* Report, 18(12.) "The old fences with stones, weeds 
and rubbish, waste a strip of land one rod wide " (American Agriculturist, Im'.t.) 
"Zigzag fences costs New York State the loss of 300,000 ;\cre»." (Annual Reg. of 
Rural Affair*, 1860.) "Old style fences on a farm of 160 acres occupy 20 acres in a worse 
than useless manner."— American Agriculturist, 1867.) "Worm fence takes five acres 
from every 100 acres."— (AT. T. Report, 1800.) "Hedges in many districts in England, en- 
gross one-flfth of the Mil "— (L'nglieh Ag. Journal.) "Hedges exhaust the soil for 
some distance on both sides."— (Ohio Reports, 1878.) "Wood fences are liable to be 
burned or blown down just when the damage is greatest."— (loxca Report, 1873.) "The 
heavy prairie winds prostrate our wood fences." — (Prairie Fanner, Illinoi*, 1».">>.) 

O'STEBL BARB FENCE wastes no soil, does not 
decay, cannot be burned or blown down. 




SPOOLED, READY FOR SHIPMENT. 



FENCE ECONOMY. 

"Total cost of fences in the United States, $1,747,549,931."— (U. S. Report, 18T1.) 
"Worm fence the national fence."— (U. S. Report, 1871.) Average cost of fencing in the 
United States, |L 09 per rod."— 'IT. S. Report, 1S71.) Cost of fencing lands exceeds cos' 
of all buildings required by the inhabitants." — (Iowa Report, 1873.) "We cannot do with- 
out fences." — (Rural Sew Yorker, 1S56.) "The love of exclusive possession is the main- 
stay of society."— 17. S. Report, 1869.) "New fences of the old Virginia rail pattern would 
cost as much as the land."— (Ohio Report*, 1877.) "Worm fence is costly, not very lut- 
ing."— (lova Report*, 1863.) "No farmer can afford to have live fences." — (GcrmanUncn 
Telegraph.) "Worm fence is giving way to kinds of fencing less wasteful of expense, land 
and lumber."- ( C S. Report.) "For farm fences we must have some other material than 
wood, which is wasteful, and stone, which is scarce and costly. "— (Jen. H'm. Uarritun't 
Addre**, 1833. 

inrSTEEL BARB FENCING furnishes strong, durable, 
efficient protection, at one-half the cost of other fences. 



CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED FOR PARTICULARS. 

JONES <fc aiVENS, Pacific Coast Gren'l A.gts 

10th and K Streets, Sacramento, California. 



IRRIGATED LA ND TRIUMPHANT! 

From all parts of the State where wheat has been irrigated, reports come that bountiful crops of plump grain have been secured by irrigation, in spite of the north Winds, which have reduced the crop of whc&t on lands not 
irrigated and, in the same localities, from enc-quarter to only a crop of hay. 

WITH IRRIGATION A LARGE CROP OF PLUMP WHEAT AND A MORE VALUABLE ONE OF EGYPTIAN CORN CAN BE GROWN IN ONE SEASON. NO FAILURE OF CROPS. 

The Best Vine^a/rcL Land in California. 

FLOODING THE ONLY REMEDY AND SURE DEATH TO THE PHYLLOXERA! 

A few choice farms of rich bottom land of 320, 160, 80, 40 and 20 acres each, all irrigated, in the 

EASTERBY RANGHO, FRESNO COUNTY, 



For role at *40 to *S0 per acre including water rights, payable in 1, 2. 3 and 4 years Interest •) per cent per annum 

of gram a year; five crops of alfalfa in one season, and will produce l6 TONS OF QKAH»nR A^RE, as at the Eisen vlneyard'a^joining 



This is without doubt the richest land in Fresno county. 

DONT FAIL TO EXAMINE IT. 



It hag produced 50 bushels wheat per acre; two crops 



Send for Maps and Circulars (Free) to office of M. THEO. KEARNEY, Manager 12 Montgomery St. (up stairs), S. F. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 

Corner 16th and Castro Streets, Oakland 



1SS0 SEASON 1881. 



Just received from Europe and the East, 
a fin* selection of all the 
improved varieties of 




Land and Water Fowls. 



BRAHMAS, COCHINS, LEGHORNS, HOUDANS, PO- 
LISH, PLYMOUTH ROCKS, ROUEN AND PEK1N 
DUCKS, BRONZE TURKEYS, ELREKAS, HAMBURG'S 
Stock guaranteed true to name, and to arrive safely 
For further information send stamp for illustrated cir- 
cular to 

GEO. B. BAYLEY, 
P. O. Box 1771, San Francisco. 



JOHN JENNINGS. 
Hooper's South End Grain Warehouses, 

Cor. Japan and Townsend Sts., S. F. 
Firet-class Fire-proof Brick Building. Capacity 10 000 
tons. Gooils taken from the Dock and the Cars of the c' P 
K. R. and ft P. It. It. free of charge. Storage at Current 
Kates. Advances and Insurance effected. 

This paper Is printed with Ink furnished by 
Chas. Eneu Johnson St Co., 509 South 10th 
St., Philadelphia St 59 Cold St., N. Y. Agent 
for Pacific Coast— Joseph H. Dorety, 527 
Commercial St., S. F. 



W. FL. STRONG dfe OO., 18 81. 



WHOLESALE DEALERS IN 



Fruits, Nuts, Seeds, Honey and General Produce. 

NOS. 6, 8 AND 10 J STREET, SACRAMENTO. 



» TO SEED DEALERS AND AGRICULTURISTS: O. 

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EAGLE HAY PRESS, Old Style, - $200. 
EAGLE HAY PRESS, Improved, - $250. 
PRICES" PETALUMA HAY PRESS, $450 

All' kinds of PRESSES MADE TO ORDER, to put 
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PRICE PRESS CO., San Leandro. 
Or I J. TRUMAN, San Francisco. 

Office with Baker it Hamilton, 17 Front Street, S. F. 



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Brahmas, Brown Leghorns, Ply- 
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Pleas* send stamp for Price List to 

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PEBBLE SPECTACLES. 




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Volume XXI.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 22, 1881, 



Number 4 



A Quiet Scene^ou the Columbia. 

The far-famed scenery of the Columbia river 
is varied in its character. There are wild 
places where the rush and tumult of the waters 
seem in harmony with the torn and rocky shores 
which tower aloft on either side. And there 
are other places where the river widens, and 
with its quiet surface dotted with islands and 
bounded by rolling hills, appears to the voyager 
like a peaceful inland lake. The little scene 
upon this page is of the latter character, and 
is taken from advance sheets of Conklin's forth- 
coming book, "Picturesque Northwest." Of 
the varying scenery on the Columbia, Augusta 
Allen, writing for the last issue of the West 
Shore, says: Upon our left perennial green, 
from the river bank to upmost hight. Fir, 
pine, moss and fern, each brings its 
emerald tribute to grace the scene. We 
turn to the right and the eye is dazzled 
with brilliancy. High banks recede hundreds 
of feet all unbroken; then suddenly becoming 
ruggedly irregular, they stretch into a level 
plateau, with velvety hills that terminate in I 
lofty triangular buttes, the whole re- 
joicing in a garb of mingled hues — 
maroon, pale silver, gleamings of 
orange, with palest pinks and deepest 
crimsons. Surely, the fairies them- 
selves had to do with the coloring. 
Further on, the receding bank be- 
comes a line of points and long jagged 
teeth; their fierceness softened by 
glowing tint of clinging vine and shrub. 
Twenty-five hundred ft. high, towers 
a point of solid rock guarding stern 
masses of gray basalt, unadorned by 
any fairy device of Nature. Now the 
hills dip lower. The wind falls, the 
waters seem deeper and bluer, reflec- 
ting the rare brightness of the foliage 
upon the banks. A score of tiny 
islets rise above the river's surface, 
each almost black at its base, shading 
upward into most delicate green. On 
we glide, each successive view more 
than worthy of an attempted descrip- 
tion; but this, neither my time nor 
the patience of the reader will permit. 
At best, how weak are all word pic- 
tures of the glories of nature! How 
meager seems our stock of words ! 
How bound and hampered is the soul 
when it attempts to portray the sub- 
lime ! 



The Centrifugal Creamer. 

About a year ago we gave an engraving of a 
machine for separating cream from milk by cen- 
trifugal force. It does not appear that this 
system is making very rapid advance in this 
country, although in Europe it is largely used. 
One of the pioneers among American centrifu- 
gers is Mr. Burnett, a dairyman at Southboro, 
Mass. , and we enfer from an account of a visit 
of the Massachusetts Board of Agriculture to 
his place, that he is pleased with [his departure 
from the old practice of setting milk for cream" 
rising. Acoording to the report in the Plowman, 
Mr. Burnett has made many improvements on 
the German machine, and seemingly has brought 
it almost to perfection, as he separates the cream 
of 80 quarts of milk so perfectly in 20 minutes 
after milking, that not a tablespoonful is left 
in the skimmed — or rather the centrifuged — 
milk. Mr. Burnett has two machines in his 
creamery. He has used the past summer the 
milk of some 500 cows, and to separate the 
cream of this large amount of milk has required 
his centrifuge to be kept running _only some 



Another Loss to Agriculture, — Some 
months ago we counted it a loss to agriculture 
that a young man of liberal culture and brought 
up amid other scenes than those of the farm and 
who had deliberately chosen a farmer's life, was 
cut off by death at the outset of his career. 
We spoke of it as a loss to agriculture, because 
it is especially desirable to the rising genera- 
tion of young men that there should be good ex- 
amples to point out to them of young men like 
themselves, who had brought their best efforts 
to the industrial arts, instead of following the 
multitude into the already over- filled "profes- 
sions." It is with the same feeling of deep re- 
gret, in addition, a sense of personal loss, that 
we allude to the death of another bright and 
capable young man who lately took charge of 
one branch of the largest milk farm in San 
Mateo county, and managed it with dua credit 
to himself until he was smitten by the hand of 
an insidious disease, which took his life at the 
beginning of the present week. He had passed 
the great part of his life in the city, and was 
used to the animation and interest which per- 
tains to city associations, but he gave up these | 



Tree Planting on the French 
Mountains. — There is gratifying ad- 
vance reported in the French govern- 
ment effort to encourage tree planting 
on the mountains. The great floods 
of 1875 awakened the people to the need of | 
planting trees on the slopes of the mountains to 
prevent the rapid running off of the water, con- 
sequently the government took the case in hand 
and during three years 15,000 acres have been 
planted at an average cost of $8.50 per acre. In 
order to have plenty of young trees ready for 
plantation, the ministry of agriculture has 
created several nursery gardens in various parts 
of the country, and at the present time these 
nursery gardens cover 350 acres, and are esti- 
mated to be capable of supplying over 30,000,000 
plants every year. Concurrently with this, the 
administration of woods and forests are doing 
all they can to encourage the establishment of 
cheese factories on the mountain sides, being of 
opinion that cattle do not denude the turf 
nearly so much as the sheep, which have done 
great damage in many places. Subsidies have 
accordingly been granted for the creation of 
cheese factories at various points on the Alps 
and Pyrenees. 




SCENE ON THE COLUMBIA RIVER. 



The Chicago City Council has passed an or- 
dinance permitting the South Side railroad 
company to use the endless cable underground 
as a motive power for their lines. The com- 
pany will begin laying the cable, which is after 
the San Francisco pattern, early in the spring. 
The cost will be over $2,000,000. 

The total rainfall for San Francisco, from the 
first of July to date, is 14.48 inches. 



five hours. The advantages of this mode of sep- 
arating cream are its perfect sweetness, the 
thoroughness andfrapidity with which the work 
is accomplished and the enhanced value of 
the skimmed milk. We tasted of , the latter and 
it was so sweet and fresh that it could hardly 
be distinguished from that just drawn from the 
cow. With all the advantages of this centrifu- 
cal separation of cream, the writer in the Plow- 
man does not expect to see this process adopted 
immediately by ordinary dairymen, as the ma- 
chinery is too expensive. Probably no smaller 
dairy than 100 or 200 cows would pay for fit- 
ting up such a centrifuge as Mr. Burnett's. 
Large dairies are more common in California 
than at the East, and if size of herd is the only 
requisite to success with the centrifugal creamer 
we should certainly have some experiments 
made with the machine and the process. 



The Supervising Inspector of the Tenth 
Steamboat Inspecting district, comprising the 
Gulf States and the lower Mississippi valley, 
reports for the year ending December 31st, 
that out of 2,250,000 passengers carried 
on steamboats there has not been a single life 
lost. 

New Agricultural District. — Mr. Holden 
of Ukiah has introduced a bill in the Assembly, 
providing for the establishment of a new agri- 
cultural district, composed of the counties of 
Mendocino and Lake. 



and found full delight and satisfaction in the 
busy though quiet life on a country estate. He 
soon familiarized himself with all the details of 
milk production from the pasture to the can, 
and gave promise of perpetuating the enterprise 
which his father has established at great cost of 
effort and capital. It was a pleasure to us to 
see how thorough a farmer he was for one un- 
born to agricultural arts, and we hoped to hav« 
him for years before us as an example to incite 
similar efforts among the many other young 
men who come to us for council as to their 
courses in life. But Providence has decreed 
otherwise, and we are forced to cherish only 
his memory and a constant admiration for the 
strength which characterized his first steps in 
his chosen career. Our deepest sympathy is ex- 
tended to those who mourn his departure, and 
we shall hold with them his worth and his prom- 
ise as a legacy to those who follow after him. 

The new Normal School edifice at San Jose 
covers an area of about 4,000 ft. more than the 
old one, the addition being wings, each of which 
covers 2,000 ft. more than those of the former 
edifice, the center portion being the same size 
as formerly. 

Several meetings have been held by Lan- 
cashire miners, at which they resolved to con- 
tinue the strike unless their wages are in- 
creased. 



Flock Notes. 

On another page of this issue may be found 
an interesting letter from a writer who has 
just returned from Japan where he was in the 
Government employ in the promotion of experi- 
ments in sheep husbandry. The letter shows 
clearly that our trans-Pacific neighbors have 
made points of progress and the growth of their 
flock interests may be expected. This will be 
of interest to our growers of fine sheep, for there 
will be a continued demand for fresh blood in 
the form of thoroughbred bucks and thus trade 
should come to the California flock masters. 
This State is now bringing up as fine young thor- 
oughbred Merinos as can be found anywhere 
in the world. The local demand for them is 
growing; they will be in increasing demand in 
the great central region of Colorado, Montana, 
Wyoming, Utah, etc., and a market also in Japan 
will be very desirable. There seems to be every 
reason why our fine sheep breeders should take 
courage and go forward. 

An indirect effect of the present tariff on im- 
portedjwools is clearly shown by a report from 
a convention of wool-growers which 
was . held in Washington last week. 
There was present a Mr. Keller, of 
Lemondessong, Australia, who is a 
large sheep owner. Mr. Keller has 
visited the United States for the pur- 
pose of starting an extensive ranch 
here and importing his sheep and 
shepherd from Australia, believing 
that wool can be grown as cheaply 
here, with the added advantage of a 
much better market. This is just 
the movement which we desire, and 
the tariff which induces the trans- 
planting of foreign flocks and capital 
to our own fields works a benefit. 
We do not wish the money of our 
woolen manufacturers to go abroad 
to build wool-growing enterprises at 
the antipodes. All the treasure is 
needed to people our plains and to 
bring forward our territories into the 
ranks of States. The Australians 
think our duty against their wool is 
rather harsh against them. So it 
may be, but there is nothing mean 
about us. We wish a nearer acquaint- 
ance with them. We wish them to 
move over and help us make the 
United States self-supporting in the 
matter of wool. Mr. Keller and all 
his friends can find ample room for 
their enterprises nearer to our fac- 
tories. With our vast regions adapted 
to flocks it is folly to bring wools from 
the ends of the earth to warm our- 
selves with. At the Washington 
there was another fact advanced 
Keller, of Australia, which should 
timely hint to California wool- 
He said that one of the most odious 
at its inception, and afterward one of the most 
popular measures ever enforced by the Govern- 
ment, was the establishment of a commission to 
secure the eradication of infectious diseases 
among domesticated animals. The uttermost 
parts of the world can teach us lessons on the 
need of protective measures against the spread 
of scab. Our neighbor, Oregon, adopted a vig- 
orous anti-scab law last fall, but here we are, 
alternately dipping and then retaking the scab 
from infested corrals and roadside posts and in- 
fested pens at the fairs. We are not sure that 
anything has been brought to the attention of 
the Legislature yet, which would ensure relief. 
Can we longer afford to let the evil spread un- 
checked ? 



meeting 
by Mr. 
give a 
growers. 



General Walker has sent to the House 
complete census returns of the whole 
country. The census of the States shows a 
population of 49,369,595, and of the Territories 
783,271, making a grand total of 50,152,866. 
General Walker furnishes official figures of the 
population of the following States: Colorado, 
194,649; Florida, 266,566; Louisiana, 940,263; 
California, 864,686; Kentucky, 1,648,499; Con- 
necticut, 622,683; Georgia, 1,538,983. 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 22, 18 81. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



We admit, unendorsed, opinions of correspondents.— Eds 



Los Angeles County Notes. 

Editors Press: — Los Angeles county, on an 
average, is gaining. Crops, generally, were fair, 
and prices so as to live and let live. One mark 
of prosperity is very perceptible, and that is, 
the two extremes of non-producers are slowly 
being shaken off — the home grabber and the idle 
tramp. Arizona has largely absorbed the tramps, 
and the lenient laws of our land are keeping 
some of our "land sharks" hanging round. 
Half, however, are burst-erf out and gone to 
pasturos green. 

A few of our wealthy men have met men of 
industry on terms of " live, and let live," and 
happy home3 now greet the traveler as the re- 
sult. On tho other hand, vacant houses are too 
often seen all over our fair county, as the result 
of fraud and villainy. I have as much respect 
for him who stops you on the highway, and to 
whom, by intimidation in looking down the 
barrels of a cocked shotgun, you give up your 
money, as I have for him who gets your money 
through a smooth-tongued system of fraud. 
Yet we imprison the one and tolerate the other. 

Our rain has been abundant and the weather 
mild, consequently prosperity has attended our 
wool interest. Vineyard men are also encour- 
aged. Tho same diligence is again manifest in 
the planting of new vineyards as of last year. 
Conditions, in every respect, could not be more 
inviting to vine planting. Wheat sowing is 
being pushed with considerable vigor. Some 
are sanguine of success, whilst others call it a 
game of chance. Bee men are somewhat en- 
couraged, but have lost that fervent zeal of 
January, '78. Bees sold then readily at $5 and 
$6 per hive ; and now, few sales are made at 
half that price. 

Our sugar enterprises, that have been of so 
much importance in the news of the State, have 
quieted down. The fact is well sustained by 
history, that zealots rarely accomplish what 
they undertake. Davy Crockett said: "Be 
sartin you are right, then go it." Our sugar 
experience is well written up in the .Rural of 
the 25th ult. We have quite a deal to learn in 
California, every time we change even a few 
miles, as to climate and soil. It is not yet 
proven that the sugar beet is a failure ; neither 
is it proven yet that the amber-imphee-Chinee, 
or sumac-top-cane is a success or failure. From 
all I can gather more time and experience will 
alone tell the result. Many object to the flavor 
of the cane product, as savoring of a greenish 
twang, or a peculiar sort of flavor. 

Our local beef market has reached 6 cents on 
foot. Work horses and mules have advanced 
to a fair price. Mules are ready sale at $200 to 
§300 per span. The advance is caused princi- 
pally by the immigration eastward, together 
with a revival of teaming business in Arizona. 

Many of our hard-working farmers have closed 
out within the last year, and are seeking homes 
in New Mexico, Arizona, and some are entering 
the bordering Mexican States. This exodus re- 
quires the best of team animals, as nearly all 
emigrate in this way. In inquiring of one of 
my neighbors what induced him to again try 
the fate of an emigrant, he answered: "Some 
time since I grew weary of tying everything on 
my farm up by the head and carting feed to it, 
so I fenced ; then it took my place to pay the 
lumber bill, so I had better be off to an old- 
fashioned country where they don't have to go 
to British America for a pig-pen or a chicken- 
coop. " 

Well, luck to the pioneer ! This makes me 
think of the log cabin I was born in, and the 
butternuts I used to crack on New Year's Day. 

Geo. Kay Miller. 

Neitos, Jan. 1, 1881. 



Rust-Proof Oats from Georgia. 

Editors Press: — About three years ago, I 
obtained some oats from the State of Georgia, 
and have sowed them for three years past with 
very satisfactory results. Last season I had in 
less than four acres, from which I threshed 320 
bushels. They were called rust-proof in Geor- 
gia, and they have proved themselves to be 
rust-proof here. They are a large grain with 
rather sandy color, thin, tough skin with large 
kernel, and very white flour. They use them 
in Georgia, for milling purposes, and say that 
they make the purest and whitest meal and 
most of it of any oats grown. They are very 
heavy— are said to weigh as high as 50 lbs. to 
the bushel in Georgia. I would like to have 
the oats I send tested as to quality and quantity 
of meal, and report results in the Rural Press; 
and if they prove valuable for milling purposes, 
I have accomplished my object in procuring and 
introducing to the oat-growing farmers of the 
Pacific an oat that will yield more than any 
other oats in this country, and are dead proof 
against rust. I shall have a limited amount to 
spare for seed this year. E. B. Long. 

Table Bluff, Humboldt Co., Cal. 
[We have often read in Georgia agricultural 
reports of these rust-proof oats, and are glad 



to learn that they are being tried in this State. 
The oats are pronounced by Mr. Palmer (of 
Deming, Palmer & Co. ), one of our most expert 
oat-meal men, to be weU adapted for milling 
when grown free from chess. The trouble with 
growing milling oats in California is the preva- 
lence of chess, which being a heavy and large 
seed cannot be separated from the oats. The 
oats from Washington Territory are said to be 
free from chess. Our correspondent may con- 
sider his oats well suited to milling when grown 
clean.— Eds. Press.] 

More New Wheats. 

Editors Press: — Friend Burke, of Yolo 
county, thinks he has the wheat, and I do not 
say that he has not, but you know that I car- 
ried off the §50 prize once, and I might get 
away with Mr. Burke's "Garfield variety." I 
have a hybrid wheat from the Club, and 'White 
Chile. It was bred on the Chile stalk, one head 
only being perfect. I will see this year what it 
will do, and then report. 

Last year I got one head of Egyptian wheat 
from the East. I planted in drills, and I took 
lOOchoice heads, and cleaned it. Itweighed three- 
quarters of a pound. It is a very fine, white, 
soft wheat, bearing generally 150 to 175 grains 
in a head. I shall try it again this year, and if 
it proves successful, as I think it will, I will re- 
port the same to you. A. J. Scoggins. 

Lemoore, Tulare Co., Cal. 



The Merits of Alfalfa. 

Editors Press:— I see that you are inviting 
discussion on the merits of alfalfa. Two of 
your correspondents differ very widely in their 
experience. I cannot account for this in any 
other way than the difference in localities — one 
in the northern and the other in the southern 
part of the State. My experience accords with 
that of Mr. Shaw, of San Bernardino. I have 
had six years' experience in this locality, and I 
regard alfalfa hay as an excellent feed for both 
horses and cattle. Green alfalfa gives a some- 
what rancid taste to milk, but when mixed with 
hay the milk is first-class. 

I would advise, when cutting for cattle, to 
cut quite young; but in putting up hay for 
horses, I think it should be well matured. I 
would not cut oftener than three times during 
the season, while in cutting for cattle it may be 
cut six times. If the hay is well advanced be- 
fore cutting, it will not scour horses. 

As to there being no difference between the 
different crops, I think there is a great differ- 
ence. I can pick out a bale of the first crop 
from any other crop in the darkest night. 
It smells and tastes much sweeter. 1 had this 
year a rick put-up with one bench in the mid- 
dle of the first crop. The stock ran to the 
stack, they ate out the middle bench and left 
the two ends standing. In the first crop the 
stalks are square when dried, while all other 
crops the stalk is round and much more stalky. 

My experience is that cattle are liable to 
bloat at any time when allowed to feed on very 
rank growths. I would advise putting a ring 
in the nose with a few inches of chain in it, 
which will bother them and prevent them eat- 
ing so fast, which is the great cause of bloat. 

C. Talbot. 

MuBsel Slough, Tulare Co. 

More Testimony In Favor. 

Editors Press: — I have been thinking for a 
long time that I would say something in your 
valuable paper in regard to alfalfa as food for 
horses and cattle. I have been feeding the hay 
for four years; the first two I fed it to my work 
horses straight, — without grain — and did a 
great deal of hard work, and they did well. I 
also fed it to my team that I drive, and it had 
no bad effect on them. I am sure that horses 
fed with alfalfa hay, cut and cured properly, 
with the proper amount of grain, will do as 
much hard labor or driving as if fed on oat or 
barley. But hay should always be one week 
older for horses' feed than for cows. 

In order to have good hay, it should be cut 
at the right time and raked and stacked as 
soon as properly dried, and not allowed to lie 
in the field and bleach. As for milk, my cows 
have been kept on alfalfa for four years; they 
had all the green feed and hay they wanted, 
and I find that they give a large flow of milk 
and a large yield of butter. As for quality of 
butter, it is the very best, and I have never 
been able to detect any bad taste either in milk 
or butter. I have a contract the year round at 
GO cents per roll or 30 cents per Ifc., but if I 
lived near your market I could do better. I 
am milking three cows, and have made and 
sold 900 lbs. of butter in eight months, beside 
what we use in our family, and there are eight in 
family, to say nothing about our visitors. We 
always live at home and sell the remainder. 

I do not know but what the breed of cattle 
has something to do with the large yield of 
milk and butter, or at least I think so. My 
cows are all Short Horns. 



I lived in Colusa county about 20 years, and 
then I fed grass and grain hay, but I think 
alfalfa far superior to grain hay for milk and 
butter. Grain makes white butter, while alfalfa 
makes a gilt-edged article. A J. Scoggins. 

Lemoore, Tulare Co., Cal. 

Colorado Experience. 

The discussion of alfalfa in the Press has 
been reproduced in the Denver Farmer, and has 
caUed out the experience of Colorado alfalfa 
growers, which we condense from letters to the 
Farmer as follows: 

H. Stratton, of Fort Collins, writes: All kinds 
of stock are very fond of alfalfa, and will eat it 
in preference to the best upland hay. When 
used for pasturage, the stock should not be al- 
lowed to feed from the green, rank growth, more 
than an hour at a time for a few days, when all 
danger from bloat will have passed away. 
When fed to work horses it seems to create an 
excess of urine : but I think the fault lies in 
feeding too much at a time. It creates a won- 
derful flow of milk when fed to milch cows, and 
even should there be a tendency to impart a bad 
flavor to the milk, that evil can be readily over- 
come by feeding a less quantity of alfalfa, and 
making up the ration by feeding equal parts of 
corn and wheat bran as a grain feed. I am so 
well satisfied with my experience thus far, that 
I shall put in 30 acres next spring, and should 
I get a good stand, wiU restock my dairy, keep- 
ing the cows in the barn and corral during the 
entire year, and will feed them the well-cured 
alfalfa hay. I am satisfied that 30 acres of al- 
falfa, well set, will run a 20-cow dairy the en- 
tire year. 

G. W. Bnel, of Greeley, writes as follows: I 
have used it as freely as hay can be fed, and 
have had no evil effects from it. I give my 
horses, and my cows, and hogs, too, all they 
can eat — and the amount is wonderful — and ex- 
pect to continue so to do as long as I farm in 
Colorado at least. I have used it both with and 
without grain, and regard it perfectly safe in its 
cured state. Fed green it is liable to bloat cows 
or horses either, hence I cut and cure mine. 
Have pastured it, but prefer the former method. 
I would not recommend it for horses that are 
used for fast driving, as they are liable to fill 
their stomachs too full to travel with ease, but 
for work horses (draft horses), there can be 
nothing better or safer. It is said: "It gives 
milk a disagreeable taste and tendency to sour- 
ing." Not my experience — on the contrary, 
rich and agreeable; so much so that it took the 
place of tea and coffee on our table, and was 
preferred by all the work hands, and the butter, 
too, is the only real "gilt-edged" that I have 
seen in the State, and here I can only touch on 
an important subject for the farmers of Colorado 
to consider, viz. : Alfalfa and butter-making. 
How much alfalfa can be improved by mixing 
with other hay, or straw, or corn fodder, I am 
not prepared to say, but that it is safe and 
profitable cannot be denied, and no one should 
attempt to get along without a few acres at 
east. 



S^EEp \ud Wool. 



Sheep Raising in Japan. 

Editors Press: — The Japanese government 
has expended a large amount of money in se- 
lecting and testing by experiment the acclima- 
tization of several breeds of sheep. They first 
tried the Mongolian and the Shanghai breeds, 
imported from China in the year 1876. Both 
these breeds have succumbed to internal para- 
sites, the lung worm, Strongylus filaria, being 
the worst; then Strongylus contortus, a round 
worm, very numerous in the fourth stomach, 
and a round worm, Tricliocephalus ajfinis, also a 
tapeworm, Scleroslomum hypostomum, were 
found in the small intestines. Every means 
were employed as practiced by our latest dis- 
coveries in medicines, but with little benefit, 
except in cases of stomach and intestinal worms. 
These, at the commencement of the disease, 
could be removed by a dose of santonin - and oil 
for three successive days; followed with a brisk 
purge, and afterwards with a liberal allowance 
of nutritious food, with a small quantity of sul- 
phate of iron added, for two weeks. 

The first symptoms the animal shows of 
stomach and intestinal worms is a very pale 
skin, particularly about the face and head, 
bloodless eyes, wool flat or shedding. Then, as 
the disease becomes worse, dropsical effusion 
takes place under the jaw or throat. When it 
has assumed this form, the Bbeep is irrecover- 
ably lost. The symptoms shown in lung worm 
disease are a cough, followed by some move- 
ment of the lips, showing as if some foul matter 
was thrown off the lungs into the mouth. The 
separation of all sheep as soon as the cough is 
shown, and fumigation with sulphurous acid 
gas, is most successful. Oil of turpentine, given 
in oil, niter and sulphur, as a remedy has been 
thoroughly tested, but with no success. 

It was the intention of the government to 
cross these breeds of sheep with the American 
Merino ram; thinking these breeds of sheep 
would more easily accommodate themselves to 
the country, and be less expense to the govern- 
ment to buy and land them there as for a first 
experiment in sheep raising. They also im- 
ported, in 1877, some American Merino graded 
ewes, and some full blood. These sheep were 



troubled some with intestinal parasites, but 
were relieved by treatment during acclimatiza- 
tion; and, with the exception of being troubled 
with a little scab, they show no other signs of 
disease. Their offspring is strong, and 90% are 
raised yearly. 

The government sent a commission in 1878 to 
Australia, and bought Merinos, Southdowns, 
Lincolns. The Merino ewes have a fine staple 
of wool, but the bare legs and little or none un- 
der the belly, give a light fleece, compared with 
the American ewes. The offspring of these 
ewes, when bred with the Australian Merino 
ram, is weak and bad to raise. A cross with 
the American Merino ram very much improved 
the lambs; they had more wrinkles on the body 
and more weight of fleece. The large breeds, as 
Southdown and Lincoln, do not do well; they 
require better grass than Japan can produce. 

Last year a very fine selection of Americfn 
graded Merino ewes, as also some full blood 
rams and ewes, were received there in fine con- 
dition. They have kept in as good condition 
since they arrived there, and promise to excel 
any that have been imported. No disease or 
deaths from this last importation had occurred 
when I left there, Dec. 8th. The wild grasses 
of Japan are not well adapted for sheep raising. 
The growth is very long, coarse and innutri- 
tious; and during my stay, there of nearly four 
years I saw little or no change in the wild lands 
over which these sheep depasture, but they 
have enriched the cultivated ground consider- 
ably, and the fine native grasses, which grow 
on the stubbles after harvest, supplies the sheep 
with enough food during the fall, and saves the 
expense of grain or artificial feeding, which has 
to be resorted to when on the wild pastures. 
Tame grasses are being sown there, but, as yet, 
with little success. The grasses after sowing 
require cultivating and manures, as for a grain 
crop, or a failure will be the result; perishing 
either from undue support from the soil or from 
being overrun with the native grasses. Alfalfa 
succeeds the best, but as yet it shows weakness, 
and will have to be well dressed with manures 
for some years before it gives the paying result. 
Some there of three years' standing does not 
appear so good as that of three months' growth 
in some of the valleys of California. 

However, the Japanese government has a 
dettrmimtion to surmount every obBtable in 
its way toward sheep and stock raising. The 
officers and attendants in charge take very 
kindly to this new business. They employed a 
very talented person, Mr. D. W. Ap Jones, to 
lay the foundation of sheep raising, and also 
taught a number of students, who have returned 
to their kens with a full knowledge of sheep 
breeding, shearing, shepherding and treatment of 
diseases; and small flooks of sheep raised at the 
breeding farm in Shimosa district are sent out 
to these kens and will soon be scattered through- 
out the Island of Japan. They have a good 
college at Komuba, Tokio, with a staff of pro- 
fessors in agriculture, chemistry and veterinary 
science. To this place are sent grasses, roots 
and grains for analysis, and new locations are 
being selected as best suitable for sheep raising. 
They have established large woolen mills and 
are manufacturing cloth for the army, navy and 
the people* Therefore, the country of Japan, it 
seems assured, will soon compete in stock rais- 
ing with any other nation of cultivated people. 

R. Kay. 

San Francisco. 



HorVPcdi-TiKE. 



Horticultural Notes. 

Editors Press: — As the Rural Press must 
be looked on as the organ for communications 
bearing on gardening, I semi you the following 
notes which had originally been drawn up for 
the Horticulturist; 

Bluestone for Mildew. 

In a former article in tha t journal I explained 
my method of preventing n lildew on roses by 
watering the plant once or twice during the 
winter and spring with a we ak solution of blue- 
stone (about a tablespoonf ul to a bucket of 
water). Last winter I applied it to some of my 
peach trees, and to a portio n of my vineyard^ 
to see if it would be as fatal to the fungus thai 
produces the curled leaf in the peach and the 
mildew on the vine, as it wa s to the rose fun- 
gus. With the peach the experiment was not 
satisfactory, possibly owing to this having been 
a very unfortunate year for peach trees, and 
possibly owing to the bluest* ne having been ap- 
plied to the surface and not reaching the roots 
of the trees, which are quite old and a very di- 
lapidated lot for experimenti ng on. One thing 
is certain, it had no effect in stopping the white 
mildew on the young shoo ts, which were so 
badly affected that hardly ft leaf came to per- 
fection. 

With the grapevines, howe ver, the result was 
far more satisfactory. In the i month of March 
I dressed a portion of my v meyard, about 30 
yards square, with 10 lbs. o:: salt mixed with 
1 \ lbs. of powdered bluestone , and scattered it 
broadcast over the surface. An previous years 
this part of the vineyard had always been so 
badly affected with mildew th at the grapes were 
used only for the chickens and hogs. This 
year not only was the crop more than twice as 
heavy as on any other part of the vineyard, but 



January 22, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



51 



there was much less mildew than on the vines 
that had been sulphured. The great increase 
in the weight of the crop was undoubtedly in 
part owing to the action of the salt, but I cer- 
tainly attribute the almost total absence of mil 
dew to the bluestone. This year I shall cer 
tainly use the same top-dressing over the whole 
vineyard, and will let you know the results. 
Grape Grafting. 
While on the subject of vines I will relate 
the results of some experiments I have ex- 
amined on grafting vines on one-year-old stocks 
of the wild grape. The seeds were sown during 
the winter of 1878-79, and the grafts were made 
last spring. The stocks, which were about 
three-eighths of an inch thick, were cut off at 
the crown of the root. A scion of about the 
same size was chosen, so as exactly to fit the 
stock when grafted by what is known as the 
English method. Grafting wax was applied 
and a piece of rag outside of the wax. When I 
saw them in December last, some of the grafts 
had shoots on them from 10 to 12 ft. long, 
which were fairly well ripened and will, I be 
lieve, bear next year if well cut back. This re- 
sult I regard as a great improvement on plant 
ing cuttiDgs, for not only will the vine come 
into bearing two or three years earlier, but it 
will have a root much less likely to be attacked 
by phylloxera, even if not absolutely phylloxera 
proof; and a root also that, after the manner of 
the roots of California plants, knows how to go 
down in search of moisture. A root of a this 
year's seedling, which I examined, had reached 
to the depth of three ft., and was ready to fur- 
nish a full supply of nourishment to any scion 
that might be grafted on it. A large quantity 
of the seed of our wild grape has been forwarded 
from this part of the State to France and Portu- 
gal, and I think the subject one well worthy 
the attention of our viniculturists. I am rais- 
ing a lot of seedlings which I intend to graft for 
a new vineyard to be planted out next year. 
Fighting the Currant Borer. 
Among the successful experiments I have 
tried during the last year against our garden 
pests has been one which has succeeded in get- 
ting the better of the currant borer, an insect 
that has robbed me of my currant crop for the 
last three years. In the spring, about the be- 
ginning of May, I place ashes immediately 
around the stem of the bush for the space of 
a few inches; then, about the time the moth 
comes out (say from the end of May until the 
end of July), I syringe the lower part of the 
bushes near the surface of the ground with a 
solution of whale oil soap, doing it every two or 
three weeks. As these ro;turnal moths, of 
which the currant borer moth is one, have a 
very delicate sense of smell, the whale oil soap 
seems effectually to keep them from depositing 
their eggs on the bushes. I have not yet dis- 
covered if there is any other shrub which will 
serve to nourish the larva. If not, we can soon 
get rid of this pest. 

New Melon. 
Among my successes this season I count a 
new melon, one which I had artificially hybrid- 
ized between a melon from Kihva known as 
the Pure Cream and one of our best musk 
melons. The vine was most luxurious, cover- 
ing 196 square ft. of ground, and it bore 36 
melons, weighing from two and one-half to 
three and one-half lbs. of the finest flavored I 
have ever tasted; and when the frost came in 
November there were about a dozen melons on 
the plant as large as my two fists. This is by 
far the best melon I have ever grown, both as 
regards quantity and quality. 

James Blake. 

Calistoga, Cal. 



Tree Planting. 

Editors Press: — In your issue of Jan. 1st is 
a very interesting article by M. P. Owen, on 
"When and How to Plant Trees." If all con- 
ditions of soil, etc., were like his, it would doubt- 
less be safe to follow his directions in toto. My 
experience leads me to caution anyone against 
plowing a deep furrow in which to set trees, in 
soil that in any way retains the water in the fur- 
row, as the trees are liable to drown out. 

As for the distance between the trees, I think 
apple trees should never be set nearer than 25 
ft., and from that to 32 ft. It is not, to my mind, 
a question of room for top more than room for 
roots. All kinds of apple trees require more room 
for roots than for top. A man told me not long 
ago, that his trees are 22 ft. apart, and he wished 
they were 30. The apricot has a more spreading top 
than the Bartlett pear or the Tartarian cherry, 
while the roots of the latter are more spreadiug 
than the apricot. Give the trees more room for 
roots. 

Deep Planting. 

The same writer, after giving excellent advice 
about preparing the hole and the tree for plant- 
ing, goes on to say that the tree should be set 
pretty derp, a little deeper than they were in nurs- 
ery; giving, as one reason for so doing, the very 
reason I should give for not planting deep, since 
the tree will settle with the loose dirt placed un- 
der it, as well as with that around it,leaving the 
tree too deep. It makes some difference whether 
the trees are set on the ridge of the land and the 
first plowing is from them.or whetherthey are set 
in the dead furrow and the first plowing is to 
them. Persons of not much experience.intending 
to plant trees, should confer with persons of ex- 
perience in their own locality, as well as read 
the columns of your valuable paper. W. A. P. 

Napa, CaL 



Catalogue of European Vines, with Syn 
onyms and Brief Descriptions.* 

[COPYRIGHTED. ] 

(Continued from Page 19. 

108. Chasselas de Falloux. 
Chasselas de Negropont. 
Chasselas Rose de Falloux. 
Chasselas Rose de Jalabert. 

Berries first pale green, then bright red, and 
violet when fully ripe; general appearance of 
plant and fruit like other Chasselas; slight mus- 
cat flavor. Table grape. 

109. Chasselas Noir (Hantes Alpes) . 
Black Chasselas (England). 
Black Muscadine (England). 
Bourdon (Hautes Alpes). 
Corbeau (Hautes Alpes). 
Gros Noir (Hautes Alpes). 
Grenoblois (Hautes Alpes). 
Montellimart (Hautes Alpes). 
Savoyard (Hautes Alpes). 

Variety of Persagne, which, however, ripens 
earlier; berries round, bluish black; plant vig- 
orous and fertile; yielding good dark-colored 
wine. 

110. Chasselas Rose (Isere). 
Ceraso (Italy). 
Cerese (Italy). 
Chasselas rouge (England). 
Chasselas violet (Pomone Francois). 
Chasselas rouge t'once - . 
Red Chasselas (England). 
Red Muscadine. 

Septembro (Pomone Franchise). 
Bunches medium-sized, loose-shouldered ; on 
long, reddish stalks; berries, medium-sized, 
round, pale red almost as soon as they are 
formed; plant fertile; ripens into fruit early 
Good table grape. 

111. Chaouch (England). 
Chavoush. 

Bunches long, tapering, shouldered; berries 
large, oval, pale amber, thin-skinned. Good 
table grape. 

112. Chauche noir (Charente). 
Bouchy des Pyrenees (Chaptal). 
Manosquen (Cels). 
Massouted (Cels). 
Pinot de Poitou (Charente). 

Vigorous; wood short-jointed, red; bunches 
medium-sized, loose; berries oblong, black. 
Good wine grape, and also good for the table. 

The last three names are quoted, though er- 
roneously, by the authors mentioned, as syn- 
onyms. Others consider the Chauchenoir (o 
be the same as Grand Picot, Maldoux, Plant 
modo, Trousseau — the correctness of which is 
doubted by Odart. 

113. Chauche Gris (Charente). 
Plant de St. Emilion (Tarn et Garonne) 

Variety of the Chauche noir, bunches closer; 
berries a little oblong, greenish. Excellent 
wine grape, also good for the table. 

114. Chaony obis (Anvergne). 

Excellent table grape; berries oblong, reddish. 

115. Cilla. 
Wine grape from the Pyrenees. 

116. Clairette (Var). 
Blanquette (Gard). 
Claretta (Nice). 
Claretta de Trans (Var). 
Cotticour (Tarn et Garonne). 
Malvoisie (Gironde). 
Petite Clairette (Var). 
Petite blanche Clairette (Var.) 

Plant very fertile and long-lived, vigorous; 
wood reddish-grey in winter, darker toward the 
base; bunch shouldered, long, regular, conical, 
loose; berries oblong, almost transparent, green- 
ish white, not juicy, very good to eat; they 
keep a long time. Excellentwine, also used for 
sparkling wines. 

117. ClairktT'e rose. 

Variety of above, with rose-colored berries. 

118. Colombar (Charente). 

Wood short -jointed, black-spotted; leaves 
deeply laciuated; bunches long, loose, with 
long, thin, and brittle stalks; berries scarcely 
medium-sized, oblong, greenish-white; plant 
not fertile. Excellent wine grape. 

119. Cobazon de Cabrito (Malaga). 
Raisin de Bourgogne (Montauban). 

Similar to Olivotte noir; violet black, green 
toward the lower end, very large. Exoellent 
table grape. 

120. Cobcesoo (Elba). 
Long white buuches. 

121. Corinthe noir (France). 
Aiga Passera (Piedmont). 
Black Corinthe. 

Black Currant (England) . 

Currant 

Keshnish Ali. 

Keshnish noir. 

Passolina nera (Italy). 

Stoneless round-berried (Britain). 

Uva passolina nera (Italy). 

Zante (England). 



* The present publication [copyrighted] is a part of a 
catalogue of nearly 600 varieties of the most useful and 
profitable European vines, with about 2,000 synonyms by 
which these varieties are known in different countries and 
localities. The catalogue is edited by Kev. Dr. Bleusdale, 
Secretary of the California State Viticultural Commission, 
and will be published in book-form by Dewey & Co., 202 
Sansome St., San Francisco. The catalogue will contain 
especial reference to vines adapted to the various vine- 
zones of the Pacific coast. 



Bunches small, close, and short; berries 
small, round, stoneless, thin-skinned, black; 
used for making wine or for raisins. 

122. Corinthe blano. 
Corinthe blaDC sans pepins. 
Stoneless round-berried. 
White Corinthe. 

White Keshmish. 

Zante Currant. 
Bunches small, shouldered, loose; berries 
very small, round, yellowish white to amber; 
with white bloom; juicy; for making currants. 

123. Corinthe rose. 
Corinth rouge. 

Rose-colored; for the table or raisins. 

124. KlSHMISH OuLOUGHBY. 

Resembling Keshmish noir; fertile and early. 
Excellent table and wine grape. 

125. Cornet (Drome). 
Parvereau. 
Parverot. 
Prouverot. 
Cornet (Sicily). 

Bunches loose, handsome; berries oblong, 
black, thin-skinned; leaves small, deeply-lobed; 
sharply-toothed; plant vigorous, but not. fertile. 
Wine and excellent table grape. 

126. Cornichon (Paris). 
Cornichon blanc. 

Actonichia aspra (Ionian Islands). 

Barmack (Syria). 

Bee d'Oisseau (England). 

Budduna di Gadda (Sicily). 

Chadym (Kadis). 

Finger grape (Britain). 

Kosu Titky (Astrachan). 

Lady's finger (Victoria). 

Santa Paula (Madrid). 

Testa di Vacca (Rome) . 

White Cucumber (England). 
Bunches loose; berries large, very long, taper- 
ing at both ends; recurved at the upper end; 
thick-skinned, white, with thick bloom; flesh 
firm; not very pleasant to eat; the plant suffers 
much from coulure, and is not fertile. Table 
grape. 

127. Cornichon Violet. 

Variety of last, with reddish berries. 

128. Cornichon a Grappes Colosales. 
Bunches and berries very large, white. 

129. Corbus. 

Wine grape from the Pyrenees. 

130. Cranford's Muscat (England). 
Cranford's Muscat Muscadine (England). 
Graham's Muscat Muscadine. 

Bunches good sized, resembling Chasselas; 
but with a marked muscat flavor. 

131. Cretico Mavro (Crete). 
Berries elongated, black. Table grape. 

132. Crcjchinet (Gironde). 
Black wine grape, of no great value. 

133. Demermety Isabella. 
Seedling raised in France; bunches white, 

tasting and smelling similar to pine-apples. 
Table grape. 

134. Didi Saperavi (Georgia). 
Excellent table grape, early and fertile. 

135. Dolcedo Nero (Italy). 
Nebbiola (Italy). 
Ormeasia (Italy). 
Uva di Aqui (Italy). 

Fertile; bunches pyramidal, close; berries 
black, egg-shaped, thick-skinned. Yields 
good light wine, which, however, does not 



136. Donzelinho da Castella (Portugal). 
A fertile plant, which yields a good, light- 
colored wine; bunches well filled with oblong 
berries, similar to Agudet ; leaves glabrous 
above, woolly underneath, almost entire. 

137. Doradilla. 
Jaen Doradilla. 

Wine grape, from Spain. 

138. DOUCANELLE (LOT). 

Doulsanelle. 
Ducanelle. 

Bunches medium-sized, elongated, loose; ber- 
ries unequal oval, amber-colored, very sweet. 
Table grape. 

139. Sauvignon de la Coreze (Gironde). 
Doucanelle (Rendu). 
Sauvignon a gros grains. 

Berries good sized, round, yellow; bunches 
loose. Excellent table and wine grape. 

140. Due de Malakoff (England). 
Chasselas Due de Malakoff. 

A variety of the Sweetwater, a little earlier, 
but not of great value. Table grape. 

141. Duchess of Buccleuch. 

Seedling raised in England; bunches long, 
tapering, shouldered; berries small, round, 
greenish white, yellow when fully ripe, with 
gray bloom, tender and juicy, slight muscat 
flavor. Table grape. 

142. Duraze. 

Black wine grape, from the Pyrenees. 

143. Dutch Hamburg (England). 
Wilmot's Hamburg. 

Bunches medium-sized, compact berries very 
large, roundish, oblate, thick-skinned, very 
black with thin bloom. Table grape. 

144. Dutch Sweetwater (England). 
Perie blanche. 

Bunches good sized, shouldered, very loose; 
berries large, round, thick-skinned, white, trans- 
parent, with thin bloom, russet when fully ripe. 
Excellent, tender, and juicy. Table grape, 

145. Early Black Bordeaux (England). 
Bunches and berries medium sized, round, 

quite black, with thin bloom. Tender and 
juicy. Table grape. 

146. Early Black Frontignan (England). 



August Frontignan (France) . 

Muscat d'Aout (France). 

Muscat de la Mi Aout (France). 

Muscat de Merle (France). 

Muscat noir de la Mi Aout (France) . 

Muscat precoce d'Aout (France). 
Plant not vigorous and not fertile; ripens 
early; bunches and berries small, roundish, 
deep purple. Table grape. 

(To be Continued.) 



Phylloxera on Old Vine Roots. 

Editors Prebs: — May I request you to give prominence 
to the subjoined report (from the Melbourne Argus of 
Nov. 27, 1880) of an official visit by members of the select 
committee of the Legislature to the infected vineyards in 
the Geelong district of Victoria, the only one as yet 
known to have been attacked. My immediate purpose is 
to induce Mr. Atila Haraszthy, of Sonoma, or some other 
whose vines were uprooted two or three years ago, to take 
the trouble to ascertain if phylloxera is still to be found 
alive on roots remaining in the ground, as has occurred in 
Victoria after three years. Last week I informed Prof. 
E. W. Hilgard of my having found the matter mentioned 
by members of the commiltee on a former visit to an up- 
rooted vineyard belonging to Mr. Wyatt. I am sure there 
can be no mistake, for I am personally acquainted with all 
the gentlemen named, except M. Boutan, son of the emi- 
nent French scientist and vineyard proprietor who has 
done so much for proving and promoting the use of bi- 
sulphide of carbon as a remedy. — John I. Bleasdale, Sec- 
retary Board of State Viticultural Commissioners, 520 
Montgomery St., San Franciso. 

The committee of the Legislative Assembly, 
appointed to inquire into the existence of the 
phylloxera in the Geelong vineyards, yesterday 
again visited the district affected. The mem- 
bers of the committee forming the party were 
Mr. L. L. Smith, Mr. J. Bosisto and Mr. R. de 
B. Johnstone, M. L. A.'s. M. Boutan and Mr. 
Davenport, of South Australia, accompanied 
the party. 

The first locality visited was Fyansford, 
where Mr. Peter Diedrich was examined. His 
evidence was to the effect that he occupied a 
piece of land in the valley of the Moorabool, in 
1863; at that time there were seven acres of the 
land planted with vines of various kinds. He 
planted a couple of acres, making a vineyard of 
nine acres. The vines were very healthy, and 
yielded large returns. About September, 1877, 
he noticed some patches of his vines were sickly 
looking, and, after closely examining them, dis- 
covered that the roots were thickly infested 
with a very small insect, which he took to be 
the phylloxera. His neighbor, Mr. King, had 
his vines attacked in the same manner. His 
vines were rooted out in April, 1878. He had 
never imported vines from Europe or any other 
country. 

The party then proceeded to Mr. H. King's 
property, which is situated close to the Fyans- 
ford bridge. Mr. King pointed out the site of 
the vineyard that was destroyed in April, 1878, 
and with his assistance a search was made for 
the roots of the old vines. After digging for a 
few minutes, roots were discovered which had 
iu them a certain amount of vitality. On a 
closer examination of these roots, living phyl- 
loxera were found. At least a dozen different 
roots were taken out of the same trench; in 
nearly all of them phylloxera were to be found, 
and in some instances they were numerous. 
Under the microscope they presented a very 
sickly appearance, but there were not wanting 
specimens that were quite as lively as those dis- 
covered by the committee on the roots of Mr. 
Jampen's vines on Monday last. The fact that 
phylloxera will live for nearly three years on 
the roots of vines after the major portion of the 
plant has been uprooted, was thus demonstrated 
beyond the possibility of a doubt. In answer 
to some questions put by Mr. L. L. Smith, Mr. 
King said that he had not noticed above half a 
dozen of young vines spring up from the roots 
left in the earth since the old vineyard was de- 
stroyed. His vines were originally very vigor- 
ous, and yielded great crops. On one occasion 
he took 1,100 gallons of must from an acre of 
hermitage vines that had been planted from cut- 
tings only four years previously. He first dis- 
covered the disease in his vines in 1877. He 
suspected what it was, and communicated with 
Mr. Neilson, who made a close examination of 
the roots of the diseased vines, and the phyl- 
loxera was discovered. He had not imported 
vines from Europe himself; but he knew that 
vines were imported about 10 years ago, and he 
believed the phylloxera had been in the district 
ever since. He had noticed signs on the vines 
which he now knew were produced by phyl- 
loxera fully three years before he discovered tile 
insect on his own vines. About 10 years ago, 
several of his neighbors introduced vines from 
England. His opinion was that the only way 
to get thoroughly rid of the pest was to destroy 
every vine in the Geelong district. He was 
convinced from the way the phylloxera was 
spreading that total destruction was the only 
way to save the rest of the country. He stated 
that very frequently, when digging on the site 
of the old vineyard, he had turned up roots 
which, on examination, were found to be in- 
fested with phylloxera. The members of the 
committee thanked Mr. King for the valuable 
evidence he had given, and for the ready as- 
sistance he had rendered the committee in 
prosecuting the inquiry. 

The committee then proceeded to the vine- 
yards belonging to Mr. Maurer and Mr. Ham- 
merley, on the Barwon, which were visited on 
Monday last, when it was stated that none of 
the vines had been attacked. A closer examina- 
tion yesterday disclosed the fact that the vines 
in both vineyards were attacked with phyllox- 
era. The committee returned to Melbourne in 
the evening. 



52 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



[January 22, 18 81. 




What the Grange Has Done in Michigan. 



Bro. Woodman, Master of the Michigan State 
Grange, lately said: When we organized, many 
of our members were isolated and unsocial, each 
striving for himself against the superior shrewd- 
ness, tact and deceptions of those who live and 
grow rich upon the labor of others. That isola- 
tion has to a great extent broken up, and the 
families of farmers know and visit each other, 
and meet for social recreation and mutual im- 
provement in the family circles, the subordinate 
Granges and socials, grove meetings and neigh- 
borhood picnics, the "harvest feasts," the county 
Grange, county picnics and mass meetings, and 
in the State Grange and in the annual State re- 
unions. All are members of one great brother- 
hood, bound together by ties of fraternity. All 
are seeking each other's interests, all inspired 
by the same motives, striving for the same ob- 
jects and reaping the same benefits. 

Although the financial benefits accruing to 
farmers from the Grange are among the least in 
importance, yet they should not be overlooked. 

We found that land plaster was being sold for 
$4 per ton at the mills, and a combination of all 
the manufacturers and dealers prevented any 
reduction in price, or arrangement by which 
farmers living at a distance from the mills could 
deal directly with the manufacturers, and there- 
by save the commission agents. This state of 
affairs resulted in the building of the Grange 
Plaster Mill, now owned and operated by Bros. 
Day & Taylor. As the combination was organ- 
ized for a period of five years, it is fair to assume 
that the price of the plaster would have been 
kept at the combination price — $4 per ton — up 
to this time, had not the Grange mill been built. 

There has been sold during the last five years 
by the Grand River Valley Go's, including the 
Grange mill, about 194,000 tons, at a saving be- 
low the combination price of $384,600, and by 
other companies doing business in the State 
abont 50,000 tons additional, making a saving 
in the aggregate to the farmers in this State in 
five years on plaster alone, of nearly $500,000. 

In 1872, and before the organization of the 
farmers in this State, Congress reduced the tar- 
iff on wool, which so encouraged the importa- 
tion of foreign wools that the price went down 
from 60 to 25 cents per IK By the united ac- 
tion of the Order in^this and other wool-growing 
States, Congress was induced to restore the 
tariff in 1S74, and the same influence has, with- 
out doubt, on two occasions prevented the pas- 
sage of a bill for its subsequent reduction. 
Hence, all that farmers have realized above 25 
cents a lt>. for their wool, since the restoration 
of the tariff, can be set to the credit of our or- 
ganization. 

The sliding gate suit, which was so success- 
fully defended in the United States court, 
through our organized influence, saved not less 
than $500,000 to the farmers of this State for 
the royalty alone, which would have been col- 
lected of every person who ever used a sliding 
gate. 

The numerous Grange co-operative stores lo- 
cated in different portions of the State, some of 
which are doing a retail business of nearly $100,- 
000 annually, are saving largely to those who 
patronize them. Add to all these the increased 
knowledge of business which farmers have ac- 
quired through the influence of the Grange, 
enabling them to buy and sell more judiciously, 
and the employment of bonded agents to sell 
farm produce and fill orders for patrons, and 
some idea can be formed of the financial work 
and benefits resulting from our organization. 



Temescal Grange.— The Patron says: Satur- 
day evening last was a busy time with Temescal 
Grange. It was the date fixed for the installa- 
tion of officers. In addition thereto, there was 
a class of brothers to receive the first and sec- 
ond degrees. This work was undertaken first, 
which was performed pleasantly and satisfactor- 
ily. Then everything was arranged to install 
the officers elected to serve the Grange for the 
following year. The ceremony of installation 
was performed by an old resident, who has 
seen much service in the interest of the Order, 
and been rewarded therefor beyond his deserts. 
[We dissent from this view. — Eds Press.] 
After the work of installation was completed, 
the question came up relative to the expediency 
of a harvest feast at our next meeting. It was 
promptly decided to have the "lay-out." The 
meeting will take place on the first Saturday in 
February, in Odd Fellows' hall, corner of 11th 
and Franklin streets, Oakland, commencing at 
one o'clock P. m. sharp. A resolution was passed 
directing our worthy Secretary to send invita- 
tions to Haywards, Alhambra and Walnut 
Granges to be present with us on that occasion. 



Pleasant Grove, Sutter Co.— Wm. E. Rob- 
erts, M.; James Jones, O.; John Dyer, L.; Cy- 
rus Briggs, S.; A. T. Jackson, A. S.; Telitha 
Briggs, C; Homer Sankey, T. ; Benton Hudson, 
Sec'y; Jeremiah Decker, G. K.; Mary J. Ki- 
field, Ceres; Rebecca Jmes, Pomona; M. T. 
Sankey, Flora; Miss Ella Decker, L. A. S. 



Grangers' Bank Officers In our item on 

the annual meeting of the Granger's bank last 
week we neglected to state that the officers 
were re-elected as follows: President, G. W. 
Colby; Vice-President, John Lewelling; Mana- 
ger and Cashier, Albert Montpellier; Secretary, 
Frank McMullin. 



^qt\!cdLTd*W L Notes- 



California. 

FRESNO. 

Editors Press: — The farmers of this part of 
the State are actively engaged in planting their 
crops, the greater part of which is already sown. 
Encouraged by the past favorable season, they 
expect to plant large crops in the hope of similar 
providential favor the coming season. In the 
northern part of the county wheat and barley 
continue to be the staple productions ; while in 
the southern part where ample facilities for 
irrigation are offered, various crops are being 
tested, with almost universal success. The 
leading among these are Egyptian corn, Hun- 
garian millet, Sorghum cane, etc. Our neigh- 
boring mill supplies us with a first-class article 
of Sorghum syrup at seventy cents per gallon. — 
T. S. P., Kingsburg, Cal. 

LASSEN 

Editors Press:— I thought I would write 
you a few lines as I so seldom see anything in 
(my old friend) the Rural Press, about this 
part of the State. We are having one of the 
finest rains that ever blessed this part of the 
country. It has been raining hard for two 
days and nights and the ground was in fine con- 
dition to receive it, and most of it soaked in 
as fast as it fell; but this is not always the case, 
for sometimes the ground is frozen hard this 
time of the year and then the water most all 
runs off to the lake. It seems like spring this 
morning, it is so warm. This has been a very 
pleasant winter compared with last. We have 
had very little real cold weather. We had a big 
fall of snow the first of December, but it did not 
last long, and the farmers have done consider- 
able plowing this month and that is something 
unusual for this part of the State. I think the 
prospect is better for crops than last year. 
The season was so late last year that grain did 
not make half a crop. The earlier we get the 
grain in the better it is, and I suppose it is the 
same all over the State. This has been an 
easy winter on stock men so far, and unless we 
have some pretty rough weather soon there will 
be a good deal of hay that will have to be kept 
over for another season. Barley is scarce and 
sells at two cents a pound. There is not 
enough to do the valley. There was very little 
barley sown last year. Wheat is worth $1.65 
loose. There has been three light shocks of 
earthquake here this winter. More anon. — 
Spud, Milford, Jan. 15th. 

LOS ANGELES. 

Rainfall. — Daily Commercial: The Pacific 
Rural Press, Dec. 25th, publishes an elab- 
orate table of the rainfall for a series of years. 
In this table the rainfall of Los Angeles is set 
down as follows: 



1874- 75 12.79 inches 

1875- 76 21.93 " . 

1876- 77 4.61 " 

1877- 78 17.24 " 

1878- 79 8.18 » 

1879- 80 13.03 " 



Making an average annual rainfall of 12.96 
inches. We presume that the Rural Press 
wishes to give actual facts, but it would be 
well for its publishers to consult some resident 
of Los Angeles about the rainfall at this place. 
The preceding table must have been compiled 
from a gauge very imperfectly attended to, and 
the result is wide of the mark and tends to give 
a false impression of this section of the country. 
The actual rainfall in Los Angeles to our certain 
knowledge since 1873, has been, according to 
three different gauges, as follows: 

1873- 74 23 79 inches. 

1874- 75 22.43 " 

1875- 76 28.06 " 

1876- 77 6.73 " 

1877- 78 22.26 " 

1878 79 11.11 " 

1879-80 20.20 " 

Making an average raintall of 18.94 inches per 
year for the past seven years, or 18.13 inches 
per annum for the past six years. 

Vine Cutting. — Mr. L. J. Rose is now pre- 
paring 2,000,000 grape cuttings from his Sunny 
Slope vineyard, 580,000 of which he has sold for 
shipment to Fresno county. 

MENDOCINO. 

Lumbering. — Beacon: We have every rea- 
son to think that times on the Mendocino coast 
will be good next .spring and summer. The 
lumber trade throughout the State promises to 
be unusually brisk the coming year, and already 
a large number of saw mills in the State along 
the redwood belt, are getting ready for active 
operations. In this county alone, the follow- 
ing saw-mills, we understand, are to start up in 
the spring — some immediately — or as soon as 
they can get a sufficient supply of logs on hand : 
Cottoneva mills, by Miller; Westport mills, by 
Blaiadell & Pollard; Newport mills, by Messrs. 
Hunter tc Stewart; Caspar mills, by J. G. Jack- 
son & Co. ; Big River mills, by the Mendocino 
Lumber Co. ; Little River mills, by Coombs k 
Perkins; Albion mills, by H. Wetherbee; Sal- 
mon Creek mills, by Brett & White; Salmon 
Creek Mill company's mill; Navarro mills, by 
H. B. Tichenor & Co. ; Greenwood Creek mill, 
by J. S. Kimball; Bridgeport mills, by Jerome 
Rafter; Garcia mills, by Nickerson k Co. ; Gua- 
lala Mill company's mill. Besides these there 
will be three shingle mills in operation, viz: 
That on Salmon creek, Dwelly Bros, mill, near 
Cuffey's Cove and that on Greenwood creek, 
about three miles from Cuffey's Cove. All these 
mills pay out, in the aggregate, a large sum of 
money, most of which is spent on the Mendo- 



cino coast. It is a great blessing that we have 
so important lumbering port interest, for it not 
only gives our county an importance in this par- 
ticular, but afford an opportunity to industri- 
ous men who have to depend upon their labor 
for living. 

SANTA BARBARA. 

Scale and Smut. — Press, Jan. 8: At the 
meeting of the Horticultural Society there were 
no disasters from frosts reported for this county — 
a point greatly in our favor, as the losses from 
this source have been severe in other localities, 
even to the southward. Mr. Harper reports the 
Navel orange as more free from scale and smut 
than any other variety; has specimens growing 

S°ide by side with those badly affected, without 
lsease on the part of the Navel. Referred also 
to a very fine orange grove growing in the Monte- 
cito, belonging to Mr. Shepherd, and considers 
it one of the most promising young orchards in 
this section, having received excellent care. All 
unite in attesting the virtue of hot suds of whale 
oil soap, at 150°, for cleansing trees from insects, 
the scale bug particularly, raising the tempera- 
ture to 160°, until the moment it is applied. 
Absolute dissolution is the only cure for the 
scale, and this accomplishes it. Some were 
successful in throwing ashes over the trunk and 
stems after rain. Mr. Sheffield reports freeing 
an oleander in this way after irrigation with an 
occasional repetition. 
SANTA CLARA. 

A Lesson Against Selling Out. — San Jose 
Herald: An instance of the restless nature of 
some agriculturists which has recently oc- 
curred in this State is worthy of record here, as 
a warning. In Santa Clara county during the 
past year, it is said that a gentleman sold a well 
improved piece of orchard land for $6,000. It 
was worth more than that as an investment ; in 
fact the property was sacrificed, the trouble be- 
ing that newspaper stories of mining camps and 
fortunes made there, had made the safe returns 
of his farm seem very small and tame. But 
$6,000 is little money in a mining camp, and is 
easily enough lost. After months of travel he 
decided that the abandoned occupation was 
after all the best ; he would again be an agri- 
culturist. But searching for a location where 
soil, climate, resources, nearness to market and 
such other profitable things which men desire, 
were combined in the fullest degree, he now 
thinks that $10,000 will not place him where 
he was before his unfortunate sale. In several 
recently reported cases men have sold their 
homesteads, taken the money and gone else- 
where to invest, failed to better themselves, 
and, coming back to the old neighborhood, have 
purchased back their former home at a round 
advance upon the selling price. The man who 
chooses farming as a profession is glad to en- 
large his operations when it can be done safely. 
But frequent changes are ruinous to settled 
habits of thrift and economy ; are also ruinous 
to the formation of helpful friendships in the 
neighborhood. 

SAN JOAQUIN. 

Tree Planting. — Independent Jan. 8: There 
is already a large demand for young trees, and 
the prospect is that a greater number will be 
planted throughout the valley this winter than 
in any preceding season. Fruit trees are more 
sought for than either shade or ornamen- 
tal. It is an encouraging sign to see farmers, 
year after year, getting more into the habit of 
planting trees. In time the monotony of the 
landscape on the plains will doubtless be made 
to disappear by beautiful and extensive orchards 
and belts of forest trees on every farm. The 
sooner such a change is made in the aspect of 
the valley the better, both in an esthetic and a 
financial sense. 

Carp Culture. — Herald: George Moshier, 
a successful farmer who lives out on the Chero- 
kee Lane, brought to town to-day some speci- 
mens of carp grown by him in his fish pond, at 
his ranch. The fish were very much admired 
by connoisseurs and pronounced very fine. A 
year ago Mr. Moshier obtained 17 young carp, 
seven inches long, from carp ponds in Napa 
county, and put them in a pond that he had 
prepared for them on his ranch. Now he has 
5,000 carp from five to seven inches in length, 
the progeny of the 17, and he does not consider 
that he had more than ordinary success with 
them. He has a pond 70 ft. in diameter and 
six ft. deep. The bottom and sides of the pond 
were cemented to make them water tight. He 
estimates the cost of his pond at $100. The 
pond is supplied with water from a well 70 ft. 
deep, and is pumped by a windmill. The same 
well and mill supply water for his household 
and for his farm stock. The specimens he 
brought were one of his original stock and three 
of his this year's crop. The old one is about IS 
months old and weighed just two tbs. The 
carp are the most toothsome of fish, and they 
can be grown with less trouble and risk thaD 
almost any other kind of fish. Mr. Moshier 
feeds his on boiled vegetables, cracked wheat and 
scraps of food, and they thrive well. 

SAN MATEO. 

Horticultural Society. — Journal, Jan. 8: 
The Horticultural Society of San Mateo county 
held their annual meeting on Tuesday evening 
last atGermania hall. Mr. T. Woods read an 
article on "Tuberose Culture." The follow- 
ing officers were elected for the ensuing year: 
C. Goertz, President; L. McLaine, Vice-Presi- 
dent; L. D. Morse, Secretary; Jerome Turner, 
Treasurer. The subjects disoussed were "The 
Tea Rose" and "Curled Peach Leaf." After 
the meeting adjourned the members repaired to 
the Grand hotel to partake of the usual annual 
banquet, 



SOLANO. 

A New Box Cover. — Republican, Jan. 8: 
Charles Martell, of Pleasant Valley, called at 
this office, last Saturday, to show us an inven- 
tion of his for fastening covers on fruit boxes. 
It consists of two pieces of iron fastened upon 
the under side of the cover, one working inside 
the other, in the form of a slide. The slide is 
notched at the end, which admits of its slipping 
"round" a screw, which is stationary, and 
which, when the box is full, can be rendered 
perfectly stiff so that there is no slip to it. Mr. 
Martell claims that it is superior to the one now 
in use, as it does away with the screwing and 
unscrewing every time the cover is taken off. 
He has applied for a patent, and is prepared to 
sell rights to make and use the fixtures. 
SONOMA. 

Increase in Wool Transactions. — Flag, 
Jan. 6: In a late issue we called attention to 
the fact that the shipments of wool from this 
place during 1880 were 720,000 lbs., a gain of 
27,000 lbs. over 1879, and showing that Healds- 
burg was becoming a more popular market and 
trading town. In further proof we have been 
presented with a statement showing that the 
wool shipments by the Grangers' Business Asso- 
ciation for 1879 were 660 bales, or 154,024 lbs., 
against 1,042 bales, or 283,179 lbs.— a gain of 
374 bales, or 129,146 lbs. for 1880. 

Fine Hogs.— Capt.F. B. Tarbett has received 
from his brother-in-law, N. W. Shaulding, 
some fine hogs. They are of Durock stock, and 
their sire weighed 876 lbs., costing $500. He 
took the premium, with others owned by Mr. 
Shaulding, at the Monterey county fair last 
year. We hail with pleasure the advent of 
good stock of any kind, and recommend the 
above as breeders. 

Dairy Plenty. — Petaluma Courier, Jan. 5: 
The grass, stock men tell us, was never better 
at this season of the year. It now affords good 
feed and iB preferred by stock to hay. Stock 
of all kinds has wintered splendidly, and the 
dairy season is very promising. The dairymen 
will turn out enough good, sweet dairy butter 
to drive oleomargarine-butterine-bullbutter out 
of the market. So mote it be. It is villainous 
stuff. 

Colt Stake. — Petaluma Courier: The So- 
noma and Marin District Agricultural Associa- 
tion have decided to have a colt stake for 1881. 
The first is for a purse of $350, free to all three- 
year-olds and under; best three in five; five to 
enter and four to start, to harness and rule. 
Second purse $250 — free for all two-year-olds 
and under; best two in three; five to enter and 
three to start; to harness and rule. Nomina- 
tions close March 10, 1881. 

TEHAMA. 

Editors Press: — Again the storm King has 
abdicated for sunshine and balmy breezes. The 
visit was quite a lengthy one, and during its 
stay brought the water courses up to their high- 
water mark almost Sloughs, creeks and riv- 
ers have been booming, and many an acre of 
virgin soil from rich bottom land has been 
washed away. Our water courses will, ere long, 
attract the attention of the thinking portion of 
the State, as to how they can be kept within 
their sources. Year after year the angry wa- 
ters of our main creeks destroy thousands of 
dollars' worth of property by overflows, wash- 
ing away rich land, and many other freaks 
which could in a measure be avoided if judi- 
cious management were used in controlling the 
currents, and damming up banks. In Califor- 
nia too little attention has been given to this 
vital particular. Our numerous water courses 
are rarely if ever meddled with, until some 
farmer finds acre after acre of the best of his 
land is slowly but surely disappearing, and even 
his house with his barns and improvements are 
in danger of being floated bay-wards. Then, 
and not till then, he feebly protests, and goes 
to work to stave off the current by throwing 
stable manure, straw, brush, cobble stones and 
other rubbish on the exposed bank to stay the 
destruction. For a season he rests in security, 
but a freshet higher than usual carries away 
his dam, and he has all his work to do over 
again. So it goes on until he almost despairs 
of ever repairing the damage, which, if attended 
to properly at first, would have saved his prop- 
erty and Kept the rebellious creek or slough 
within its proper channel. The time has come 
for our farmers to take concerted action on this 
important question. A ramble northward this 
afternoon (Sunday, 16th), brought the writer 
to the stock farm of General N. P. Chipman. 
A walk over a portion of his improved place 
was enjoyed, where the grain on his summer- 
fallowed land was noted growing splendidly; it 
was sown just before the last rain before this 
set in, and is up thick and healthy. His win- 
ter plowing is going forward rapidly, and every 
thing on the place is in a thriving condi- 
tion. The General took me to the cow 
house where he pointed out with pride 
to a two-day-old bull calf of the pure Jersey 
breed. The mother, a young heifer, is one of 
those he purchased at Oakland, and is from the 
breed of Jerseys imported by the late Mr. Ral- 
ston. The cow shows a splendid bag of milk ; 
the probabilities are that she will give a large 
quantity when she is in good trim; as yet, she has 
only been milked enough to ease the bag, she 
having more than the youngster can get away 
with. The calf is a light fawn color on top, 
white underneath, and white legs. He will be 
a valuable addition to some of the herds in the 
county no doubt, when matured. Several im- 
provements in various directions are in contem- 
plation by the General, which will be noted by 
the writer when fully developed. The face of 



January 2 s, i88l.l 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS. 



5s 



the country is a sight worthy the praise of a 
poet's pen, and would defy the skill of a painter. 
The emerald green carpet of grass and grain 
dazzle the eye, and inspires one with new energy 
to go on in the battle of life invigorated and re- 
freshed. Antelope valley is dotted with the 
young grain where the sloughs, creeks and lakes 
leave a dry spot, and the rolling red lands adja- 
cent to the city are bursting forth with grain 
for the first time. The warm raiD made the 
possibility of a crop a surety, and our sturdy 
agriculturists will all reap a bounteous harvest 
in 1881.— Felix, Red Bluff. 

YOLO. 

Tehama, not Fremont.— Editors Press: — 
There was a slight mistake in the translation of 
the article which I sent you, in regard to the 
place from which the water should be taken. 
It should be Tehama, and not Fremont, as the 
paper stated. I hope you will do all you can, 
in your power, to urge this matter forward. 
There is sufficient water which goes to waste to 
irrigate Colusa, Yolo and Solano counties, and I 
hope this matter will be brought before the 
Legislature. — H. Fredericks, Woodland. 
TUBA. 

Heavy Colt. — Sutter Banner: Samuel 
Harding, of Yuba county, brought to Marys- 
ville, on New Year's day, a very fine Norman- 
Percheron colt, two years and a half old, which 
was so large as to attract general attention, and 
a wager upon the result being laid, he was 
placed upon the scales, and was found to weigh 
the enormous amount of 1,440 lbs. He is out of 
a mare of Harding's, his sire being Papillion, 
owned by William Quint, of Marysville, and 
known all over these two counties. He is be- 
lieved to be the largest horse of the Percheron 
stock, for that age, in the State, and being well 
proportioned and finely made, in every respect, 
is a beauty in horse flesh. 



Mining Debris. 

The Governor's Special Message on the 
Subject. 

Gov. Perkins has sent to the Legislature a 
special message on the debris question, from 
which we make the following extracts: 

It is already known to your honorable bodies 
that considerable injury has been done to farming 
lands by the debris from the hydraulic mines. 
It is also known to you that some steps have 
been taken to remedy the evils in operation. 
Of the nature and extent 

The Injuries Inflicted, 
You have already been informed somewhat 
fully by the reports of the State and consulting 
engineers. The damage done by hydraulic min- 
ing consists in (1) direct destruction of agri- 
cultural and other lands; (2) indirect damage to 
such land; (3) direct injury to the rivers and 
streams; (4) indirect damage to rivers and 
streams. The most serious direct damage to 
property has thus far occurred on the American, 
Bear and Yuba rivers. The nature of the dam- 
age is a practical burial of large areas under the 
mining detritus, or "slickens," and sand. The 
property so buried is, in fact, so completely de- 
prived of agricultural value that, in the opinion 
of competent judges, it can, under the most 
favorable circumstances, be fit for nothing but 
raising swamp timber for from 15 to 30 years. 
As to the extent of the damage done in this way 
already, the State Engineer has reported the 
great injury of 43,546 acres of farming lands, 
rated at a present probable valuation of $2,728,- 
300 for the land alone. The indirect damage to 
property is most apparent along the main 
streams — the Feather river and the Upper and 
Lower 

Sacramento River. 

For the most part the difference between di- 
rect and indirect damage to property is more in 
the degree of harm inflicted than in its character. 
This, however, is not invariably'the case. The 
injuries resulting from hydraulic mining are, 
in truth, so extensive that it requires both a 
comprehensive and careful survey to embrace 
them all. As the State sold the swamp lands 
on the condition that they should be reclaimed, 
it must be difficult to show that it is not under 
any obligation to remove obstacles which render 
the fulfillment of the conditions thus imposed 
by it impracticable. The indirect injuries which 
may be traced without any doubt of difficulty 
to hydraulic mining are, however, very exten- 
sive. In all these cases the future can be pre- 
dicted from the past. On the one hand are 
lands already covered with the flood of sand and 
debris. On the other hand are lands threatened 
with this flood. And the flood is continually 
advancing. The lowlands of the whole Sac- 
ramento valley are, in fact, threatened 
With Unavoidable Destruction. 

That is to say, that an area inclosing from 
1,200 to 1,400 square miles of fertile territory 
is indirectly damaged, and is menaced with ul- 
timate destruction. Nor is this the whole of 
the situation, for the injury done to the Sacra- 
mento valley extends, by a reflex action, to the 
lowlands of the San Joaquin, and to the lands 
about the upper bays by a direct movement. 
It may be said therefore without exaggeration 
that the indirect damage actually embraces an 
area extending from Oroville and Chico to Beu- 
lcia on the straits of Carquinez. It is necessary 
to bear in mind that the destruction of the nav- 
igability of the Sacramento river is involved. 
This would deprive the whole 4 of northern Cali- 
fornia of competition in transportation. The 
wheat crop alone of that region may be estima- 
ted at 500,000 tons. It may also be fairly calcu- 



lated that the removal of competition would re- 
sult in a rise of freight rates to the extent of 
$2 per ton. Thus, then, an additional tax of 
$1,000,000 a year on the movement of the harvest 
alone is involved in this question, as concerns 
northern California. I have endeavored to as- 
certain, by reference to the assessment rolls 
and the report of the Board of Equalization, as 
well as from other sources, the amount of values 
menaced directly and indirectly by the effects 
of hydraulic mining. I have above stated the 
opinions of the State Engineer as to the extent 
of actual destruction already accomplished. He 
puts it at $6,000,000. Taking the counties of 
Colusa, Placer, Sacramento, Solano, Sutter, 
Yolo, Yuba, Butte and Tehama, and estimating 
the assessed value of the real estate other than 
town lots, and the improvements, and of the 
town lots and their improvements, and making 
what seems a sufficient deduction from the ag- 
gregate, I have arrived at the conclusion that 
the property in these counties threatened with 
partial or complete destruction cannot properly 
be placed at a lower estimate than $60,000,000. 
Here, then, is $6,000,000 already destroyed, 
and $60,000,000 menaced with destruction. 

It might appear that the only rational infer- 
ence from the facts thus far given would be the 
desirability of putting a stop to 

Hvdraullc Mining. 

It, therefore, is proper at this point to make 
some observations on the value and importance 
of that interest. Hydraulic mining has been 
carried on in this State for 25 years. The pres- 
ent annual output of hydraulic mines is estima- 
ted at from $12,000,000 to $14,000,000. It is, 
therefore, apparent that an estimate of $150,- 
000,000 for the whole period of their working 
is not extravagant. It is equally clear that 
while no accurate estimate of their future out- 
put can be made, it is safe to assume that it 
will be larger than it has been in the past, since 
the extent of gravel-bearing claims remaining 
unworked is practically unlimited, and since 
may very extensive workings have either just 
been opened or are not yet opened so as to be 
largely productive. Enough is known to make 
it plain that the hydraulic mines have contrib- 
uted greatly to the prosperity of the State, 
and will contribute still more largely in the fu- 
ture, if suffered to proceed. A very considera- 
ble population is supported by these mines. I 
estimate it at 30,000, and the indirect support 
is very much more extensive. 

Clearly, therefore, it must be a very seri- 
ous business to put a stop by legislation to 
this great industry, and it seems impossible 
that those who undertake to study the subject 
should conclude such a course to be necessary 
until it had been demonstrated that it was im- 
practicable to save the rivers and the farms and 
cities without sacrificing the mines. The pre- 
liminary and the late surveys of the engineer- 
ing department have been devoted to the eluci- 
dation of this problem. The engineers were 
required to ascertain the extent of the injury, 
present and prospective, and whether remedial 
measures were available. Their reports have 
shown (1) that the extent and gravity of the 
damages and menace are far greater than had 
been commonly supposed; (2) that it was pos- 
sible to counteract the ill-effects of hydraulic 
mining by a systematic treatment of the rivers; 
(3) that such a systematic treatment of the 
rivers was necessary in any case, since it would 
be impossible to meet the exigencies of the sit- 
uation by merely stopping hydraulic mining. 
The most formidable danger to the lowlands is 
due to the deposit in the mountain streams and 
tributaries of enormous quantities of heavy sand 
which is being washed down lower every year. 
The deposit of sand must continue until the en- 
tire 

Saoramento Valley 
Is covered and destroyed, even though hy- 
draulic mining should be stopped at once, un- 
less remedial measures are adopted. In fact, it 
may be asserted that the stoppage of hydraulic 
mining in the present stage of the debris evil 
would produce no alleviation whatever. There 
is a mass of mining debris now collected in the 
canyons of the mountains sufficient to cover 
the Sacramento valley completely a couple of 
feet deep. It is, however, practicable, in the 
opinion of the State and consulting engineers, 
to deal with the situation, and in so doing to at 
once save the rivers and the mines. In other 
words, it requires to be ascertained whether the 
State can better afford to sustain the cost of 
reclamation than to bear the losses resulting 
from the destruction of property which must 
follow either (1) the stoppage of hydraulic 
mining, or (2) the abandonment of the rivers 
and agricultural lands and valley towns to the 
flow of 

The Advancing Wave of Debris. 
I have endeavored to give you some adequate 
idea of the values represented on both sides. It 
has been shown that if the flow of debris is un- 
checked, to a positive loss of $6,000,000 in land 
must succeed a further loss of $60,000,000in real 
property; that to this must be added at least 
$100,000,000 for destruction of waterways, and 
fully $1,000,000 a year in freights. On the 
other hand it has been shown that the hydraulic 
mines represent a fixed capital of $100,000,000, 
that they support a large population, that they 
constitute the backbone of the commerce and 
industry of the mining counties, and that their 
suspension would necessarily involve the decline 
of all values throughout those counties, and 
the certain decay of that region of the State. It 
would appear from these considerations that the 
burden placed upon the State would have to be 
' very heavy to outweigh the obvious desirability 



of avoiding the losses with which the common- 
wealth is threatened whether hydraulic mining 
is or is not suspended. The surveys of the en- 
gineers resulted in ascertaining the practicabil- 
ity of remedial measures, but at the same time 
showed that the subject was too extensive to be 
dealt with locally. It was particularly insisted 
on by the engineers that sustained and system- 
atic treatment of the rivers must be under- 
taken or that it would be useless to attempt 
anything. While, therefore, they held out the 
encouraging consideration that by such a sys- 
tematic treatment the condition of the rivers 
might be made even better than it had ever 
been, they contended that nothing less com- 
prehensive than the methods they proposed 
would be adequate. 

I come now to the question of the necessity 
for some sustained and systematic treatment of 
the rivers. I am not prepared to express an 
opinion upon the remedial measures which are 
proposed by the engineers. It is for you to de- 
termine what course shall be taken in regard to 
them, and it is for you to judge whether they 
meet the requirements of the situation. But I 
consider it my duty to point out, to the best of 
my ability, the need which appears to exist — 
the imperative need, I may say — for some scien- 
tific and comprehensive mode of treatment. 
The reports of the State Engineer, and those of 
the consulting engineers, Capt. Eads and Col. 
Mendell, contain many serious and even start- 
ling expressions in this connection. They con- 
cur in declaring that there must be a well-de- 
vised, carefully-planned, all-embracing system 
of remedial action, and that nothing less than 
this will arrest the very grave dangers which 

Menace the State. 

They tell us, as the result of their laborious re- 
searches, that the lower river channels are 
raised by the deposits of sand in them; that the 
upper river tributaries are given a torrential 
character by the ever-increasing steepness of 
grade imparted to them in the same way; that, 
consequently, they bring down their flood 
waters more swiftly and in greater volume than 
ever; and that the lower river channels, being 
choked with sand, are less able than ever to re- 
ceive and carry this increased volume of water. 
They tell us that while through these agencies 
the flood-hight is being raised every year, and 
the difficulty of guarding against disastrous in- 
undations correspondingly increased, the stop- 
page of the hydraulic mines would neither re- 
move this great evil nor abate it even for the 
moment in an appreciable degree. They say 
that the canyons of El Dorado, Placer, Nevada, 
Sierra, Yuba and Plumas counties are vast reser- 
voirs of sand, which has been deposited in them 
by hydraulic mining operations during a period 
extending from 1854 to the present time. This 
sand — heavy quartz detritus — is, they state, 
coming down gradually but surely into the val- 
leys. The river channels are already filled with 
it, and now the main body is being slowly 
pushed over into the valleys. But now it has 
passed the region where it could do no injury, 
and it is pressing forward. The engineers 
affirm that if this heavy sand is allowed to 
cover the valley lands, 

Their Destruction ■will »e ADSOlute. 
They say further, that even if the hydraulic 
mines are stopped it will continue to flow for 
years. They are confident that, though no com- 
plete cure for the damage already done can be 
obtained save through the healing hand of time, 
it is quite possible to prevent the further exten- 
sion of direct damage, and to arrest completely 
the extension of indirect damage in the future. 
The large rivers, they hold, can be made better 
than they ever were, by proper treatment; but 
it must be systematic and continued. Whether, 
therefore, you acquiesce in the conclusions of 
the State and consulting engineers as to the 
merits of the particular methods which they 
recommend, or whether you conclude that some 
other plan would be preferable, I trust it may 
appear as clear to you as it does to me that the 
question is one which the State must undertake 
to deal with promptly, resolutely and intelli- 
gently. George C. Perkins. 

Sheldon's Dairy Farming. — Prof. Sheldon's 
work on dairy farming (published in parts by 
Cassell, Petter, Galpin & Co., of London and 
New York), is proceeding regularly and main- 
taining a high degree of merit for comprehen- 
siveness, coupled with a praiseworthy attention 
to practical details. The last two parts, 17 and 
18, are chiefly occupied with descriptions of the 
dairy industry in the United States, and a very 
good general outline is given of Pacific coast 
dairying. There have been some quite recent 
developments in California dairying and some 
distinctive matters of practice, which have es- 
caped notice; but there has probably never been 
a branch of American industry so well handled 
in an English book as American dairying is in 
Prof. Sheldon's "Dairy Farming." His work 
will doubtless long be the standard authority 
on dairying in English speaking countries. 

Vick's Floral Guide. — This well-known 
publication takes on new beauties in its issue 
for 1881. Its ornamentation is rich and in ex- 
cellent taste. It contains as a "frontispiece an 
excellent portrait of Mr. Vick, which will be 
hailed with pleasure by the thousands who 
grow his flowers in this State. It has also a 
picture of Vick's new seed house, a capacious 
four-story building erected in 1880. And in 
addition to these matters, it contains many use- 
ful hints to flower and vegetable growers, and 
a full list of desirable seeds, bulbs and plants. 
James Vick, Rochester, N. Y , is his full name. 



News in Brief. 

They are having snow in Paris. 
Last year 116 vessels entered the Puget Sound 
district. 

Deer skins sell in Jacksonville, Or., at 45 
cents per lb. 

There are 3,296 more males than females in 
Sonoma county. 

Last year Montana shipped 25,000 lbs. of 
deer-skins and furs. 

Twelve persons were killed by the snow 
slides at Alta, Utah. 

Harriet Beecher Stowe's "Uncle Tom" is 
lecturing in Chicago. 

A serious riot occurred at Wigan, England, 
among the striking coal miners. 

Forty-eight thousand salmon was the 
catch from Rogue river for the cannery last 
season. 

Justice Swayne has informed his associates 
that he will resign and go on the retired list, 
shortly. 

The pacification of Cuba is now complete, ac- 
cording to an announcement made in the Spanish 
Deputies. 

The miners of Globe, Arizona, have organ- 
ized an association to establish a mining bureau 
in Tucson. 

It is rumored the British troops made two 
sorties from Peterro and were both times re- 
pulsed by the Boers. 

They are having very severe storms along 
the English coast. The weather is the worst 
experienced in 20 years. 

Supplementary municipal elections in 
France, as far as known, generally results in the 
success of the Moderate Republicans. 

The Naval Appropriation bill has been agreed 
to by the committee. It appropriates $14,461,- 
037, an increase over last year of $55,000. 

Howes' bill to provide for ex-Presidents, 
proposes to pay them annually one quar- 
ter of the amount of salary paid while in of- 
fice. 

Several deaths from scarlet fever have oc- 
curred in Dallas, Or. , and the disease has been 
so sudden in its spread that a panic has en- 
sued. 

At Yreka, during the recent storm, over 10 
inches of rain fell in 70 hours, and great 
damage was caused by high water in that re- 
gion. 

A collision between a ship and steamer off 
the English coast resulted in the sinking 
of the former and the drowning of 9 per- 
sons. 

The Nevada Legislature has passed a 
bill allowing gambling up stairs or down in 
cities with a voting population of less than 
2,000. 

The Hussars have moved into the district in 
Lancashire, where the coal miners are on a 
strike, in order to be in readiness in any emer- 
gency. 

There is only a stretch of 30 miles of staging 
now between the terminus of the Southern 
Pacific and Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe 
railways. 

The stages between the termini of the 
Southern Pacific railroad and the Atchison, To- 
peka and Santa Fe railroad now run under mili- 
tary escort. 

Three temples are being built in Utah by 
the Mormons — one at Salt Lake, one at Logan 
and one at Manti. Their costs will aggregate 
many millions. 

The distress in county Clare is worse than 
last year. The Lord Lieutenant has ordered a 
presentment to the Court of Sessions for the 
organization of relief works. 

The sum of 50,000 marks has been subscribed 
toward founding an anti-Jewish newspaper, 
the majority of the Berlin journals being de- 
cidedly against the anti-Semitic movement. 

A band of Indians, in the State of Chihuahua, 
Mexico, December 23d, killed four men, two 
women and a child, and afterwards murdered 
four shepherds and wounded several others. 

In Madrid, Spain, there has been terrible 
damage by the gales. Telegraphic and railroad 
communication is interrupted, steamers delayed, 
Castelo mines flooded, and several wrecks are 
reported. 

Secretary Evarts reveals the fact that 
Blaine will be the next Secretary of State, by 
the statement made in diplomatic documents 
that Blaine will carry on the correspondence 
hereafter. 

About 1,900 New York piano and furniture 
makers and carvers are on a strike, in conse- 
quence of a decision of the employers to reduce 
wages and make the day's work ten, instead of 
eight hours. 

There has been in circulation during the last 
week at Washington, Alameda county, a peti- 
tion to the Legislature for a "Local Option" 
law. A large number of signers were obtained. 
The movement was initiated by the Grand Lodge 
of Good Templars. 

In Anaheim and other places the citizens are 
signing petitions to congress to revoke the act 
granting to the railroad company the lands 
in the Mussel Slough district. The requests 
are based upon the claim that the com- 
pany has failed to comply with the terms of the 
act. 

On the evening of the 14th a stage was at- 
tacked eight miles east of Fort Cummings by a 
band of 34 supposed Indians. The passengers 
were robbed, and it is reported that four of 
them were killed. The mail bags were carried 
off. United States troops are pursuing them. 
It is rumored that the robbers are disguised 
whites, 



54 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



[January 22, 1881. 




A Cashmere Suit 

O, softest Cashmere, since thou art the fashion 

Tell mo thy story, as we sit to-day; 
Came thou from Tartar steppes, or plains Circassian 

Or guardian hills of mystical Cathay I 
Australian " walks," or Zulu's savage strand 
Or broomy braes of lovely Westmoreland ? 

So soft and delicate, that English fairies 
Might wear thy fleecy folds. Thou mayhap came 

From the green pampas around Buenos Ayres, 
Or mountains where fierce Affghansguard their fame. 

Not Jason's fleece had tale more wild and strange 

Than thou could tell of travel and of change. 

Of lonely watches and of patient labor. 
Of peaceful shepherds underneath green trees, 

Of flocks kept only by the gun and saber, 
Of wearv journeys over pathless seas, 

Of giants made of cranks and wheels and bands, 

And wondrous dyes from far-off tropic lands. 

Of cunning hands that wove in strange devices 
Endless reliefs and borders, fold on fold; 

Until thy web with many a charm entices 
The smile of beauty and the meed of gold. 

Yet, marvelous fleece, forget each memory 

In the still fairer ones that yet shall be. 

When young Jeannette, with soft, persuasive fingers 
Foldetb thy beauty o'er her gentle heart; 

For love around the maiden ever lingers, 
And all sweet things in her have share and part. 

Then thy strange fate shall find its noblest place, 

Blent with fond human hopes and human grace. 



The Wife's Wages. 

" Well, Nettie, what do you want? said Mr. 
Jarvis to his wife, who stood looking rather 
anxiously at him after he had paid the factory 
hand 8 their week's wages. 

"Why, Donald," said she, "I thought as I 
had worked for you all the week, I would come 
for my wages too. You pay .Tane two dollars 
a week, surely I earn that, and I would like 
very much to have it as my own." 

"l'shaw, Nettie, how ridiculously you talk ! 
You know that all I have belongs to you aud 
the children — and don't I furnish the house and 
everything ? What under the sun would you 
do with the money if you had it?" 

"I know, Donald, that you buy the necessa- 
ries for us all, and I am willing that you should 
do so still, but I should like a little money for 
my very own. We have been married fifteen 
years, and in all that time 1 do not seemed to 
have earned a dollar. As far as money is con- 
cerned I might as well be a slave. I can not 
buy a quart of berries nor a book, without ask- 
ing you for the money, and I should like to be 
a little more independent." 

Mr. Jarvis, proprietor of Jarvis Mills, worth 
hundreds of thousands of dollars, laughed 
derisively. 

" You're a fine one to talk of independence," 
he said. "If you should start out to make 
your own living, you'd fetch up in the poor- 
house soon enough, for what could you do to 
earn a living? The girls in the factory know 
how to do their work, and they earn their 
wages. When I have paid them my duty is 
done ; but I have to board and clothe you, and 
to take care of you when you are sick. If I 
had to do that for the girls, they would have 
precious little money left, I can tell you." 

"Donald, I gave up a good trade when I 
married you. For five years I had supported 
myself by it, and many a time since have I 
envied myself the purse of those days. As for 
my not earning anything, now I leave it to you 
to say whether it would be possible to hire 
another to take my place ; and how much it 
would cost you to go without me a year ? I 
know the girls have but little left after paying 
their expenses, but they enjoy that little so 
much. Allie Watson supports herself and 
mother with her wages, and they both dress 
better than I do. Jennie Hart is helping her 
father pay off the mortgage on his farm, and 
she is so happy that she can do so. Even Jane, 
the kitchen girl, has more freedom than I, for 
out of her own money she is laying by presents 
for her relatives, and will send them Christmas, 
as much to her own pleasure as theiis. Yester- 
day an Indian woman was at the house with 
such handsome bead work to sell, and, altho' I 
wanted some money so much, I had not a dol- 
lar. I felt like crying when Jane brought in 
her week's wages and brought half a dozen 
articles that I wanted so much. You often say 
that all you have is mine, but five dollars 
would have given me more pleasure yesterday 
than your hundreds of thousands of dollars 
worth of property did." 

" No doubt of that, Mrs. Jarvis. You have 
no idea of the value of money, and would have 
enjoyed buying a lot of bead trash that wouldn't 
be worth a cent to anybody. Jane needs a 
guardian if she fools away her money like that. 
She will be in the county house yet if she don't 
look out. It's lucky that men do hold the 
money, for there's not one woman in a hundred 
who knows how to use it." 

" For shame, Donald Jarvis 1 Y'ou know 
better ! Look at Jerry and Milly Craig will 
you, and say that he makes the best use of his 
money. She is at home with her parents every 
night, making her wages go as far as possible 



toward making them comfortable, while he is 
carousing in the village, wasting his time and 
money, and making a brute of himself besides. 
And why does Mrs. Satron come to receive her 
husband's wages herself ? Simply because he 
can not get by the saloon with money in his 
pocket, and if she did not get the money they 
would all go hungry to bee 1 the day after his 
wages are paid. And I believe that every 
woman who earns money here spends it as 
wisely as the average of men, and I have yet to 
hear of one of them bring in debt." 

Mr. Jarvis knew that he could not gainsay a 
word his wife had Baid, for they were all true 
Luckily he thought of Jane. 

"Well, how much do you suppose Jane will 
have left when New Year comes? If she should 
get sick how long could she pay for such help as 
you have ?" 

"It is not likely she will lay up many dollars 
out of a hundred a year; but she is laying up 
something better, I think. Last winter she 
sent her mother a warm shawl and a pair 
of shoes, and to her brother and sister 
money ^to buy new school books and the 
warm, loving letters they send her do her 
more good than twice the amount of money in 
the bank would. This year she is laying by a 
number of useful and pretty things for 
them, and if any misfortune should happen 
to Jane they would only be too glad to help 
her. " 

"Well who do you suppose would help you 
if you needed help ?" said Mr. Jarvis, for want 
of a better question. Mrs. Jarvis eyes sparkled 
angrily as she answered: 

"Nobody. If you should loose your property 
to-day I should be a beggar, without a claim on 
any one for help. You have always held your 
purse strings so tightly that it has been hard 
enough to ask for my own necessities, leaving 
others out altogether. Many a time a dollar or 
two would have enabled me to do some poor 
man or woman untold good, but altho' you have 
always said that all your property was mine, 
I never could and cannot now command a dol 
lar of it. " 

"Lucky you couldo't; if you wanted to spend 
it on beggars " 

"Donald you know that I would spend money 
wisely as you do. Who was it that only 
last week gave a poor, lame beggar five dollars 
to pay his fare to Burton, and then saw him 
throw his crutches aside and make for the near 
est saloon ? Your wife could do no worse if 
trusted with a few dollars. You say that the 
money is all mine, yet you spend it as you 
please, while I cannot 'spend a dollar without 
asking you for it and telling you what I want 
it for. Any beggar can get it in the same way? 
Christmas you bought presents for us and ex- 
pected us to be very grateful for them. A 
shawl for me of the very color that I cannot 
wear, a set of furs for Lucy that she did not 
need, a drum for Robin that has been a nui- 
sance ever since, and a lot of worthless toys that 
were all broken up in a week. There were 
$40 or i?50 of my money jusc the same as 
thrown away, yet when I ask you to trust me 
with two or three dollars a week you cannot 
imagine what use I have for it, and fear it will 
be wasted. 

"Well," snapped the proprietor. "I guess 
is my own money and 1 can spend it as I 
please. I guess you'll know it, too, when you 
get another present." 

"Oh, it's your money, then? I understood 
you to say it was all mine, and intended to 
protest against your spending it so foolishly. 

it is your own, of course you have a right 
to spend it as you please ; but it seems to me 
that a woman who left parents, brothers and 
sisters, and all her friends, to make a home for 
ou among strangers, a woman who has given 
her whole life to you for 15 years, might be 
looked upon with as much favor as you give to 
beggars, who are very likely to be impostors. 
' know that you seldom turn them off without 
help. Perhaps I might be more successful if I 
ppealed to you as a beggar. I might say, kind 
sir, please allow me out of your means a small 
pittance for my comfort. It is true I have 
enough to eat and do not suffer for clothing, 
but altho' I work for my master from morning 
till night, and if his children happen to be sick 
om morning until night again; yet he does not 
pay me as much as he does his cook, and I am 
often greatly distressed for want of a trifling 
sum which he would not mind giving to a per- 
fect stranger. The other day while he was 
from home, I had to go to the next station to 
see a dear friend who was ill, and not having a 
dollar of my own, I was obliged to borrow the 
money from his cook. I was so mortified! And 
not long since the berry woman came with such 
nice berries to sell, and my little girl, who was 
not well, wanted some very badly, but I had 
not even five cents to pay for a handful for 
her. Yesterday a friend came to me to assist 
in a work of charity. It was a worthy object, 
and I longed so much to give her a little money 
for so good a purpose, but tho' the wife of a 
rich man I had no money. Of course, I might 
ask my husband for money, and if I told him 
all about what I wanted with it, and he ap- 
proved of my purpose, and was in a good humor, 
he would give it to me; but, sir, it is terribly 
slavish to have to do so, even if I could run to 
him every time I wanted anything. People say 
I am a fortunate woman because my husband is 
rich; but I often envy the factory girls their 
ability to earn and spend their own money. 
And sometimes I get so wild thinking about 
my helplessness, that if it was not for my chil- 
dren, I think I should drop into the river and 
end it all," 



"Nettie! Nettie Jarvis! What are you say 
ing?" cried the startled husband at last, for the 
far-away look in her eyes as if she did not Bee 
him, but was looking to some higher power to 
help her, touched his pride if it did not his 
heart, for he had a good deal of pride in a sel 
fish sort of way. He was proud to be able to 
support his family as well as he did. He was 
proud to think he did it himself. He was 
proud that when his children needed new shoes 
he could tell his wife to take them to Crispin': 
and get what they needed. He did it with 
flourish. He was not one of the stingy kind — 
he liked to spend money; and when Nettie, wh< 
was once the most spirited young lady of his 
acquaintance, came meekly to him for a dress or 
cloak, he was sometimes tempted to refuse her 
money just to show her how helpless she was 
without him. Yes, he was proud of his family 
and wanted them to feel how much they de 
pended upon him. He would have felt aggra 
vated if any one had left his wife a legacy, thus 
allowing her to be independent of his purse, 
The idea of her earning money as the other 
work-folks did, never entered his mind. He 
"supported her," that was bis idea of their re 
lations. He never had happened to think that 
it was very good of her to take his money and 
spend it for the good of himself and his chil 
dren. He never had thought that any other 
woman would have wanted big pay for doing 
it. He had even thought himself very gener- 
ous for allowing her money to get things to 
make the family comfortable. Things began to 
look differently to him just now. Could it be 
that he was not generous — not even just — to 
his wife ? Had he paid her so poorly that her 
15 years of faithful labor for him that if she had 
been obliged to begin the world for herself that 
day, it would have been as a penniless woman, 
notwithstanding the houses, the lands and mills 
that he had bo often told her were all hers; for 
he knew, as every one else did, that not one 
dollar of all he had would the law allow her to 
call her own. 

How fast he thought, standing there at the 
office window looking down at the little houses 
where the mill hands lived. Could it be possi- 
ble that his wife envied them anything? Could 
it be that he was not as good a man as he 
thought? He had felt deeply the wrongs of the 
slaves, whose labors had been appropriated by 
their masters, and when a negro who had 
worked 20 years for his master before the eman- 
cipation had freed him, came to Jarvis mill 
friendless and penniless, the heart of the pro 
prietor swelled with indignation at such injust 
ice. He was eloquent on the subject, at home 
and abroad, and wondered how any one could 
be so cruel and selfish as to commit such an 
outrage against justice. He had called him 
robber many a time, but now Donald Jarvis 
looked to himself very much like the old slave- 
holders. Massa Brown had taken the proceeds 
of Cuffee's labor for his own without even a 
'thank you" for it. True, when Cuffee ate 
he had given him food, when he was sick he 
had given him medicine, and he had clothed 
him too, just as he himself thought best. Mr. 
Jarvis had married a loving, conscientious wo- 
man, and for 15 years had appropriated her la- 
bors. Her recompense had been food and 
clothes, such as he thought best for her. A lit- 
tle better than Cuffee's perhaps, but the simi- 
larity of the cases did not please him. He 
had expected his wife to be very grateful for 
what he had done for her, but now he wondered 
that she had not rebelled long ago. Had his 
life been a mistake ? Had his wife no more 
money or liberty than Cuffee had in bondage? 
Was Donald Jarvis no better than Massa 
Brown ? 

His brain seemed to be in a muddle, and he 
looked so strange that his wife, anxious to 
break the spell, took his arm, saying, "Let us 
go home, dear. The tea must be waiting for 
us." He took off his bat in a dreamy way and 
they walked borne in silence. The children 
ran joyously to meet them. The yard was so 
fresh and green and the flowers so many and 
bright that he wondered he had never thanked 
Nettie for them all. Hitherto he had looked 
upon them as his; but now, he felt that his in- 
terest in them was only a few dollars, that 
would not have amounted to anything without 
his wife's care. His children were tidy and 
sweet, and everything around and in the house 
had that cheery look that rested him so after 
the hard, dull day at the mill. They sat again 
at the table which had been a source of comfort 
to him so many years, and he wondered bow he 
could have enjoyed it so long without even 
thanking the woman who had provided it. 
True, she had used his money in bringing it all 
about, but how else could his money be of use 
to him? Who else could have turned it into 
just what he needed day after day for jrears? 
And he began to have an undefined feeling 
that it took more than money to make a home. 
He glanced at his wife's face as he buttered his 
last slice of bread. It was not that of a fair, 
rosy bride whom he had brought to the mill 
years before; but at that moment he realized 
that it was tar dearer to him, for he knew that 
she had given the bloom and freshness of her 
youth to make his home what it was. 

And a new thought came to him. "Who 
was comforting her now when she had so much 
care?" Was not that what he had promised to 
do when he brought her from her old home? 
He sighed as he thought how far he had drifted 
from her while holding her in a bondage equal 
to Cuffee's. Nay, he felt that her claims were 
far more binding than any which had ever held 
the negro, and that his obligations to her were 
■o much the greater. 



Something called the children ont doors, and 
Mr. Jarvis took his easy chair. His wife came 
and stood beside him. "I fear you are not 
well, Donald, or you are displeased with me?" 

He drew her into his arms and told her how 
her words had shown him what manner of man 
he was, and there were words spoken that need 
not be written, but from that day forth a differ- 
ent man was the proprietor of the Jarvis mills, 
and there was a brighter light in Mrs. Jarvis' 
eyes, for at last she had something of her own, 
nor has she regretted that she "applied for 
wages. '' 

" Hew to the Line, Let the Chips Fall 
Where They May." 

(Written for the Rural Prsbs by Ji-lia H. QooDMtrr.) 

Within this brief maxim of the sturdy lum- 
berman, lies many a gem of truth which rightly 
pondered will convey to the mind a most use- 
ful lesson. 

Notice the wood-man as he prepares his ma- 
terial for use, does he first begin to hew, taking 
a piece here and a piece there as inclination may 
suggest? Ah, no, before the material is touched 
the plan is carefully laid out, each detail con- 
sidered, the necessary proportions accurately 
ascertained, and at last, with care, is drawn the 
line by which it is to be hewn. It is impossi- 
ble for the wood-carver to hew successfully 
without a line, and it is absolutely essential 
that he be guided by that line, or in the end 
the result of his labor will be but an irregular 
useless block — his time and his material both 
wasted. So, with ub, we are all bewera, com- 
pelled to form our characters in life, and, to a 
great extent, we shape them for success or 
woe. 

Ere we begin to hew we must carefully mark 
out a line and ever be guided by that line, or 
every stroke of the axe will but aid in bringing 
about our own disastrous, nay disgraceful, fail- 
ure. 

That line of life, and the only one which can 
bring true success must be firm principle, 
founded on a sense of our duty toward God, 
and of honor, justice and right toward our fel- 
low beings, without this our lives are worse 
than worthless. While it is a fact that there are 
many who ever, 

"With smooth dissimulation skilled to grace, 
A demon's purpose with an angel's face," 

Lay aside all true honor and nobility, merely to 
enable them the more deeply to injure the inno- 
cent and true; who ruthlessly tread upon the 
most sacred rights of others, and smiling care 
not; yet seemingly they are blest, all around 
them appears fair. But is it so ? No. They 
do not hew to the line of right, and tho' for a 
while success may seem to be theirs, sooner or 
later retribution will come; it is God's law and it 
cannot be evaded. 

Give a man the wealth of Golconda, the 
strength of a Hercules, the beauty of an Ap- 
pollo, the genius of a Shakespeare, the clear 
reasoning power of a Bacon or a Newton and 
the eloquence of a Demosthenes, yet if he be 
void of true principle and hews not to the line 
of right, of truth, he is but a curse to himself 
and to others. His wealth, beauty, strength, 
genius, intellect and eloquence are but so many 
instruments of evil in his hands; they render 
him only the more powerful (for there is in the 
gifts a fearful power for untold good or sin im- 
measurable,) and in the end deeds traced upon 
the pages of his life will show a woeful record 
f ruin. 

Look for the moment at the man "born to 
itles, riches and fame," who yet, by his own 
mighty genius, 

Rose and soared untrodden heights and seemed at home, 
Where angels bashful lookod. 

Who through learning and through fancy took 
His flight sublime and on the loftiest top 
Of fame's high mountain sat." 

Yet it cannot be denied that, in a sense, his 
fe was a terrible failure, still productive of 
evil incalculable. Had that genius been but 
joined to a sincere love of truth, of goodness, 
hat honor he might have given to himself, 
what glory to his creator ! 

How much anxiety would be spared us if we 
would only mark out duty as the line of our 
lives, and carefully, constantly, and with de- 
termination hew to that line, never pausing to 
watch and grieve over the falling of the chips 
upon some false pleasure or idol of our own 
making. While it is true that in all lives come 
moments when we discover that, 



"Life at best is quickly done, 
That hopes fulfilled and wishes won, 

Are d«arly got. 
And shadows chased in headlong hasto 
Delight us not.'' 

But even then we are spared sorrows, very 
crown of sorrow, remorse, if in looking back- 
ward we can feel that we have sincerely endeav- 
ored to hew to the line of duty, in all guided 
and prompted by an humble love of Him, who 
can and does make of our severest trials, our 
greatest, brightest blessings. 
San Bernardino. 

1881. — That is a very peculiar number. The 
sum ot its digits is 9x9. It is divisible by 9 
without a remainder. This remaining quotient 
consists of two simple factors, 11 and 19. It 
reads just alike both ways. If 18 be set nnder 
81 and the two added, the sum is 99. If the 18 
be reversed and then added to 81, the sum ia 
162, the sum of the digits of which is 9. It the 
81 be reversed and added to 18, the sum is 36, 
which is also divisible by 9, and the sum of its 
digits is also 9. 



January 22, 1881.] 



Til PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



55 



Chatf. 

Are all the victuals mixed when the sailor3 
have a mess ? 

A kangaroo is a curious chap; when it's wide 
awake it's leaping. 

Never kick a man when he's down unless 
you're sure he can't get up. 

Why didn't a dog want a place in the ark ? 
Because he had a bark of his own. 

Those that have tried it say that kiss- 
ing is like a sewing machine, because it seams 
good. 

The telegraph tells us "the Kurds have 
fallen back," which, perhaps, indicates that the 
whey is clear. 

The tramp question: "Madam, will you 
please give me some old clothes ? I am so 
hungry I don't know where I shall sleep to- 
night." 

A student at a veterinary college on being 
asked, "If a broken- winded horse was brought 
to you to cure, what would you advise ?" very 
promptly replied, "To sell him as soon as pos- 
sible." 

In a recent article on a fair in his locality, 
the editor of a western paper says a brother edi- 
tor took a valuable premium, but an unkind po- 
licemen made him put it right back where he 
took it from. 

A Connecticut farmer, who had set out 
an elaborate scarecrow in his strawberry patch, 
was disgusted to find that a pair of robins had 
built their nest and were raising their young 
under its hat. 

A clerk in one of our Marketstreet stores who 
is somewhat smarter than his employer, was 
heard to remark the other,'day : "Thank fortune, 
the boss has stopped advertising for the season. 
Now we will have a rest. 

"Oh !" said a poor sufferer to a dentist, "that's 
the second wrong tooth you've pulled out!" 
"Very sorry, sir," said the blundering op- 
erator; "but there were only three when I 
began; I am sure to be right the next 
time." 

A lady was praising the ability of her friend's 
husband and asked how in the world she had 
ever brought him to such perfection, whereupon 
her friend cheerfully answered that she did it 
with a croquet mallet. Their hatohe t was bor- 
rowed. 

"My dear, what shall we name our baby ?" 
said Mr. Smith, the other day. "Why, huz 
I've settled on Peter." "Peter ! I never knew 
a man with the simple name of Peter who could 
earn his salt I" "Well, then [call him Salt 
Peter." 



What Women Invent. — Some one who has 
taken the trouble to count the patents issued to 
women finds that the number for the year end- 
ing July, 1880, was 70, and 10 more than the 
average. Most of the inventions of women 
have to do with household appliance. Among 
the past year's are a jar lifter, a bag holder, a 
pillow-sham holder, a dress-protector, two dust 
pans, a washing machine, a Muting iron, a dress 
chart, a fish boner, a sleeve adjuster, a lap ta- 
ble, a sewing machine treadle, a wash basin, an 
iron heater, sad irons, a garment stiffener, a 
folding chair, a wardrobe bed, a weather strip, 
a churn, an invalid's bed, a strainer, a milk 
cooler, a sofa bed, a dipper, a paper dish, and a 
plaiting device. 



The SoFr Answer. — Not long ago I heard a 
little boy calling out in a loud, angry tone to 
his sister, a little older, "Let my book alone!" 
Very softly and pleasantly she replied, "I will, 
I was going to put it on the shelf, where it 
would not get soiled." Walter (that was the 
little boy's name) sat still for a long time and 
said not a word. But when at last he did speak, 
his voice was soft and kind as that of his sister. 
The words of the wise man came immediately 
to my mind — "A soft answer turneth away 
wrath" — and I could not help thinking, if all 
the harshness of manner and angry words were 
only met by gentleness and kindness, how uiany 
who at first seem harsh and repulsive would 
soon become kind and companionable. 



Women's Work. — I have often wished that a 
corner of your paper was devoted to the farmers' 
wives, and therefore read with pleasure the let- 
ter from Mrs. W. Hatcher. The similarity of 
our accounts has tempted me to reply. My ac- 
count for the year show $81.45 received for eggs 
and $110.65 for poultry. But I did not have 
charge of the butter. I think a neighbor of 
mine has done much better than I, for she has 
taken in $235 for butter, eggs and poultry, and 
in addition has had the sole charge of the "house 
and four children, all under seven, — Eunice, in 
Yolo Democrat. 



Joy in Adversity.— All birds, when they 
are caught and put in a cage, fly wildly up and 
down, and beat themselves against their little 
prison, but within two or three days sit quietly 
upon their perch, and sing their usual melody. 
So it fares with us, when God first .brings us 
into strait; we wildly flutter up and down, beat 
and tire ourselves with striving to get free, but 
at length custom and experience will make our 
narrow confinement spacious enough for us, and 
though our feet should be in the stocks, yet 
shall we, with the apostles, be enabled even 
there to sing praise unto God. — Hopkins. 



The Electric Light in Long Tunnels.— It 
is proposed to light the tunnel of St. Gothard, 
nearly nine miles in length, by electric lamps. 



Y©dffq p@Lks 7 CoLlfpEK. 



• Gathering the Deacon's Chestnuts. 

A party of adventurous lads, myself among 
the number, were out for a glorious holiday. 
Each had his canvas bag across his shoulder, 
and we stole along the stone wall yonder and 
entered the woods beneath that group of chest- 
nuts. Two of us acted as outposts on picket 
guard, and another, young Teddy Shoopegg by 
name, the best climber in the village, did the 
shaking. There were five busy pairs of hands 
beneath these trees, I can tell you, for each one 
of us fully realized the necessity of making the 
most of his time, not knowing how soon the 
warning cry from our outposts might put us to 
headlong flight, for the alarm, "Turner's com- 
ing 1" was enough to lift the hair of any boy in 
town. 

But luck seemed to favor us on that day. We 
"cleaned out" six big chestnut trees, and then 
turned our attention to the hickories. There 
was a splendid tall shagbark close by, with 
branches fairly loaded with the white nuts in 
their open shucks. J They were all ready to drop, 
and when the shaking once commenced the nuts 
came down like a shower of hail, bounding from 
the rocks, rattling among the dry leaves and 
keeping up a clatter all around. We scrambled 
on all fours and gathered them by quarts and 
quart?. There was no need of poking over the 
leaves for them, the ground was covered by 
their bleached shells, all in plain sight. While 
busily engaged, we noticed an ominous lull 
among the branches overhead. 

"Sst ! 'sst 1" whispered Shoopegg up above ; 
"I see old Turner on his white horse down the 
road yonder." 

"Coming this way ?" also in a whisper from 
below. 

"I dunno, yit, but I jest guess you'd better 
be gittin' ready to leg it, fer he's hitchin' his 
old nag't the side o' the road. Yis, sir, I 
bleeve he's a-cummin'. Shoopegg, you'd better 
be gittin' aout o' this," and he commenced to 
drop haphazard from his lofty perch. In a 
moment, however, he seemed to change his 
mind, and paused, once more upon the watch. 
"Say, fellers," he again broke in, as we were 
preparing for a retreat, he's gone off to'rd the 
cedars; he ain't cummin' this way at all." So 
he again ascended into the tree-top, and finished 
bis shaking in peace, and we our picking also. 
There was still another tree, with elegant large 
nuts, that we had all agreed to "finish up on." 
It would not do to leave it. They were the 
largest and thinnest shelled nuts in town, and 
there were over a bushel in sight on the branch 
tips. Shoopegg was up among them in two 
minutes, and they were showered down in tor- 
rents as before. And what splendid, perfect 
nuts they were! We bagged them with eager 
hands, picked the ground all clean, and with 
jolly chuckles at our luck, were just about 
thinking of starting for home with our well- 
rounded sacks, when a change came over the 
spirit of our dreams. There was a suspicious 
noise in the shrubbery, near by, and in a mo- 
ment more we heard our doom. 

"Jest yeu look eeah, you boys," exclaimed a 
high-pitched voice from the neighboring shrub- 
bery, accompanied by the form of Deacon Tur- 
ner, approaching at a brisk pace, hardly 30 ft. 
away. "Don't you think yeu've got jest abaout 
enuff o' them nuts?" 

Of course a wild panic ensued, in which we 
made for the bags and dear life, but Turner 
was ready and prepared for the emergency, and 
raising a huge old shotgun, he leveled it, and 
yelled: "Don't any on ye stir nor move, or by 
Christopher, I'll blow the heads clean off'n the 
hull pile on ye. I'd shoot ye quicker'n light- 
nin'." 

And we believed him, for his aim was true, and 
his whole expression was not that of a man who 
was trifling. I never shall forget the uncom- 
fortable sensation that I experienced as I looked 
into the muzzle of that double-barreled shot- 
gun, and saw both hammers fully raised, too. 
And I can see now the squint and the glaring 
eyes that glanced along those barrels. There 
was a wonderful persuasive power lurking in 
those horizontal tubes; so I hastened to inform 
the deacon that we were "not going to 
run." 

"Wa'al," he drawled, "it looked a leetle thet 
way, I thort, a spell ago;" and he still kept 
us in the field of his weapon, till at length I ex- 
claimed, in desperation: 

"Point that gun in some other way, will 
you ?" 

"Wa'al, no! I'm not fer pintin' itenny whar 

* else jest yet — not until you've sot them ar bags 
down agin, just whar ye got 'em, every one on 
ye." The bags were speedly replaced, and he 
slowly lowered his gun. 

"Wa'al now," he continued, as he came up 
in our midst, "this is putty biziness, ain't it ? 
"Bin havin' a putty . lively sort o' time teu, I 
sh'd jedge from the look o' these 'ere bags. 
One — two — six on 'em; an' I vaow they must 
be nigh on teu two and a half bushels in every 
pleggy one of 'em. Wa'al, naow," — with his 
peculiar drawl — "look eeah, your're a putty on- 
dustrious lot o' thieves, I'm blest if you 
ain't. " But the deacon did all the talking, for his 
maneuvers were such as to render us speechless. 
"Putty likely place teu cum nutting, ain't it ?" 
Pause. "Putty nice mess o' shellbarks ye got 
thar, I tell ye. Quite a sight o' chestnuts in 
yourn, ain't they. 

There was only one spoken side to this dia- 



logue, but the pauses were eloquent on both 
sides, and we boys kept up a deal of tall think- 
ing as we watched the deacon ; alternate his 
glib remarks by the gradual removal of the bags 
to the foot of a neighboring tree. This done, 
he seated himself upon a rock beside them. 

"Thar," he exclaimed, removing his tall hat 
and wiping his white fringed [forehead with a 
red bandana handkerchief. ' 'I'm much obleeged. 
I've been a- watching on ye gittin' these 'ere nuts 
the hull afternoon. I thort ez haow you might 
like to know it." And then, as though a happy 
thought had struck him, what should he do but 
deliberately spit on his hand and grasp his gun. 
"Look eeah," — a pause in which he cocked 
both barrels — "yeu boys wus powerful anxyis 
to git away from eeah a spell ago. Naow yeu 
kin git ez lively ez you please. I hain't got 
nothin' more fur ye teu deu to-day." And 
bang ! went one of the gun barrels over our 
heads. 

We got, and when once out of gun range 
we paid ths deacon a wealth of those rare com- 
pliments for both eye and ear that always swell 
the boys' vocabulary. — Harper's Magazine. 



Salves and Plasters. 



The tinsmith or plumber who goes through a 
year's work at his trade without a severe cut or 
burn is fortunate, but he considers himself 
equally fortunate if, in the case of a severe in- 
jury, he escapes from the dangers of salves and 
plasters. In regard to their injurious effect up- 
on the skin, Dr. Van der Wrede, whose skill in 
medicine is quite equal to his knowledge of 
science, says: 

"Plastei-3 and salves are more dangerous even 
than oil silk or rubber overshoes, as they are 
usually applied to wounds and sores.and in many 
cases produce more harm than they do good as 
they usually protract the cure, and often pre- 
vent it entirely. The cause is simply that plas- 
ters and salves are mostly waterproof, and there- 
fore interfere with the natural function of the 
skin; if either of them is placed on a sound por- 
tion of the skin, and kept there for a few days 
the skin becomes sore. Their application is often 
the cause of the difficulty in healing wounds. 
Scores of cases have come under our notice 
where our advice to dispense with the use of so- 
called healing salves caused a finger which had 
been sore for months and kept sore by the con- 
tinual application of different kinds of salves, to 
heal rapidly as soon as the use of salves was dis- 
continued. 

"It is the same with plaster; we have seen it 
over and over again, that a cut wound which 
had been covered with a plaster to shut off the 
air, as a foolish prejudice teaches, had a most 
protracted and painful course, while a similar 
wound, simply treated by bringing the edges to- 
gether and covered with a piece of linen to keep 
it clean healed in a few days. This keeping 
clean does not mean to keep off dust and for- 
eign substances, but to clean off the dried blood 
which may cover the cut. It is even often ad- 
visable to put some blood over the edges of the 
wound after they have been brought together 
with a few stitches or narrow cross strips of 
plaster, which, however, must never be allowed 
to cover the wound. It should not be lost 
sight of that the skin is made for contact with 
the air, and that this contact is necessary, not 
only to keep the skin in healthy condition, but 
also when repairs are going on; therefore no 
water-proof plaster should interfere. But blood 
is soluble in water and absorbs air, and it has 
a great healing power; in fact, there is no heal- 
ing salve so efficient as the blood which often 
covers a wound, and which, therefore, must not 
be interfered with, by any means. 

Under a dried crust of the blood repair goes 
on actively, as blood contains all the elements 
required for such repair, and renewal of tissues 
wants the nourishing ingredients which are 
found in the blood. 

From long experience of both methods of 
treatment, we can heartily indorse all that the 
doctor says. We have frequently treated se- 
vere burns by pasting a sheet of white tissue 
paper over them, using pure gum- Arabic freshly 
dissolved in water. The object of having the 
gum fresh was to make sure that it had not 
soured or fermented. Burns which have begun 
to fester from the use of oils or ointments will 
frequently yield at once to such treatment, the 
swelling and inflammation quickly subsiding, 
healing beginning and the pain ceasing. 

Sensible Dressing. — There is a clas s of wo 
men one meets with every day, whose dressing 
is above reproach. They go out to walk, not to 
show their clothes, but to add to their fine stock 
of health. They look as if they could sit a 
horse well, and as if they used often the luxury 
of a bath. They wear thick-soled shoes, with 
low, broad heels, shapely and well-fitting. Their 
walking and church suits are of cloth, plainly 
made, but of exquisite fit. Their gloves and 
bonnet strings are above reproach. The hair, 
well cared for, is prettily waved or curled 
about the forhead, and worn low, to show the 
shape of the head — a style that artists love. 
Unless nature has been very niggardly no false 
hair is allowable. The bonnet is close and very 
becoming, and the face is protected by a veil. 
An ample parasol or umbrella is ready as pro- 
tection against sun and rain. What fault can 
the most censorious man find with a costume 
like this? 



Trying Lard. — Several years ago we were 
very glad to call in the assistance of a near and 
obliging neighbor to help about the "butcher- 
ing," or, more particularly, about taking off the 
lard, and trying it out. We were in the habit 
of soaking it for two or three days, according 
to the old fashion of our great grandmothers. 

But Mrs. B. was an English woman, and 

had learned something in the way of trying out 
lard, that at least was new to us; and I will give 
it for the benefit of others, as it is in the sea- 
son of butchering. She was very careful not 
to have the entrails opened, and thus the fat 
was kept perfectly clean. If by chance an ac- 
cident happened, the opening was immediately 
tied with a bit of twine, all ' 'muss" cleared 
away as quickly as possible, and any particles 
of fat had become soiled, were put in a dish to 
be washed and tried by themselves. The rest 
was put into a kettle and set upon the stove 
over a slow fire. Not one drop of water or a 
pinch of salt was allowed to come in contact 
with the fat. As soon as it began to fry, it was 
stirred from the bottom, set into the stove, and 
allowed to cook as briskly as possible, being oc- 
casionally stirred to keep from burning; when 
done the lard was drained and squeezed from 
the scraps, poured into a jar, and when cold 
covered with a plate or paper and set away. 
"This," she said, "will be just as sweet and 
dry a year from now as it is to-day, if you do 
not happen to use it all up." We have always 
followed her fashion of trying lard, and none 
has ever become rancid or strong. — Cor. Rural 
New Yorker. 



Syrup of Coffee. — This preparation is of 
great use to those who have long journeys to 
make. Take half a pound of the best ground 
coffee, put it into a saucepan containing three 
pints of water, and boil it down to one pint. 
Cool the liquor, put it into another saucepan' 
well scoured, and boil it again. As it boils, add 
white sugar enough to give the consistency of 
syrup. Take it from the fire, and when it is 
eold put it into a bottle, and seal. When 
traveling, if you wish for a cup of good coffee, 
you have only to put a tablespoonful of the 
syrup into an ordinary cup, then pour boiling 
water upon it, and it is ready for use. If desired 
strong add another tablespoonful. 

Rice, Malta Fashion. — Wash a pound of 
good rice in several waters ; plunge it into boil- 
ing water, mixed up with the juice of a few 
lemons ; when cooked well, drain it on a sieve ; 
and without refreshing, put it into a kitchen 
basin, moisten with the juice of four oranges, 
a glassful of maraschino, a little kirschwasser, 
and a little orange-syrup ; leave it thus till the 
rice is nearly cold, stirring it from time to time. 
Drain the rice on a colander ; then fill with it a 
border-mold with concave bottom ; fill like- 
wise a small dome-shaped mold. Set these 
molds on the ice, and leave them for two 
hours. 

Potato Cheese. — In Saxony the farmers 
manufacture very good cheese from small par- 
cels of milk by the addition of potatoes. The 
potatoes are cooked, then washed, and to 8 lbs. 
of potatoes, two quarts of thick, sour milk are 
added. Salt and knead like bread dough. In 
five days it receives another kneading, and is 
separated into balls of 4 lbs. each, pressed with 
the hands as compactly as possible into small 
baskets, and dried in summer in the shade and 
in winter by the fire. When dry, the cheese 
is put into tin cans, sealed up, and set by for 
use in a cool, dry place. 

Salmon and Potatoes. — I make a very nice 
breakfast dish as follows: I take a can of Cali- 
fornia salmon and drain it; I boil half a dozen 
potatoes and mash them thoroughly, mix sal- 
mon and potatoes all together with a little salt, 
and place the mixture in a baking dish, scoring 
it nicely with a knife; to the juice of the fish I 
add a little chopped parsley, a very little mace, 
and a small lump of butter, which I pour over 
the top; bake it quickly until it is a golden 
brown; serve hot. — Cultivator. 



Eggs, Point Shirley Style. — Separate the 
yolks and whites of three eggs. Beat the yolks 
two minutes; then add three tablespoons of 
milk and one-half teaspoon of salt; beat a lit- 
tle more. Melt half a tablespoon of butter in a 
spider; pour in the yolks, and when they 
thicken slightly, pour the whites in without 
beating. Let them be uutil they look like the 
white of a boiled egg, then gently mix them 
with the yolks with a fork. Serve in a hot dish, 
with or without buttered toast underneath. 

Stewed Kidney. — Remove the fat and scald 
the kidney, drain and pour "cold water on it to 
destroy the strong odor. Cut in pieces, season 
with black and red pepper, dust well with flour; 
put in frying-pan, in which a slice of onion has 
browned, a large piece of butter (remove the 
onion), and fry until brown ; then put it into a 
saucepan, entirely cover with hot water and let 
it simmer slowly for several hours. No one 
could desire a better breakfast dish. Add a 
little wine for a supper dish. 

Bismarck Waffles. — Half a lb. of butter 
stirred to a cream, the yolks of five eggs mixed 
with half a lb. of flour, half a pint of milk gradu- 
ally stirred in, and lastly the whites of the eggs 
whipped to a stiff froth and beaten into the but- 
ter. Very rich and delicious. 



56 



THE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS. 



[January 22, 1881. 




DEWEY a» CO., Publishers. 

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Office, 90S Sansome St., N. E. Corner Pine. Si, 

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SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 22, 1881, 
TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



EDITORIALS.— A Quiet Scene on the Columbia; The 
Centrifugal Creamer; Flock Notes, 49. The Week; 
The State Board of Agriculture; The Anli-Oleoiuargarine 
Bill, r6. Our Home Industries; Citrus Fair at Los 
Angeles; The New Masonic Temple, 57. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— A Scene on the Columbia River, 
49 The New Masonic Temple, Oakland, 57- 

CORRESPONDENCE— Los Angeles County Notes; 
Kust-Proof oats from Georgia; More New Wheats, 50. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL.— The Diabrotlcas; The Ameri- 
can Entomologist, 56 

THE DAIRY.— The Merits of Alfalfa, 50. 

SHREP AND WOOL — Sheep Raising in Japan, 50. 

HORTICULTURE. — Horticultural Notes, 60-1. 
Tree Flaming, 51. 

THE VINE x 1 ARD. — Catalogue of European Vines, 
with Synonyms and Brief Descriptions; Phylloxera on 
O.d Vine Roots, 51. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— What the Grange 
Has Done in Michigan ; Temeseal Grange ; Pleasant 
Grove, Sutter Co.; Grangers' Bank Officers, 52. 

AGRICULTURAL MOTES from the various coun- 
ties of California, 52-3. 

NEWS IN BRIEF, on page 53 and other pages. 

MISCELLANEOUS.— Miuiug Debris, 53. 

HOME CIRCLE.— A Cashmere Suit (Poetry); The 
Wife's Wages; "Hew to the Line Let the Ch ps Fall 
Where they May." 64. Chaff; What Women Invent; 
The Soft Answer; Women's Work; Joy in Adversity, 
55. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.-Gathering the 

Deacon's Chestnuts, 55- 
GOOD HEALTH.— Salves and Plasters; Sensible 

Dressing, 66. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.-Trying Lard; Syrup of 
Coffee; Hice, Malta Fashion; Potato Cheese; Salmon 
and Potatoes; Eggs, Point Shirley Style; Stewed Kid- 
ney; Bismarck Waffles, 55. 

Business Announcements. 

Orange Grove Homestead Colony— J. Middleton Jt Son. 
Thoroughbred Poultry— T. D. Morris, Sonoma Cal. 
Trees and Plants— P- J. Keller li Co., Oakland, Oal. 
Plants, Vines, Etc— J. S. Collins, Moorstown, N. J. 
Seeds, Bulbs and Plants— J. L. Childs, Queens, N. Y. 
Flowers— Stores, Harrison & Co., Plainsville, O. 
The Monthly Californian, S F. 
Insurance Agency — Hutchinson & Mann, 8. F. 



The Week 



The sun shines again through rain-washed 
air, and its warmth is priceless in awakening 
vegetation which without it wonld be cut off by 
decay in the over-saturated ground. This last 
rain is looked upon by most northern farmers as 
a work of superrogation on the part of the 
weather bureau, -and yet there is some consola- 
tion in the fact, especially to those in the ex- 
treme north, that the copious rams have fallen 
on an open soil and not on frost-locked fields to 
run hastily away. The excess of water will 
delay work, which is of course a hardship, but 
the warmth with and after the rains is a saving 
clause which should lead discontented minds to 
draw consolation from the reflection that affairs 
might be immeasurably worse. The only hard- 
ship reported is in the local floods in the north- 
ern counties. 

It has been a week of cruel storms in other 
climes than ours. The mountains between us and 
the wintry States have been swept by merciless 
winds and snows, and small towns on the sides 
of the Rocky mountains have been crushed by 
sliding snow and lives lost thereby. It is not 
wonderful in view of these facts that our corre- 
spondents are prone to break out in loud tributes 
to the glories of our genial land, and hail their 
friends to flee their discomforts and live in a 
land where winter's worst is but a passing 
chill and where summer sun-shafts have no 
power to strike. 

And now we are more than fifty millions 
strong. During the last ten years the United 
States has grown in population nearly a million 
to the year, for the official report from the Cen- 
sus of 1S30 announces 50,152,000 people in our 
States and territories. And as we stand at the 
beginning of a new decade, the promise for the 
coming period is greater still, for the growth of 
our population and our progress in all the arts 
and industries and in enlightenment. It is 
certainly a proud moment in the history of 
America, 



The State Board of Agriculture. 

It is plainly taught by the Governor in his 
annual message that the State Board of Agri- 
culture as a branch, as it now is, of the State 
Government, should have the supervision and 
control of all State efforts for the advancement 
of the agricultural interest of California. At 
the meeting under the auspices of the State 
Board in Sacramento, as noted in last week's 
Press, there was a resolution adopted that all 
agricultural matters of a public nature should 
be entrusted to the State Board. In effect, 
then, the matter now stands thus: The highest 
representative of the people of the State makes 
the offer ; the State Board accepts the trust. 
Now will the people deliver over the goods ? 

In theory the proposition is eminently sound. 
There is the State Board of Agriculture: If it 
is not to watch over and promote the agriculture 
of the State, what is it for ? It has the name 
of the interest and of the State. It has 
apartments in the State-house. It was created 
by a law which declares that it shall be thus 
and so. It has, therefore, possession, which is 
nine points, and it has the law itself. Its title 
to the position cannot well be disputed upon 
theoretical grounds. 

According to the parable, there was years ago, 
in Palestine, a fruit tree, whose owner came to 
it year after year at the time for fruit, and 
found nothing but leaves. His merciful assist- 
ant besought the life of the tree still another 
year, until he could dig about it and dung it, in 
the hope that some valuable fruit might yet 
cling to its branches. It was a goodly tree to 
look upon. It was well rooted in the soil. It 
had all the form and semblance of a fruitful 
tree, and it seemed entitled to its favorable posi- 
tion. While the gardener is digging about it 
and dunging it, and while another year's sun- 
shine and rain are falling upon it, let us turn 
our thoughts to another theme. 

There has been for years in this State a State 
Board of Agriculture, which has been chiefly 
noted for the little amount of legitimate agri- 
culture there has been in it. There have been 
large appropriations of State money for groundd 
and buildings, and many of our simple-minded 
statesmen have doubtless plumed themselves 
upon their generosity in giving the public money 
so handsomely for the encouragement of the 
leading producing interest of the State. There 
have been mammoth expositions called agri- 
cultural fairs, which were high carnivals for 
sports, blacklegs and gamblers, and there have 
been drawn together gaping crowds to look upon 
sham fights, ball matches and races in which 
true tests of speed were brought to naught by 
jockeys' tricks. Year after year for many years, 
there was an almost complete subjugation of 
true agricultural interests to interests which no 
State should encourage and no citizen approve. 
And yet it was called agricultural. From end 
to end of the State there has been dissatisfaction 
and protest. Every branch of agricultural pro- 
duction has raised its voice against the paltry 
sum of public money and the insignificant place 
in the schedule which was assigned to it; while 
nearly all the treasure and nearly all the prom- 
inence and consideration were bestowed upon 
contests which, in their best estate, are of little 
value to the real farming interest, and in their 
abuse are a disgrace. Is it any wonder that an 
organization with such a history should find 
people somewhat reserved in their expressions 
of approval, when it proposes to assume charge 
and direction of all agricultural matters of a 
public nature ? 

It must be conceded that during the last two 
years there has been considerable improvement 
in the work of the State Board of Agriculture 
of California. It has shown a decided tendency 
to blossom and bring forth valuable fruit. More 
prominence has been given at the State fair to 
exhibits of true agricultural character, and many 
restrictions, -which formerly discouraged the ex- 
hibitors, have been removed. There has been 
free declaration from the officers of the board 
that they earnestly desired the co-operation of 
the agriculturists, aud their efforts toward this 
end have been met with frank expressions of 
approval from the farmers. 

It was again the fruit season in Palestine, and 
the owner of the probated tree came to gather 
the fruit, and found again nothing but leaves. 
He ordered that the tree should no longer cum- 
ber the ground. 

Inasmuch as the State Board, through its 
managing officers, has shown a disposition to 
better serve the interests whose name it bears, 
we are in favor of promoting its complete re- 

feneration and reform in every way possible, 
f more responsibilities will sharpen its sense of 
duty, let them be given it ; but care should be 
taken not to burden it too heavily until its feet 
are firmly planted in the new course. It must 
live down its history; it must cleanse its reputa- 
tion. It must be a new organization with an 
old name. As it is recognized by the Governor 
and by the law as the custodian of California 
agriculture, it should be continually strengthened 
by the introduction of men whose lives and in- 
terests are thoroughly allied with practical agri- 
culture. It rests largely with the Governor to 
decide the status of the board in the eyes of the 
people. Every leading branch of farming should 
pe represented upon the board by a member who 
is thoroughly conversant with the needs of that 
branch, and has the ability to urge them. Al- 
though the present board has some very good 
men, it does not represent the varied agriculture 
of the State, and therefore entrusting it with 



the supervision of all public acts for agricultural 
benefit is practically wrong, though theoretically 
right when the standing of the organization be- 
fore the law is considered. Therefore, we would 
advise that trusts be bestowed in moderation, 
and that work which is now being well done out- 
side of the board be continued as it is. At the 
same time let the board have a chance for future 
fruitage. Let all bring pressure upon it to bring 
its work nearer to its own ideal, and let each 
vacancy, as it occurs, be filled by a man whom 
the State knows as a representative agricultur- 
ist, and honors as such. 



The Anti-Oleomargarine BilL 

An act to prevent fraud and deception in the 
manufacture and sale of butter and cheese. 

StcTiox I. Whoever manufactures, sells, or offers for 
(ale, or causes the same to be done, any substance pur- 
porting to be butter or cheese, having the semblance of 
butter or cheese, which substance is not made wholly from 
pure cream or milk, unless the same be manufactured un- 
der its true and appropriate name and unless each pack- 
age, roll, or parcel of such substance, and each vessel con- 
taining one or more packages of such substance has dis- 
tinctly and durably painted, stamped or marked thereon 
in English the true and appropriate name of such sub- 
stance, in ordinary bold face capital letters, not less than 
five lines pica, shall be punished as provided in section 
three of this act. 

Skc. 2. Whoever shall sell any such substance as Is 
mentioned in section one of this act, or cause the same to 
be done without having on each package, roll or parcel so 
sold a label attached thereto, on which is plainly and 
legibly printed in English, in Roman letters, the true and 
appropriate name of such substance, shall be punished as 
provided in section three of this act. 

Sac. 3. Whoever shall violate section one or section 
two of this act shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and 
shall be fined in any sum not le s than 110 nor more than 
•500, or imprisonment in the county jail not leu than 10 
nor more than 90 days, or by both such fine and imprison- 
ment, in the discretion of the court; provided, that noth- 
ing in this act shall be construed to prevent the use of 
skimmed milk, salt, rennet, or harmless coloring matter 
in the manufacture of butter or cheese. 

Skc 4 All acts or parts of acts in conflict with the pro- 
visions of this act are hereby repealed. 

Ssc. 6. This act shall take effect on and after its pas- 
sage. 

The above is the bill now before the Legisla- 
ture which is intended to guard dairy producers 
against the introduction of fraudulent butter 
and cheese. We cannot see that it is much im- 
provement upon the law now upon the statute 
book, and in the face of which there has been 
a most vigorous retail trade in oleomargarine 
driven during the last two or three months in 
this city. As a law it is certainly forcible and 
plain in its provisions, but it is nobody's busi- 
ness to enforce it, nor is there any inducement 
for anyone to make it his business; consequent- 
ly, there will be just as much false stuff sold af- 
ter the passage of this bill as before it. There 
might be a movement among dealers in the 
genuine article set in motion against the false, 
but this style of agitation soon dies away. In 
New York city there was such a movement in 
the trade some months ago, but it died away 
like a wave on the sea shore; and now the 
American Dairyman, a New York paper, wishes 
to know whether these lately indignant mer- 
chants have all quieted down and gone to trad- 
ing in "oleo," or what is the reason they have 
deserted their standard. Occasionally the edi- 
tor of the Dairyman sees a tub branded "oleo- 
margarine," and he italicises the word as though 
there was still a great preponderance of instan- 
ces in which it is not so branded. Merchants 
generally have too much to do to follow the cir- 
cuitous path of the law in prosecuting a case of 
adulteration, and to hunt up proof of the truth 
of what they believe. It is quicker and easier 
to gain part of the benefits of trading in the 
fraud than to try to bolster up and protect the 
legitimate trade. Hence the righteous indig- 
nation of merchants subsides much like the 
foam on a pot of beer. 

Unless we have some different system than 
that in New York, of bringing dealers in the 
false to the rack, we might as well have no law 
at all. It is a tiresome task to establish the 
fact that a man has "oleo" in his store. It 
needs a detective to trace the course of the 
evil; and the only way to induce detectives to 
take up the matter, is to give them a liberal 
share of the money taken from the law breaker. 
The proposed law which we printed in our is- 
sue of January 1st, aims to set this class of in- 
vestigators after those who deal in the illegal 
material, and unless this is done, we see very 
little need for enactments other than the gene- 
ral denunciatory act, which is now on record. 
We trust the legislators will not overlook the 
fact that the culprit must be pursued by some 
personal agency. A forcible law is a good thing 
afterward. First get your game, then cook it. 



Our Scattered California Indians.— The 
census has issued the following statement of the 
number of Indians not under tribal organiza- 
tion in California: Alameda county, 103; Ama- 
dor, 272; Butte, 522; Calaveras, 167; Colusa, 
353; Contra Costa, 45; Del Norte, 411; El Do- 
rado, 151; Fresno, 747; Humboldt, 1,566; Inyo, 
631; Kern, 321; Lake, 785; Lassen, 324; Los 
Angeles, 278; Marin, 149; Mariposa, 151; Men- 
docino, 1,170; Merced, 7; Modoc, 404; Mono, 
350; Monterey, 204; Napa, 64; Nevada, OS; 
Placer, 91; Plumas, 508; Sacramento, 13; San 
Benito, 77; San Bernardino, 605; San Diego, 
1,629; San Francisco, 44; San Joaquin, 44; San 
Mateo, 80; Santa Barbara, 86; Santa Clara, 67; 
Santa Cruz, 125; Shasta, 870; Sierra, 12; Siski- 
you, 384; Solano, 21; Sonoma, 331; Stanislaus, 
27; Sutter, 10; Tehama, 137; Trinity, 161; Tu- 
lare, 18; Tuolumne, 143; Ventura, 87; Yolo, 
46; Yuba, 60. 



EpjopoLoqicv-. 



The Diabrotlcas. 

Editors Press:— Have you ever seen or heard of a small 
bug that destroys the apricots, peaches, and other kinds of 
fruit as soon as it ripens by boring a hole in the fruit by 
hundreds? They are yellow and black striped; look soma 
like what used to be called the pumpkin bug in the East. 
— W. E. Wbitmit, New York Landing, Contra Costa Co., 
Cal. 

These pests are doubtless the diabroticas 
which we have often described and denounced 
in these columns. They are small beetles of 
two species, one yellow with black stripes upon 
the wing covers; the other is greenish with 12 
black spots upon the wing covers. The two 
species work together often, but the spotted 
fiend is the one which does most injury to the 
fruit. We have described his progress from the 
southern part of the Alameda valley northward 
through Haywards, Fruitvale, Oakland, and 
Berkeley, and thence over the bills into Contra 
Costa county, and thence northward and east- 
ward to Colusa county. At least we had speci- 
mens from all these districts; probably the 
range of the insect has been much wider. Wt 
know of no adequate means of destroying these 
insects. They infest the earth and the air, and 
they can destroy more flower buds in a given 
time than any other insect we know of. A few 
choice rosea, carnations, etc., can be preserved 
by covering with gauze, but orchard trees are 
at their mercy so far as we know. Fortunately 
the insects are transitory in their habit. In 
1879 our Berkeley garden was alive with them. 
In 1880 there was not one-hundredth part as 
many as the year before. The same appearance 
and disappearance was noted in the Alameda 
county orchards. When the pest was at its 
hight at Fruitvale the Niles orchards had but 
few. The course of the insects was evidently 
northward. Regions which were badly affected 
last year may expect fewer pests this year, 
if past experience be reproduced this year. 

These 12-spotted diabroticas care little for 
winter. We find them quite active still. 
They seek a little shelter such as may be found 
in the grass or beneath low growing plants, 
like the verbena; but they apparently scorn 
hibernation. They appear in lull force about 
the time the earliest apricots ripen, and work 
in orchards and then in gardens as long as there 
is fine weather. They have refined tastes. The 
ripest fruit and the choicest flowers are their 
favorite food. We do not remember to have 
seen them eat leaves — these they leave for their 
groveling cousins, the striped cucumber or 
pumpkin bugs. 

The American Entomologist 

This publication of which we have made favor- 
able mention has been forced to suspend at the 
close of its volume. The editor, Prot. Riley, in- 
forms us that he has a few fu'I sets of the volume 
which he will send post paid for $1.50 each. 
The offer is well worth the acceptance of those 
interested in entomology, for the numbers con- 
tain much matter of permanent value. 



Injudicious Irrigation in India. — There 
have been many mistakes attendant upon the 
practice of irrigation in India. Our farmers 
are too intelligent and energetic, as a rule, to 
fall into such errors as has the East Indians, 
and yet it is worth while to mention them, as a 
matter of agricultural interest. It seems that 
the East Indians practiced copious irrigation 
without cultivation when the soil was par- 
tially dried, and the result was, Col. Corbet 
tells us, "the whole surface soil is brought 
iuto the condition of sun-dried bricks; the more 
water that has been applied to the land, the 
harder the soil becomes; and while its powers 
of absorption and radiation are reduced, those 
of reflection and retention of heat are increased; 
and we also find that the power of capillary at- 
traction possessed by the land is increased, and 
that the soil so compacted will sooner become 
dried up than soil left loose and open. Thus, 
he said, the direct and inevitable effects of in- 
judicious canal irrigation are evil. By hard- 
ening the soil they diminish its productive- 
ness; and yet the cultivator is driven, by the 
fact of this hardening, to depend upon this 
agency before he can, in the absence of rain, 
prepare the soil for cultivation at all. In other 
words, by the extension of canal irrigation 
without the counteracting effects of more per- 
fect working of the soil by digging or plowing, 
a temporary and precarious advantage is ob- 
tained, at the risk of sterilizing the soil. 

California Meat Products. — According to 
a review of the meat product trade of this city 
for the year 1880 in the Grocer, the importa- 
tion of Eastern product has been less than during 
previous years, especially of Eastern lard, the 
quality of the local|product having so improved 
as to generally control the market. There has 
also been a steady and increasing demand for 
export trade, principally in barrel provisions, 
one of our leading packing firms having shipped 
to Asiatic Russia alone 4,250 barrels mess beef, 
while their orders from other points on the Pa- 
cific ocean have also greatly increased. Taken 
altogether, the past year has been a fair one for 
this industry, the only complaint being that the 
interior trade does not increase rapidly, nor 
can it without an increase in population of th* 
coast. 

California sold to the East last year $1,000,- 
000 worth of fresh fruit. 



January 22, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FBESS. 



57 



Our Home Industries. 

The Frult-Canninir Business. 
We have it in mind to present to our readers 
occasional descriptive articles based upon the 
various industrial pursuits of this city and vi- 
cinity, and to exhibit in facts not to be mistaken 
by the most casual observer, the rapid changes 
which these industries are working upon the 
habits and aims of our people, the increasing 
facilities of our producers, and the steady 
growth of the interior, coastwise and foreign 
commerce of this State. That such changes 
are in constant progress, the smallest tradesmen 
or most insignificant dealers know to be facts 
from daily observations; and by these observed 
facts the entire trade of our city is swayed and 
regulated. Second only to the renown of Cali- 
fornia's auriferous wealth is the fame of her lus- 
cious fruits and vegetables, now so well known 
and highly esteemed in every northern town 
and city of the Union, as well as throughout 
Great Britain and many of the continental 
States of Europe. The fair name of the one is 
almost, if not quite contemporaneous with that 
of the other. In the earlier days, however, our 
gold dust, mammoth nuggets and silver bricks 
had a decided advantage over our fruits. The 
former could be transported, unchanged, to 
the ends of the earth, and there afford prima 
facie evidence of the wealth of that wondrous 
land whence they were brought. The proof of 
our fruits, on the con- 
trary, like the proof 
of the ever-ubiquitous 
pudding, depended 
solely upon the prac- 
tical test of actual 
home consumption. 
But let us see what 
the wisdom and well- 
directed enterprise of 
our citizens have done 
to work such changes 
as are well nigh cal- 
culated to stagger be- 
lief. 

It is now about 24 
years since the Messrs. 
Sol. Wangenheim & 
Co., of this city, 126 
Davis street, com- 
menced the business 
of hermetically seal- 
ing our valuable fruits 
for shipment to dis- 
tant parts of the 
world. If these gen- 
tlemen were not the 
actual pioneers in this 
branch of home indus- 
try, they have certaiu- 
ly been largely instru- 
mental in establishing 
the enviable reputa- 
tion which our canned 
goods sustain, to-day, 
among the connois- 
seurs of the world. 
Nearly all varieties in 
the line of our larger 
and smaller fruits, 
susceptible of this 
method of preserva- 
tion, have been 
treated by this firm 
with marked success ; 
a few of the essen- 
tials, however, of or- 
chard and garden products have claimed their 
special attention. Among these may be men- 
tioned apricots, pears, peaches, plums and to- 
matoes. The sealing process adopted at this 
factory is quite different from that so generally 
pursued by those of our housewives, who put 
up their own canned fruits. Instead of being 
"cooked" and then canned, the fruit is put cold 
into the cans, hermetically sealed, and after- 
wards subjected to the requisite degree of 
heat. The advantages of this method are en- 
tirely obvious to the philosophically inclined; 
there being absolutely no escape of the original 
juices and aroma of the fruit, nor breaking up 
of the cellular tissues of the pulp. Besides the 
fruit-canning business, Messrs. Wangenheim & 
Co. are (carrying on a salmon cannery on the 
Sacramento river, utilizing a large capital, and 
yearly adding much to the industrial wealth of 
our State. 

Beginning with the farmers and ranchmen, 
the original producers of the raw material, and 
following the ohain of processes to the final ship- 
ment of these valuable goods, it will be seen 
that hundreds of stalwart yeomen, together 
with an army of resident craftsmen and labor- 
ers are given honorable and lucrative employ- 
ment by means of this single industry. Some 
estimate of the pay-roll and amount of money 
scattered among the working class through the 
instrumentality of this business may be gained 
from the fact that about 300 hands are con- 
stantly employed in and about the immediate 
concerns of the establishment; that number 
being about equally divided between the fruit- 
sealing works and the salmon cannery. We are 
informed by those gentlemen, that in regard to 
the fruit-sealing branch of the business, the 
present outlook is not so hopeful as in former 
years. Many causes have conspired to bring 
about this state of things. Foreign shipments 
have considerably fallen off, Especially is this 



true of England and Germany. The political 
disturbances now going on across the Atlantic 
may indirectly have something to do with this. 
Then there are some domestic tendencies which 
are brought to bear on this business. Compe- 
tition is springing up in various parts of the 
State, and working out its natural and legiti- 
mate results. In view of these circumstances, 
our best counsel is for manufacturers in every 
calling to bide their time. The future is preg- 
nant with hope, and on all sides the fields are 
whitening. 

The increase in the product of valuable raw 
material of any kind, and in any land, is a true 
criterion from which to judge of ultimate re- 
sults. Now, if the statistics of the peach-grow- 
ing interests of California argue any thing, they 
are all on the side of large increments in the 
immediate future. At the present time there 
are about 2,000,000 of peach trees planted in 
the most favored peach-growing districts in the 
northern half of this State, comprising 13 coun- 
ties. In seven of these counties the trees may 
be distributed as follows: Sacramento, 150,000; 
Santa Clara, 140,000; El Dorado, 110,000; 
Sonoma, 100,000; San Joaquin, 90,000; Butte, 
80,000; and in the seven remaining counties, 
viz., Napa, Placer, Tuolumne, Colusa, Amador, 
Yolo and Yuba, the average number of trees 
may be put down at from 40,000 to 50,000. 
Now, we leave it for those better qualified than 
ourselves to estimate the great sum total of 
prime quality truit which these trees will turn 
into the market in less than two years from our 
present writing. Nobody doubts that the peach 
crop is steadily increasing from year to year; 
and if this increase in quantity tends to lessen 



Citrus Fair at Los Angeles. 

The Citrus fair at Los Angeles, to which all 
citrus fruit-growing regions are invited to con- 
tribute exhibits, will be held in the Horticult- 
ural pavilion, Los Angeles, March 14-19, 18S1. 
All entries must be in before 2 p. m., Tuesday, 
March 15th. No entry fee is charged. One- 
half the proceeds of the fair will go towards pay- 
ing the expenses of the "Traveling Citrus fair'' 
that is to be made up from this exposition and 
sent East. 

Premium List. 

To the individual, locality, or society making the largest 
and finest exhibit, 8100. Any county as a county is 
barred, but each locality in the county can compete. At 
least three entries for competition to be made. 

Oranges— Budded — A plate of 5 constitutes an entry. 
The same fruit cannot compete for more than 1 premium. 
Best 1 variety, $5; best 2 varieties, $7; best 4 varieties, 
$10; best varieties. $15. 

Oranges — Seedlings — Best 1 variety, $5; best 2 varieties, 
$7; best 4 varieties, $10; best 6 varieties, $15. 

Oranges — Sweepstakes— Best variety, $5; best cluster of 
oranges, $10. 

Lemons — Best 1 variety, $5; best 2 varieties, $7; best 4 
varieties, $10. 

Limes — One hundred to constitute an entry. Size, 
quality, color and marketable qualities to decide. Best 
exhibit, $10. 

Citrons — Not less than 5 constitute an entry. Best ex- 
hibit, $3; best preserved citron (home made), $5; best pre- 
served citron (factory), silver medal. 

Raisins— Best and largest display, $25; best box, $10; 
best quarter box, $5; best and most attractive package for 
market, diploma. 

Canned Fruits — Best peaches (home made), $5; best 
peaches (factory), diploma; best apricots (home made) $3; 
best apricots (factory), diploma. 

Miscellaneous— Dried figs, $5; best pomegranates (10), 




THE NEW MASONIC TEMPLE, OAKLAND. 



the first cost of the green fruit, then is there 
one great advantage which must redound to the 
benefit of all who are engaged in the manufact- 
ure of the sealed goods. We have taken the 
peach crop as an illustrative instance, but all 
that has been said of it in this connection may 
be safely predicted of apricots, pears, plums 
and strawberries. Let manufacturers ponder 
well the signs of the times, and resort only hi 
the last extremity to the doubtful and precari- 
ous fortunes of change and innovation. 



Another Definition of Riparian Rights. 
In the Assembly Mr. Griffith, of Fresno, has 
introduced a bill which defines the rights of a 
riparian owner, as follows: "A riparian propri- 
etor is one through whose land a natural stream 
flows, or whose land borders upon a natural 
stream, and he has only the right to the flow of 
sufficient water in such natural stream for cu- 
linary, domestic and household purposes, and 
to water the live stock which he owns and keeps 
on his land, through which, or on the borders 
of which such natural stream flows; and after 
making a liberal allowance for the purposes 
above specified, it shall not be a violation of his 
rights as a riparian proprietor to divert the re- 
mainder of the flow from such natural stream 
for any useful or beneficial purpose." 

Tried by Fire. — We are pleased to note that 
our friends of the Visalia Delta are not disheart- 
ened by the severe misfortune of fire whioh 
threw their office into confusion, and no doubt 
occasioned considerable losses direct and indi- 
rect. These have been triumphed over, and 
the Delta appears again with full treasures of 
local news and intelligent discussions of im- 
portant topics, The publishers have pluck and 
enterprise, and with these can easily outride 
misfortunes. 



$5; best strawberries (6 boxes), $3; best tomatoes (1 peck), 
$3; best new potatoes (1 peck), $3. 

Flowers — Best and finest display, $10. 

Exhibitors must state, in every case, on what stock 
fruit was grown; and it is desirable that it should also be 
stated whether irrigated, character of soil, age of tree and 
any other conditions affecting quality or size of fruit. For 
further particulars, address the Secretary, George Rice, 
Los Angeles, Cal. 



The Citrus Fairs. — Our readers in the up- 
per part of the State who can afford a spring 
vacation should not overlook the citrus fairs to 
be held in Los Angeles and Riverside during 
the early part of March. Citrus fairs in the 
southern country have been shown by past ex- 
perience to be most interesting, entertaining 
and instructive exhibitions, and extra efforts 
are being put forth this year to gather exhibits 
from all regions growing semi-tropical fruits. 
Not only should all who can prepare for a run 
to the south, but all who are growing oranges 
in the other parts of the State should preserve 
samples to ship to Riverside and Los Angeles, 
in order that the comparative merits of all 
orange districts may be defined. We print 
this week the premium list in the Los Angeles 
citrus fair. The Riverside programme will, 
doubtless, be soon issued. 

Joint County Bridges. — Mr. Holden has 
in the Assembly a bill concerning joint county 
bridges, which adds a new auction to the 
Political Code, and provides that where a bridge 
is needed to cross a stream dividing two coun- 
ties, if either county declines the request of the 
other to join in building it, the county offering 
may go on and erect it, and the other county is 
required to pay for a portion of it in proportion 
to the assessed value of taxable property, etc. 
The bill authorizes a special tax for necessary 
bridge construction not exceeding 10 cents on 
the |100 for any one year. 



The New Masonic Temple. 

We illustrate on this page that magnifies 
building which the Masonic fraternity of Oak- 
land have erected for their wants in our beauti- 
ful city across the bay. It is situated at the 
corner of Twelfth and Washington streets, and 
stands out prominently as an object of interest, 
not only to the passing stranger, but also to 
those who have made Oakland their home. 
Both in its size, construction, beauty and con- 
venience of all the details, does it fulfill the 
expectations and wishes of those for whom it 
was built. Oakland has many fine public build- 
ings, but we think in this case the Masonic 
Temple can justly claim the credit of being the 
finest in the city. 

The building covers an area of 65x100 ft., 
and is built of brick, granite and San Jose sand- 
stone, the style of architecture being semi- 
Gothic. Standing on the opposite side of the 
street, and gazing upon the majestic front which 
the building presents, one can take in the beauty 
and grandeur of the building. To the artist, it 
must be a source of supreme delight to gaze 
upon its fair proportions. The finest pressed 
brick, with sandstone finish in the pillars, vases 
and Maltese crosses that enter into its construc- 
tion, make a pleasing and delicate contrast. 

On the Washington-street side are five 
niches, two in front of the first, two on the 
second, and one on the upper floor, bearing be- 
neath them the inscriptions, "Prudence," 
"Justice," "Temperance," "Fortitude" and 
" Charity." In the course of time these will 
be replaced by stone 
statues, which will 
add greatly to the 
beauty of the exterior 
of the building. The 
large windows have 
nine panes each of 
heavy plate glass, the 
smaller ones six. The 
contrast that these 
windows and niches 
present is very beau- 
tiful. 

There are three 
stores in front on the 
ground floor, 20x70 
each, and one in the 
rear, 20x65, each hav- 
ing an apartment in 
the rear. On the 
Twelfth-street side 
there are on each 
floor two large win- 
dows and five smaller 
ones. The entrance is 
in the form of a heavy 
Gothic portico of pol- 
ished Penryn granite, 
supported by plain 
pillars of exquisite 
Penryn black granite, 
with the letter "G" 
over the gateway, 
The roof is of slate, 
and is laid in a very 
unique and pleasing 
manner. The main 
tower over the stair- 
way is finished square 
with Gothic windows, 
framed at the apex in 
flew de lis. The sub- 
tower is at the north 
endon the Washing, 
ton-street side, pre- 
senting a neat con- 
trast. Near the center 
is the sharp-cut roof tower, with gable, facing the 
street, adorned with crosses in circles, and all 
around the building are pinnacles and peaks 
handsomely arranged. 

The cost of the building has been about $70,- 
000. It was erected by the Masonic Hall 
Association, a joint stock company, the stock 
being divided into 10,000 shares of the value 
of $10 each. The project was started about 
two years ago, the lot bought and stock issued. 
Six thousand shares of stock have been sub- 
scribed for, leaving 4,000 for future use. 

The following is a list of the officers and di- 
rectors of the association, and the committee: 
Officers— F. K. Shattuck, President; A. Chabot, 
Vice-President; F. W. Cushing, Secretary; Chas. 
H. Twombly, Treasurer. Directors— F. K. Shat- 
tuck, A. Chabot, F. W. Cushing, N. W. Spauld- 
ing, John Crellin, John Marsh, Judge Lintell, S. 
Hirshberg, Frank Warner, R. C. Gaskill and 
J. Patterson. Building Committee— N. W. 
Spaulding, John Crellin and S. Hirshberg. 
The architects of this handsome structure were 
Wright & Sanders. The dedicating sorvioes 
will take place on Washington's Birthday, Feb. 
22d, at 2 o'clock, P. m., and will be on a scale 
of magnificence never before witnessed in Oak- 
land. 



The vintage of the past year was the largest 
ever made in this State, being about 13,000,000 
gallons against less than 6,000,000 gallons in 
1879. Besides this, there will be some 5,000 
gallons of brandy. ' Prices are expected to be 
better than last year, and altogether it has been 
a year that vintners will be able to look back to 
as the turning point in the history of California 
viticulture. 

On File.— "Los Angeles Notes," W. R. O.; 
"Agreeable Women," J. T. and A. O. M.j 
"Pigs and Poultry in Tehama," F, 



58 



THE PACIFIC R URAL PRESS. 



[January 22, 188 1 



Sterling Music Books. 

NEW ENGLAND CONSERVATORY METH 
OD FOR THE PIANOFORTE. 

In 3 parts; each, J1.50, or complete, 93.25. This is a 
method of established reputation, which has been in 
constant use in the great Conservatory, and is getting to 
be everywhere known and valued. Has received decided 
commendations from the best teachers. 

DICTIONARY OP MUSICAL INFORMA 
TION. (#1.25.) Very convenient book of reference. 

GROVE'S DICTIONARY OF MUSIC AND 
MUSICIANS. Vol 1, (*0.00.) A grand encyclopedia. 

STAINER AND BARRETT'S DICTIONARY 
OF MUSICAL TERMS. (Complete, iZ.OO) a fa 
mous and useful work. 

RICHTER'S COUNTERPOINT. ($2.00.) 

RICHTER'S FUGUE. (*2 00 ) 

Two Standard Works on Composition. 

THE WELCOME CHORUS, (11.00.) For High 
Schools, and SONG BELiLS (50 cts.) for Common 
Schools, should be in the mind of every teacher in need 
of new books. 

JOHNSON'S NEW METHOD FOR HAR- 
MONY. (#1.00.) By A. N. Johnson. Is unexcelled 
for ease, simplicity, and thoroughness. 

TEMPERANCE AIGHT, (12 cts.) 

TEMPERANCE JEWELS, (35 cts.) 

HULL'S TEMPERANCE GLEE BOOK. (40c.) 

Are our three best Temperance Books. Try tukm ! 

Any book mailed, post-free, for above prices. 

OLIVER DITS0N & CO., BOSTON. 

O. H. Dltaon St Co., 843 Broadway. N. Y 



Dr. Smith's Caloric 
Vita_Oils. 

Improved Means and Methods of Healing. Why not 
Caloric Vita Oils, these wonderful ancient curative remedies 
restored to the healing art by a retired Chilean physician, 
through whose advice they are now variously prepared and 
used in Dr. Smith's Plireno- Medical Institute, 633 Califor- 
nia street, San Francisco, as sweating, absorbing, healing 
and pain-killing remedies, and which are by no meauB a new 
experiment, but have proven their wonderful healing virtues 
in over 25,000 cases in a single European Medical Sanitarium, 
and are now offered for sale and use, purely on their active 
healing merits. Accordingly, gentlemen or ladies are offered 
a free trial of these vita or life-giving oils, who Buffer from 
Asthma, Bronchial, Lung or Throat Troubles, deep-seated 
inflammation or painful disease of any kind. Congestion 
Heart, Liver and Kidneys, Lame Back, Stiff Joints, Con- 
tracted Muscles or Tendons, Dropsy or Cold Extremities, 
Tumors or Glandul ar Swellings, in short, all forms of dis- 
ease that result from congestion or impeded circulation. In 
cleansing the blood of scrofulous drugs or virus poisons, and 
in the cure of chronic disease, the Institute employs all the 
Hygienic and Medical appliances of Eastern and European 
water cures. Since the fall of '5S we have given special at- 
tention to diseases of the brain and nervo-vital system, and 
for the past 22 years have had gentlemen constantly uuder 
treatment who have suffered from some form of muscular, 
nervous or vital debility, and by using an electric medical 
magnet of great power in connection with the above reme- 
dies, we have quickly and permanently restored those who 
had even failed to get relief by other means. Phrenology is 
the key to physical as well as mental diseases. Health con- 
sultations are free, either verbal or by letter. Barlow J. 
Smith, M, D., Proprietor, 633 California street, 8. F. 



NEW OIIAj>I1 3 IOIN 




Price-Plain Barrels, 12 Bore, $15 OO. 

10 M 16 OO. 
" Twist Barrels, 12 Bore, 17 OO. 
11 lO " 18 OO. 

The frame and trimmings of all these guns are nickel plated. 
This gun possesses many advantages over any single breech- 
loading gun yet produced in this country. It has a patent 
side snap actiou with a safety attachment, by means of which 
it can be opened only when the gun is at half-cock, thus in- 
suring perfect safety in loading. The workman*; hip and ma- 
terials used are first class; no gun being allowed to leave the 
factory until it has been thoroughly inspected. We take 
great pleasure in offering this gun to the public, and feel safe 
to say it is the beBt Am. Single Breech-Loader yet produced. 
E. T. ALLEN, Afirt., 416 Market St., S. F. 



JOS. HANSEL, 
Carriage and Wagon Manufacturer. 



All kinds of Spring Wagons. Buggies, etc., constantly on 
band and for Sale at the Lowest Kates, and guaranteed to 
give satisfaction. Blackamituing and General Jobbing done 
with neatness and dispatch. Also, on hand of my own make, 
the Latest Improved Harrows and my Patent Buck Board 
and Breaking Carts. CarriaKe Painting and Trimming 
f*eatlv Done HUNTER STREET, STOCKTON, CaL 
Adjoining the Baptist Cburoh. 



FOREST AND STREAM. 

The American Sportsmen's Journal. 

DEVOTED TO SHOOTING, FISHING, YACHTING 
THE DOG AND THE RIFLE. 

Send for Specimen Copy to 

Forest and Stream Publishing Co ., 

30 Park Row, New York City, N. Y. 



MONEY TO LOAN. 



In sums of $2,000 and upwards on Good, Productive 
Farms at fair rate of intercut. Farms bought and sold 
Apply to A. SCHULLEB. 

310 California Street, S. F. 



50 



New Style Cards Lithographed in bright colors, lOo. 
SB Aif'ts. Hamuli 10c. Conn. Card Co. Northford, Ct 



52 



Gold, Crystal, Lace, Perfumed & Chromo Cards.name 
in gold and Jet, 10c Clinton Bros., CuntonviUe, Ct 



THE AMERICAN COLONY. 

Los Angeles County, Cal. 

This New Colony is now forming and will occupy 10,000 acres of the very best land, and in a most desirable 
location in Southern California. 

Good land, abundant water, delightful climate and an exceedingly advantageous and beautiful situation aresome 

of the natural advantages of this Colony. 

The lands are being subdivided into 5, 10, 20 and 40 Acre Lots. 

The 40 Acre Farms will range in prices from S500 to $1,000 There is also a Town Site. 
t3T For a beautiful lithograph plate and the Colony Prospectus, Maps, Plats, Circulars, Etc., send stamp, 
or apply to 

W. B. WILLMORE, Manager, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Or to the California Immigrant Union, W. H. MARTIN, General Agent, Chronicle Building, Room 3, San 
Francisco, Cat. 



S KERR ILL 



(PATENTED.) 




pour 10-Inch Plows in One Gang and Fitted tor Attachment of Five 8-inch Plows 




Five 8-inch Plows for Crossing and Seeding. 

Combined Plow, Cultivator and Seeder. 

The Construction admits of its Working on Side Hill 
or Level, and Plowing to an Uniform Depth on 
Rolling or Uneven Ground. 

The Draft is 50 Per Cent Less than any other Gang Plow Made. 

Send for Circular and Information to 

Office and Factory, PERRY STREET, 

Between Fourth and Fifth Street, San Francisco, 




S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Ave., San Francisco, 
typree coach to the Eocse. O. F. BECKER, Proprietor 



JOSEPH F. HILL, 

MANUFACTURER OF FIRST-CLASS 

Buggies, Farm & Freight Wagons. 

OF A I.I, DESCRIPTIONS 

Oor. Thirteenth and J Sts., Sacramento, Cal. 
tS~ Repairing promptly attended to "SI 



To Fisb Raisers. 

I am now ready to sell Carp which were Imported from 
Germany in 1872, in lota to auit. Address 

J. A. POPPE, Sonoma, Cal. 



THE DINGEE & GONARD CO'S 

BEALTIFl I. EVER-BLOOMING 




Strong Pot Roues, suitable for winter bloom, 

Bent safely by mail, postpaid. 5 anleiitllil varieties, 
yuur c/ivin.all labeled, for SI* 13 for S3* 19 for S3* «<J 
for 84; 33 for S3. For 10 cents each additional, one 
MuKiiiAceiit Premium Rose to every dollar's worth 
Ordered, Send for our NEW GLIDE TO ROSE 
Ct'liTl'RE, and choose from over 300 finest sorts. 
We make Roses a Great Specialty, and are the largest 
Host-growers in America. Refertoluo.tKKKustomersin the 
fnited States and Canada. THE DINGEE & CONAKD 
«0., Ross-OBQWEtiii, West Grove, Chester Co., Pa, 



Agricultural Articles. 

THE CALIFORNIA 

Spring Tooth Harrow 

OR CULTIVATOR. 




IS WHAT EVERY FARMER WHO HAS HAD PLOWED 
LAND EXPOSED TO THE HEAVY RAINS 

Must Have if they would do Perfect Work. 

Such Soil Is rendered Fine and Me'low, See is per- 
fectly covered and Vegetation destroyed. They alone will 
save the replowing of thousands of acres, and at the rate 
of,from Twenty to Fifty Acres per day. Farmers 
buy the best, buy an implement that has no equal, 
one that will do work that no other tool can. 

MANrPACTURKD AKD SOLD OM.T SY 

BATCHEL0R, VAN GELDER & CO., 

Nob. 900 & 902 K Street. Sacramento. 
AND THEIR AUTHORIZED AGENTS. 

The Famous " Enterprise," 

PERKINS" PATENT 
Self Regulating 



WINDMILLS. 

Pumps & Fixtum. 




These Hills and Pumps 
reliable and always give sat 
lsfactio'n. Simple, strong and 
durable in all parte. Solid 
wrought iron crank shaft with 
double bearings for the crank 
to work in, all turned 
run in babbitted boxes.. 

Positively self regulating 
with no couspnngor springs 
of any kind. No little rods, 
Joints, levers or balls to fret 
out of order, as such things 
da Mills in use six to nine years in good order now, that 
nave never coet one cent for repairs. 

All sizes of Pumping and Power Mills. Thousands In 
use. All warranted. Address for circulars and infer 
station, 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES, LTVERMORE, 
ALAMEDA CO., CAL. Also, Best Feed Mills for sale. 

San Francisco Agency, LIN FORTH, RICE 

St CO.. 323 ct 335 Market Street. 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match In 

Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who hare 
tieen long in the business and know what U required in the 
construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly adjusted. Suf- 
ficient play Is given so that the tongue will pass over cradle 
knolls without changing the working position of the shares. 
It la so constructed that the wheels themselves govern the 
action of the Plow correctly. It has various points of supe- 
riority, and can be relied upon as the best and most desira- 
ble Gang Plow In the world. 

Iron Founders, Machinists and Manufacturers of Improved 
Agricultural Implements. General Jobbing and repairing 
done in the best manner at most reasonable rates. Bend for 
circular to MATTESON 4 WILLIAMSON, 

Stockton, OaL 



Zimmerman 
Fruit and Vegetable 
DRIER AND BAKER. 

description and testimonials! UNFOBTH, RICE 
Si CO., General Agents for Pacific Coast, 323 St 325 
Market St., S. F. 



Best and on- 
ly Qalranlx- 
ed Iron Por- 
table Fire 
Proof Ma- 
chine for the 
purpose It 
has no supe- 
rior. Send 
for Circu- 
lars and read 



SWINE ! 



SWINE!! 



Having engaged in Fruit Growing, am determined to 
close out my entire stock of Thoroughbred Poland China 
Swine (all of good Pedigree) by the First of February 
next. Prices, Crated and delivered at the Railroad De- 
pot, with Food for Journey, Brood Sows, in Pig, f20; 
Boars, 10 to 12 months old, 112; Shoats, & to 6 months 
old, 87 each, $12 a pair and $15 per trio. 

Also, Black Cochin Chickens and Eggs for sale. 

Jerusalem Artichokes for sale in large or small lots. 
Address 

T. C. STARR, 
San Bernardino, Cal. 



Frkk. Elegant Illuminated Book Mark. 
Sent to all for two three cent stamps. BURT & PREN- 
TICE, 46 Beekmaa'Street, New York. 



January 22, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PB1SS. 



59 



Be\ee deeds' Dl^ICf©!\Y. 

Purchaskrs op Stock will find in this Directory ths 
Nam Kg op bomb of thb Most Rbliarlb Brbbdbrs. 

Odr Kates.— Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
60 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 



CATTLE. 



HENRY PIERCE, 728 Montgomery Street, S. F. 
Jersey Cattle, bred from Importation direct from 
Jersey Island, and winners of most of the prizes at 
Oakland, Stockton and the State Fairs. " Victor of 
Yerba Buena," of noted butter strains on the Island, 
and known to be the best Bull ever imported to this 
coast, now stands at the head of this famous herd. 
" King of Scituate," son of the famous 706 pound butter 
Cow, Jersey Belle, of Scituate, which now stands at the 
head of Mr. Pierce's noted herd, at Scituate, Mass., 
will soon be brought here. 

PETER SAXE &z SON, Lick House, S. F. Importers 
and breeders of all varieties of Thoroughbred Cattle, 
Sheep, Horses, and Berkshire Swine. All animals fully 
pedigreed. 



°AQE BROTHERS, 213 Clay street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.) Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and Spanish Merino Sheep. 

C. CLARK, Milpitas, Santa Clara Co. Importer and 
Breeder of Short-Horn Cattle. Has a herd of 14 Cows 
and Bulls, among which are one Gwynne-Princess Bull, 
by Imported Grand Prince of Lightburne, and cows 
of the Dutchess of York family: heifers being by the 
Imported Bull Sheriff, a Seraphina Bull and Kirkleving- 
ton Duke 2d, a pure Bates Bull. The whole herd for 
sale or single animals if desired. 

JESSE D. CARR, Salinas City, Monterey Co ,Cal., Pro- 
prietor of Qabdan Herd. The foundation of the Gabilan 
Herd was secured by importations of the best attainable 
representatives of the most popular families. The herd 
includes groups of the time-honored Louan and Hope 
families; also representatives of the pure Bates, Oxfords, 
Duchesses, Young Marys and Hoses of Sharon. Fine 
Trotting Horses, Thoroughbred and Graded Merino 
Bucks, also Thoroughbred and Cross Bred Shropshire- 
down Bucks always on hand and for sale at reasonable 
prices. 

M. WICK, Oroville, Butte County, Cal. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred Cattle, Short-Horns. Young Bulls and 
Heifers for sale at all times of the year. 



COLi. C. YOUNGER, Forest Home Herd, San Jose, 
Cal. Breeder of Short-Horn Durhams, and pure bred 
Cotswold Sheep. Young Bulls and Bucks always for 
sale. Australian Rye Grass. 



HORSES. 



HENRY MILLER, San Francisco, Cal. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred Norman Horses of the Stock Imported 
by Mr. Perry, of Illinois, took First Premium at San 
Jose Fair, 1880. 

R. J. MERKELEY, Sacramento, Cal., Breeder of 
Norman-PercherOn Horses and Short-Horn Durhams. 
My stock is all registered. Took three first-class pre- 
miums on Horses at Stale Fair, 1880. 

SHEEP AND GOATS. 



JOHN S. HA.RRIS, Hollister, Cal. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred registered Goats. Took Eight Premi- 
ums at the State Fair of 1880. I had one Buck at the 
State Fair with staple 16 inches long. Correspondence 
solicited. 



L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 



J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing. Solano Co , Oal. Breeder 
and Importer of Shropshire Sheep. Rams and Ewes 
for sale. Also, cross-bred Merino and Shropshire. 

E. W. WOOLSEY Si SON, Fulton, Sonoma Co., 
Cal. Importers and Breeders of choice Thoroughbred 
Spanish Meriuo Sheep. City office, No. 413 California 
St.,S F. 



POULTRY. 



ALBERT BURBANK, 43 California Market, S. F. 
Importer and Breeder of ThoroughDred Poultry, 
Dogs, etc. Eggs for hatching, send for price list. 



WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Importer 
and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Berkshire 
and Magie Poland-China Swine. 

MRS. L. J. W ATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Pekin Ducks, etc. 



A. O. RIX, Washington, Alameda County, California. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for Circular. 



MRS. L. E. McMAH-AN, Dixon, Solano Co.. Cal. 
Importer and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Eggs 
for Hatching. Send for price list. 

T. D. MORRIS, Sonoma, Sonoma County, Cal. Breeder 
and Importer of all the varieties of Land and Water 
Fowls. Eggs for hatching sent any distance with 
Bafety. satisfaction guaranteed. Send for price list. 

GEO. TREFZER, Napa City, Cal. For sale a fine 
breeding pair of Houdans, one cockerel and lour Hens, 
(not related) for $15; one pair of L. Brahmas for $7; 
one Crevccoeur Cock for $4; White Leghorn Hens and 
Pullets for $2 apiece. 



SWINE, 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co., Cal 
Importer, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 

T. C. STARR, San Bernardino, Cal. Poland-China 
Swine and Black Cochin Chickens for sale. 



JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 

L. N. SCOTT, Lincoln, Placer County, Oal. Breeder 
of Pure Poland China Swine. My stock is shipped di- 
rect from Iowa and is the purest breed. Took first 
premium at State Fair, 1880. 



ELIAS GALLUP, Hanford, Cal. Breeder of Pure 
Poland China Swine, with recorded pedigree. My 
Block is from the celebrated "McCreary Bismarck" 
breed, by D. M. McGee, Oxford, Ohio. Took flye pre- 
miums at State Fair, 1880 



BEES. 



J. D. ENAS, Sunnyside, Napa, Cal. Breeds Pure 
Italian Queen Beet. Comb Foundation, 



IRRIGATED LANDS FOR LEASE AND SALE. 

THE GREAT COLORADO VALLEY LAND AND IRRIGATING CO. 

Offer for Lease and Sale a large tract of land in small farms, on extra liberal terms to settlers. 
Adapted to the growing of Semi-Tropical and Deciduous Fruits, Fibrous Plants, Vines, Cereals, Etc. 
Situated on the California side of the Colorado river, opposite the town of Enrenberg, and deriving its irrigating 
water by Canal from the Colorado river. 

Full particulars, terms, etc., will be forwarded on application to 

THOMAS H. BLYTHE, 724} Market Street, San Francisco. 

Or to GEORGE S. IRISH, Superintendent, (on the land). 





V 




LITTLE 



AGUE CURB. 

A Positive Cure for 

Chills and Fever, 

Dumb Ague, 
Intermittant Fever, 

Fever and Ague, 
Night Sweats, 

Sallow Skin, 

1 And all diseases resulting from a 
disordered Stomach or Liver. 



PRICE 75 CENTS J 

JOHN R. WILLIAMS, 

(Successor to Williams St Moore.) 

Proprietor. 

STOCKTON, CAL. 




NORTHERN TEXAS 

Offers greater attractions in way of good, cheap lands, 
healthy country, mild climate, abundance of timber and 
water than any other section now open to settlement. In 
it the TEXAS AND PACIFIC RAILWAY is now being 
extended westward over one mile per day, and is now of- 
fering for sale at low prices and on easy terms over 
1,000,000 acres of land 

For descriptive circulars and maps giving truthful in- 
formation, address W H. ABRAMS, 

Land Commissioner T. & P. Ry., Marshall, Texas. 



BEFORE BUYING OR RENTING AN 
ORGAN 

Send for our LATEST Illustrated Catalogue (32 pp. 
4to), with newest styles, at $51 and upward; or *8.38 
per quarter, and up. Setit free. MASON & HAMLIN 
ORGAN CO., 154 Tremont St., ROSTON; 46 E. 14th St. 
NEW YORK; 149 Wabash Av., CHICAGO. 



Mason and Hamlin Organs. 

Wholesale and Retail Agents 

KOHLER Sl CHASE. 



Post Street, near Dupont, 



SAN FRANCISCO 



AUZERAIS HOUSE, 

Santa Clara Street, San Jose, Cal. 

CHAS. E. PEARSON, Proprietor. 

Strictly First-Class and Moderate Charges. 

£2TAuzerais House Coach and Carriages in attendance 
on arrival of Trains. 



HOPE DEAF 

Garmore's Artificial Ear Drums 

PERFECTLY RESTORE THE HEARING 

and perforin the work of the Natural Drum, 
Always in position, but Invinlble to other*. All 
Conversation and even whispers heard distinctly. Wa 
refer to those using them. Bend for descriptive circular. 
GAUMOItK & CO.. 11? Nassau St., New York, 
or 8. W. Owner Oil< A Itace Sts., Cincinnati, <>. 



AND NOT 
r I WEAR OUT. 
OS>l bv Watchmakers. By mail, 30 cts. Circulars 
SOLD J> REE.J, S. BIRCH & CO., 3* Dey St.,N.Y. 



GRANGERS' BANK 

Of California, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Authorized Capital, - $1,000,000, 

In 10,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $400,000. 

OFFICERS: 

G. W. COLBY President 

JOHN LEWELLING Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLLER Cashier and Manager 

FRANK McMULLEN Secretary 

DIRECTORS: 

G. W. COLBY President Butte Co 

JOHN LEWELLING, Vice-President Napa Co 

T. E. TYNAN Stanislaus Co 

URIAH WOOD San Benito Co 

J. C. MERYFIELD Solano Co 

H. M. LaRUE Yolo Co 

I. C. STEELE San Mateo Co 

DANIF.L RHOADS Mussel Slough, Tulare Co 

C J. CRESSEY Merced Co 

SENECA EWER Napa Co 

A. D. LOGAN Colusa Co 

The Bank was opened on the first of August 1874 for the 
transaction of general Banking business. 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and conducted in the 
usual way. 

GOLD and SILVER deposits received 

CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued for Gold and Silver 

TERM DEPOSITS are received and interest allowed as 
follows: 6% per annum if left for 3 months; V/ a per anaum it 
left for 6 months; 8% per annum if left for 12 months. 

EXCHANGE on the Atlantic States >ought and sold. 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER, 
Cashier and Manager. 

San Francisco, Oct. 15, 1880. 

ST. DAVID'S, 

A FIRST-CLASS LODGING HOUSb 

CONTAINS 113 ROOMS. 
715 Howard St., near Third, San Francisco. 



This House fs especially designed as a comfortable home for 
geutlemen and ladies visiting the city from the interior. No 
dark rooms. Gas aud running water in each room. The floors 
are covered with body Brussels carpet, and all of the furniture 
is made of solid black walnut. Each bed has a spring mat- 
tress, with an additional hair top mattress, making them the 
moBt luxurious and healthy beds in the world. Ladies wish- 
ing to cook for themselves or families, are allowed the free 
use of a large public kitchen and dining roocc, with dishes. 
Servants wash the dishes and keep up a constant Are from 
6 a. M. to 7 p. m . Hot and cold baths, a large parlor and read- 
ing room, containing a Grand Piano — all free to guests. Price 
single rooms per night, 50 cts. ; per week, from $2.50 upwards. 

ft. HUGHES, Proprietor. 

At Market Street Ferry, take Omnibus line of street cars 
to corner Third and Howard. 



M. COOKE. 



H. J, COOKK 



PIONEER BOX FACTORY, 

Corner of Front and M Streets, Sacramento 

ALL KINDS OF 

Fruit and Packing Boxes Made to Order, 

AND IN SHOCKS. 

$gf Communications Promptly Attended to. T5t 
COOKE & SONS, Successors to Cooki & Grboory 



Jackson's Agricultural Machine Works 

AND FOUNDRY, 

6th and Bluxome Sts., near S. P. R. R., San Francisco. 

Manufacturer of Feeders and 
Elevators, with recently invented 
Spreader. Horse Forks for Head- 
ings or Hay. Folding Derricks. 
Hoadley Straw-Burner and Auto- 
matic Cut-off Governor for Por- 
table Engine. Separator Shoes 
and Repairs. WINDMILLS for 
Stockmen and Gardeners. Buy 
and sell second-hand Threshers 
and Engines. Machine Castings 
a specialty. Address 

BYRON JACKSON, Prop'r. 




100,000 BLUE AND RED GUMS. 

200,000 Cypress, Pine and Acacia. 

Very fine Stock and Cheap. Beautiful, Fresh and 
Finest Variety of Monterey Cypress Seed, $3.00 per 
pound, pre-paid by mail. Blue Gum and Aca- 
cia Seeds. Postofhce address 

GEO. R. BAILEY, Oakland, Cal. 

Nursery located at Dwightway Station, East Berkeley 

SADDLES, -= W. DAVIS, 

UnRWF^QUfHIPQ 410 Market St.,S. P. 
nnnnCdd, IV nil O. Manufacturer and Dealer 

■ riTUCD — ——— iu Al1 GuodB In this line. 
LLHInCn, aarSeud for Catalogue 



A. AlTKKH. 



AITKEN & FISH, 

Premium Pioneer Marble Works, 

P17K St. , Bet Si *th & Sev«n',u, • SACRAMENTO, .CAL. 



Lands for Sale and to L 



AGRICULTURAL GRANT. 

150.000 ACB.ES. 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

In Quantity to Suit Purchaser. 

No Residence or Improvements Required. 

By a recent order of the Hon. Commissioner of the 
General Land Office, the Regents of the University of Cal- 
ifornia are authorized to receive applications for land un- 
der the COLLEGE GRANT, not to exceed 11,400 acres. 

TERMS OF SALE. 

For Lands Outside of Railroad Grants, $5 00 
For Lands Within a Railroad Grant, $6.25 

If purchasers prefer, they can pay 20 per cent, (or $1.00 
per acre) as the first payment, and will be allowed a credit 
of five years for the remaining 80 per cent, (or 84 00 per 
acre). At seven per cent, per annum interest. 

Printed blanks for making applications and full infor- 
mation will be furnished free of charge, by addressing 

J. HAM HARRIS, Land Agent, 

P. O. Box 2040, San Francisco, Cal. 

San Francisco, Dec. 20, 1880. 




For Sale in large or small tracts, on easy terms, in 
the best parts of the State. 

MCAFEE BROTHERS, 

202 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

FRUIT AND GRAIN FARM FOR SALE, 

Near Sacramento, Cal. 

Eighty acres of choice laud, two miles from city limits; 
half mile east upper Stockton road; 800 Fruit trees, one acre 
Grapevines, two acres Blackberries. Sixty-five acres in Grain 
will be sold with or without crop. Good House and Out 
Buildings. Farm well fenced; rive Windmills and Horse 
Power; Fish Pond; three-quarters of a mile from good 
School* This property will be sold cheap. Terms cash. 
Apply at the ranch. J. K. HOUSTON. 



SANTA CRUZ COUNTY. 

Good Crops every Season without Irrigation. 

Farms, Stock Ranches, Dairy Farms, Fruit Farms, 
Vineyards, Chicken Kanches, and Homesteads of every 
class and description in this and adjoining - counties for 
sale and rent on reasonable terms. State requirements 
and obtain suitable particulars from the Real Estate 
EXCHANGE & MART, 

Santa Cruz, Cal 



140 Percheron Horses 

Imported from France 

SINCE LAST APRIL 




—BY— 

M. W. DUNHAM, 

Wayne, DuPage County, Illinois, 
Being MORE than the COMBINES 
Importations of ALL OTHER Import- 
ers of all kinds of Horses in the United 
States and Canada during 1880. 

50 ARRIVED DECEMBER 15TH. 

100 page catalogue, 41 illustrations, 
free on application. 




Wholesale and Retail. 



Handsomely Illustrated Catalogue with description and 
culture of the best Flowers and Vegetables. Mailed 
free to all. 

THOMAS A. COX & CO., 
SEED MERCHANTS, 

409 Sansome Street. San Francisco 



NAPA VALLEY 

POULTRY FARM. 



Largest establishment on 
the Pacific Coast. All the 
LEADING VARIETIES 
MADE A SPECIALTY. Great 
c ire taken in mating stock for 
shipment. Send three cent 
stamp for circular and price 
list. 

R. G. HEAD, 

P. O Box 268, Napa, Cal. 




50 



All Lithographed Chromo Cards, no 2 alike, 10 cts 
Atfts. big outfit, 10c. Globe Card Co., Nor t Word, Ct 



60 



THE PACIFIC 



RUBAL PRESS. 



[January aa, 1881 



ATENTS AND INVENTIONS. 



List of U. S. 



Patents for Pacific 
Inventors. 



Coast 



From Official Reports for the "Mining and Scientific 
Press," U. 8. and Foreign Patent Agents. 1 

For the Wber Ending December 28th, 1880. 
235,852.— Car Truck— W. T. Browne, Stockton, Cal. 
236,136.— Switch— Jannaro S. Clements, S. F. 
236,939.— Stove— C. H. Dunton, S. F. 
236,872 —Orb Fkkdbr— J. Ilendy, R. F. 
236,955.— Sinking Tubbs— Harvey R. Leonard, S. F. 
236]o65.— Presbrvbd Wood— H. G Muller, S. F. 
235 8J0. — Gakq Plow— Christian Meyers, S. F. 
235.894 — Steam Packing— Geo. C. Phillips, Silver 
City, Nev. 

235,967 — Levee— N. 8ewell, Marysville, Cal. 

235,871.— Explosive Compound— Wm. lleick, S. F. 

N ote. —Copies of U. 8. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dbwet & Oo. , in the shortest time possible (by tele- 
graph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent busi- 
ness for Pacific coast inventors transacted with perfect 
security and in the shortest possible time. 

Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press American and 
Foreign Patent Agency, the following are 
worthy of special mention : 

Method of Relieving River Channels of 
Sediment and Forming Levees. — Newton 
Sewell, Marysville, Yuba Co., Cal. Patented 
Dec. 28, 1880, No. 235,967. This method is 
for relieving the channels of water courses from 
the sediment which may be brought down by 
the water, and for utilizing the same in the 
formation of levees upon each side of the Btream, 
to aid in the reclamation of the land; and it 
consists of a dam or dams built across the stream, 
and having flumes or ground cuts leading out 
therefrom to the banks of the stream below. 
At suitable points upon the banks of the stream, 
below the dam or dams, a succession of inclos- 
ures are formed, of earth, either loose or 
in sacks, or other material formed in any suit- 
able manner, so that the water from the flumes 
may be led into them and the sediment con- 
tained in the water allowed to settle, the water 
being drawn off and allowed to flow back into 
the stream. When the first inclosures have 
been filled with the sediment, the flumes are al- 
lowed to discharge into the next inclosures, and 
the levee may thus be built of any desired 
length, width and hight. By adding to the in- 
closing walls and filling the new space, any 
hight may be attained. 

Cooking Stove. — Charles H. Dunton, Oak- 
land, Cal. Patented Dec. 28, 1880. No. 235,- 
939. This invention relates to certain improve- 
ments in that class of portable stoves or ranges 
which are employed for the purposes of cook- 
ing, and in which two ovens and a single fire- 
place are used; and it consists in the novel con- 
struction of an oval or similarly shaped outer 
case, having a centrally located adjustable cylin- 
drical fireplace with independent ovens and cook- 
ing compartments upon either side, with flues and 
dampers, whereby either one or both sides may 
be employed with the same fire simultaneously 
or independently. This stove is simple, inex- 
pensive, occupies but little space, whi e having 
large capacity; and the fire and amount of space 
may be regulated for the work to be done. 



Industrial Arts Encyclopedia. — Spon's 
"Encyclopaedia of Industrial Arts, Manufac- 
tures and Commercial Products" is sustaining 
the high character which we have before at- 
tributed to it. It consists of most excellent 
treatises upon all the leading subjects which 
are embraced in its title. Parts 15, 16 and 17 
are the latest issued. The first two are occu- 
pied with the best condensed treatise we have 
ever seen on fibers, their derivation and prepara- 
tion. It contains the most important points 
from the large literature of the subject, and to 
these are added the latest results by investiga- 
tion and invention. This gives the treatise a 
freshness and value which all students of the 
subject will appreciate. Other articles treat of 
the preservation of perishable foods, such as 
meats, etc. ; a good review of commercial fruits, 
and another elaborate monograph on glass and 
glass-making, with full engravings of furnaces, 
tools, etc. Spon's encyclopaedia should have a 
place in every industrialist's library. It is 
published both in London and New York. 



Polyglot Almanac— We have received from 
Messrs. J. C. Ayer & Co., of Lowell, Mass., a 
bound volume containing specimens of the var- 
ious issues of Ayer's almanac for 1881. We 
find in the book sample almanacs complete, in- 
cluding the bright yellow cover so familiar to 
everybody in this country, in each of the fol- 
lowing languages, viz: English, French, Ger- 
man, Spanish, Holland, Dutch, Norwegian, 
Portuguese, Swedish and Bohemian; also a page 
or two of Chinese, with specimens of the firm's 
advertisements in Greek, Arabic, Armenian and 
Bulgarian, the whole forming a book of about 
450 pages. The work is really a literary curios- 
ity in itself, and when we consider the fact that 
the various editions of Ayer's almanac aggregate 
10,000,000 copies per annum, we can but wonder 
at the gigantic proportions of a business which 
employs this almanac, gratuitously distributed 
in such vast numbers, as one, only, of the many 
methods of bringing to public notice the merits 
of the medicines compounded by the firm. 



Our Agents, 



Our Friends can do much In aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
influence and encouraging favors. We intend to send 
aone but worthy men. 

J. F. Osborne— San Francisco. 

A. C. Knox— Pacific Coast. 

G. W. McGrew.— Santa Clara county. 

M. P. Owen— Santa Cruz County. 

J. W. A. Wriout— Merced, Tulare and Kern counties 

N. E. Boyd— San Bernardino Co. 

Jared C. Hoao— California. 

B. W. Crowell — Co lusa and Tolo counties. 

D. W. Kelleher— Fresno, San Benito, Monterey and 
San Luis Obispo counties. 

[com. ] 

Vaccination for Scab in Sheep- 

Editors Press :— I desire to announce to your readers 
that I have discovered a method of protecting sheep from 
the scab disease by vaccination. The principle is identi- 
cal with that involved in vaccination to prevent smallpox 
in the human species. I do not claim that my method of 
vaccinating Bhcep will prove an absolute prevention of 
skin disease, but it will either prevent it or reduce the dis- 
ease to a milder form, as vaccination in human kind reduces 
smallpox to varioloid. In the case of sheep there may, in 
some cases, be a slight surface irritation of the skin which 
can be easily removed, but there will be no attack of the 
scab in its well-known virulent and penetrating forms. 
Anyone desirous of inquiring into this new method of 
meeting the scab disease may address me at the Baldwin 
Hotel, San Francisco. 8. H. Kennedy. 

San Francisco, Dec. 8th. 

P 8.— Address, after January 15, 1881, Omaha, Ne- 
braska. 



By Universal Accord, 

Ayer's Cathartic Pills are the best of all purgatives for 
family use. They are the product of long, laborious and 
successful chemical investigation, and their extensive use, 
by physicians in their practice, and by all civilized nations, 
proves them the best and most effectual purgative Pill 
that medical science can devise. Being purely vegetable, 
no harm can arise from their use. In intrinsic value and 
curative powers no other Pills can be compared with 
them, and every person, knowing their virtues, will em* 
ploy them, when needed. They keep the system in per- 
fect order, and maintain in healthy action the whole 
machinery of life. Mild, searching and effectual, they are 
specially adapted to the needs of the digestive apparatus, 
derangements of which they prevent and cure, if timely 
taken. They are the best and safest physic to employ for 
children and weakened constitutions, where a mild but 
effectual cathartic is required. 

For Sale by all Dealers. 



Attend to This. 



Our subscribers will find the date they have paid to 
printed on the label of their paper. If it is not correct 
(or if the paper should ever come beyond the time de- 
sired), be sure to notify the publishers by letter or postal 
card, if we are not notified within a reasonable time we 
cannot be responsible for the errors or omission of agents. 



Important additions are being continually made in 
Woodward's Gardens. The grotto walle d with aquariais 
constantly receiving accessions of new fish and other 
marine life. The number of sea lions is increased and 
there is a better chance to study their actions. The 
pavilion has new varieties of performances. The floral 
de|>artment is replete and the wild animals in good vigor. 
A day at Woodward's Gardens is a day well spent. 



Sample Copies — Occasionally we send copies of our 
paper to nersons who we believe would be benefl ted by 
subscribing for it, or willing to assist us in extendin g its 
circulation. We call the atten tion of such to our pros- 
pectus and terms of subscription, and request that they 
circulate the copy sent. 



We overheard several commercial travelers a day or two 
ago eulogize the American Exchange Hotel, in this city, 
as furnishing one of the best tables on the Pacific coast. 
No higher compliment could be paid to Mr. Charles Mont- 
gomery, the proprietor, for commercial men see much of 
the world, and are the most competent critics. — Hotel 
Gazette, Jan. 7th. 



The Yosemite is strictly first class and the leading hotel 
of Stockton. Prices moderate. J as. Caves, Propr. 

First-Clabs in Every Respect.— When you visit Stock 
ton stop at the Mansion House. Free Coach to the 
house. J H. CROSS, Proprietor. 



Pav Cash In advance— $3 a year for the 
Rural Press. Credit rates, $4. 



S. F- Pw E T -\ E P ol \T- 



Note — Our quotations are for Wednesday, not Saturday 
the date which the paper bears. 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

Ban Francisco, Wednesday, Jan. 19, 1881 
Wheat has fallen this week and there is an apparent in- 
disposition to ;buy, which gives the market a very dull 
and slow habit. Trade in most lines of produce Is quiet 
and ordinary, and little of interest Is confided to the re- 
porter. 

The latest advices from Liverpool are as follows: "Good 
to choice California Wheat, 9s 8d<$10s; markets quiet and 
steady." 

Frelsrhts and Charters. 
The rate of the Queenstown Is £3 12s 8d to Liverpool, 
Havre or Antwerp, and £3 Us for Cork; the British iron 
ship Cookcrmouth, 1,377 tons, was taken prior to arrival, 
for Wheat to Cork at £8 6s. 

The Forelsrn Review. 
London, Jan. 17.— The Mark Lane Bxprett, in its re- 
view of the British Grain trado for the past week, says: 



A lower temperature, with the protection afforded by the 
snow, benefits the growing crops, while the dry frost 
favors threshing. The deliveries of Breadstuffs were 
greatly Improved in quality and quantity, and conse' 
quently there was little change during the week, the de- 
mand being slow, and an attempt to raise prices failed. In 
London the prices were maintained, but trade is through- 
out dull and limitei; the other British Grain markets are 
exceptionally quiet. Foreign Breadstuffs are dull and 
quiet. "Off the coast" hung on hand till Saturday, when 
there was better inquiry. Cargoes were slow and weak, 
but were rather firmer at the close. The spot demand is 
a little improved, but rates are unchanged and business 
has been of the quietest. Foreign Flour is unchanged, 
and buyers operate slowly. It is expected that the sup 
plies from America and Russia will largely exceed the con- 
sumptive demand; rates, therefore, are unlikely to de- 
cline. The best malting Barley has been in request, but 
rates are unchanged. Inferior descriptions are low. 
Foreign is low, and holders firm. Oats are quiet, but 
values improved from 3d@tid. Foreign is firm, but the 
demand is slow at a similar advance. Maize is in better 
spot supply. The prospective supply is larger, but values 
improved 3d at London and Liverpool. Bound Corn is 
unchanged and slow. The sales of English during the 
week amount to 29,010 quarters, at 42s Id V quarter, 
against 32,871 quarters, at 46s lid 9 quarter, for the cor- 
responding week of last year. The imports into the 
United Kingdom, for the week which ended Jan. 8th, 
were 1,150,882 cwts of Wheat and 324,315 cwta of Flour. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

Boston, Jan. 14 — The Wool demand continues mode- 
rate, and manufacturers are still purchasing cautiously, 
although there arc evident indications of more active 
movements at an early day. Sales for the week, 135,000 
ft.-, almost exclusively domestic, and including all grades 
and qualities. Advices from Great Britain indicate that 
the buyer of the Pacific mills is creating quite an excite- 
ment in that market. His purchases have already been 
very large, being estimated at about 1,000,000 D>s combing, 
and will probably reach 2,000,000 lbs before the close. The 
sales of Ohio and Pennsylvania, i; • < I- for X, and XX at 
60@52c. No. 1 Michigan and Wisconsin, 43(«44c for X, 
and 47@&0c for medium and No. 1. Coarse combing and 
delaine, 45(?<46c; fine delaine, 50c; and medium and No. 
1 combing, 52(355c. I'nwashed has been in fair demand 
at 24($40c, including considerable medium at 32(jrS6Jc; 
Valley Oregon, 40c; and Texas, 22@35c. California Wools 
moved slowly, but there is considerable inquiry and large 
sales are in prospect. Transactions have been 260,000 D>s, 
at 24@37c for Spring and 16©27c for Fall. In pulled 
Wools there have been sales of 200,000 tt>8, at 33(352}c, in- 
cluding several lots of choice Eastern. Maine and Cali- 
fornia super at 52c; and some choice New York super at 
62Jc. Foreign Wool is quiet, with sales of Montevideo at 
35(u36c; Australian, 44J(346Jc; and Natal, 36c. There is 
considerable inquiry for Cape for Canada and for con- 
sumption, but stocks are held mostly above the views of 
buyers. 

Boston, Jan. 18 — There is no change in the Wool mar- 
ket. Purchases have been light. California has been sell- 
ing at 18V. :• for Fall and Spring, including choice lots of 
Spring at the latter price. 

Eastern Grain and Provibion Markets. 

Ciiicaoo, Jan. 15.— The grain markets during the week 
were fluctuating with no decided tendency to weakness 
or strength, but were by turns firm and easy, being ruled 
apparently by the whim of the hour and by the foreign 
market quotations. It is believed here there are strong 
bear combinations across the water, and for that reason 
shipments arc kept back, in anticipation that disaster will 
overtake the trans- Atlantic bear operators similar to that 
which brought grief to the Atlantic bulls last year. The 
trade is remarkably confident that iu spite of the heavy 
and growing stocks in store that the entire crop will be 
marketed at fair, if not fancy prices, and the sharp rebound 
which follows every market decline evidences the strength 
of conviction which leads men to put their m